Browsing by Subject "INCREASE"

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  • Lahtinen, Alexandra; Puttonen, Sampsa; Vanttola, Päivi; Viitasalo, Katriina; Sulkava, Sonja; Pervjakova, Natalia; Joensuu, Anni; Salo, Perttu; Toivola, Auli; Härmä, Mikko; Milani, Lili; Perola, Markus; Paunio, Tiina (2019)
    Short sleep duration or insomnia may lead to an increased risk of various psychiatric and cardio-metabolic conditions. Since DNA methylation plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression, studies of differentially methylated positions (DMPs) might be valuable for understanding the mechanisms underlying insomnia. We performed a cross-sectional genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in relation to self-reported insufficient sleep in individuals from a community-based sample (79 men, aged 39.3 +/- 7.3), and in relation to shift work disorder in an occupational cohort (26 men, aged 44.9 +/- 9.0). The analysis of DNA methylation data revealed that genes corresponding to selected DMPs form a distinctive pathway: "Nervous System Development" (FDR P value <0.05). We found that 78% of the DMPs were hypomethylated in cases in both cohorts, suggesting that insufficient sleep may be associated with loss of DNA methylation. A karyoplot revealed clusters of DMPs at various chromosomal regions, including 12 DMPs on chromosome 17, previously associated with Smith-Magenis syndrome, a rare condition comprising disturbed sleep and inverse circadian rhythm. Our findings give novel insights into the DNA methylation patterns associated with sleep loss, possibly modifying processes related to neuroplasticity and neurodegeneration. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the observed associations.
  • Lång, M.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Siironen, J.; Tanskanen, P.; Ala-Peijari, M.; Koivisto, T.; Djafarzadeh, S.; Bendel, S. (2018)
    BackgroundNormobaric hyperoxia is used to alleviate secondary brain ischaemia in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but clinical evidence is limited and hyperoxia may cause adverse events. MethodsAn open label, randomised controlled pilot study comparing blood concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between two different fractions of inspired oxygen in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation. ResultsWe enrolled 27 patients in the Fi O-2 0.40 group and 38 in the Fi O-2 0.70 group; 19 and 23 patients, respectively, completed biochemical analyses. In baseline, there were no differences between Fi O-2 0.40 and Fi O-2 0.70 groups, respectively, in ROS (64.8 nM [22.6-102.1] vs. 64.9 nM [26.8-96.3], P = 0.80), IL-6 (group 92.4 pg/ml [52.9-171.6] vs. 94.3 pg/ml [54.8-133.1], P = 0.52) or NSE (21.04 ug/l [14.0-30.7] vs. 17.8 ug/l [14.1-23.9], P = 0.35). ROS levels did not differ at Day 1 (24.2 nM [20.6-33.5] vs. 29.2 nM [22.7-69.2], P = 0.10) or at Day 2 (25.4 nM [21.7-37.4] vs. 47.3 nM [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). IL-6 concentrations did not differ at Day 1 (112.7 pg/ml [65.9-168.9) vs. 83.9 pg/ml [51.8-144.3], P = 0.41) or at Day 3 (55.0 pg/ml [34.2-115.6] vs. 49.3 pg/ml [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). NSE levels did not differ at Day 1 (15.9 ug/l [9.0-24.3] vs. 15.3 ug/l [12.2-26.3], P = 0.62). There were no differences between groups in the incidence of pulmonary complications. ConclusionHigher fraction of inspired oxygen did not increase blood concentrations of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation or neurological injury or the incidence of pulmonary complications in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation.
  • Miyake, Fusa; Panyushkina, Irina; Jull, Tim; Adolphi, Florian; Brehm, N; Helama, Samuli; Kanzawa, K; Moriya, T; Muscheler, Raimund; Nicolussi, K; Oinonen, Markku; Salzer, M; Takeyama, M; Tokanai, F; Wacker, Lucas (2021)
    The annual C-14 data in tree rings is an outstanding proxy for uncovering extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events in the past. Signatures of extreme SEP events have been reported in 774/775 CE, 992/993 CE, and similar to 660 BCE. Here, we report another rapid increase of C-14 concentration in tree rings from California, Switzerland, and Finland around 5410 BCE. These C-14 data series show a significant increase of similar to 6 parts per thousand in 5411-5410 BCE. The signature of C-14 variation is very similar to the confirmed three SEP events and points to an extreme short-term flux of cosmic ray radiation into the atmosphere. The rapid C-14 increase in 5411/5410 BCE rings occurred during a period of high solar activity and 60 years after a grand C-14 excursion during 5481-5471 BCE. The similarity of our C-14 data to previous events suggests that the origin of the 5410 BCE event is an extreme SEP event.
  • Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Cuthbertson, David; Couluris, Marisa; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2020)
    Aims/hypothesis This paper presents the relationship between islet autoantibodies, precursors of type 1 diabetes, and the development of persistent asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema. Methods A total of 2159 newborns who had a first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes and selected HLA genotypes were followed until the youngest participant reached 10 years of age. Islet cell antibodies (ICA) were detected using indirect immunofluorescence. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), GAD (GADA), the tyrosine phosphatase-related insulinoma-associated 2 molecule (IA-2A) and zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8A) were quantified with the use of specific radiobinding assays. As an ancillary study, the incidence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema was assessed in 1106 of these children using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) core questionnaire when the children were 9-11 years old. HRs with 95% CIs were calculated to depict the incidence of these diseases following seroconversion to autoantibody positivity. Results The cumulative incidence of atopic eczema, allergic rhinitis and persistent asthma were 22%, 9% and 7.5%, respectively, by 9-11 years of age. The occurrence of diabetes-related autoantibodies showed a protective association with subsequently reported incidence of asthma and eczema. The incidence of rhinitis was not significantly related to the occurrence of IAA or GADA (statistical power was limited), but demonstrated the same inverse relationship as did the other diseases with ICA or when multiple autoantibodies first appeared together. Conclusions/interpretation The findings add evidence to the relationships between these atopic diseases and diabetes-related autoimmunity and also suggest that, for eczema, the interaction depends upon which autoantibody appeared first.
  • Patel, V.L.; Busch, E.L.; Friebel, T.M.; Cronin, A.; Leslie, G.; McGuffog, L.; Adlard, J.; Agata, S.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Ahmed, M.; Aittomäki, K.; Alducci, E.; Andrulis, I.L.; Arason, A.; Arnold, N.; Artioli, G.; Arver, B.; Auber, B.; Azzollini, J.; Balmaña, J.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Barnes, D.R.; Barroso, A.; Barrowdale, D.; Belotti, M.; Benitez, J.; Bertelsen, B.; Blok, M.J.; Bodrogi, I.; Bonadona, V.; Bonanni, B.; Bondavalli, D.; Boonen, S.E.; Borde, J.; Borg, A.; Bradbury, A.R.; Brady, A.; Brewer, C.; Brunet, J.; Buecher, B.; Buys, S.S.; Cabezas-Camarero, S.; Caldes, T.; Caliebe, A.; Caligo, M.A.; Calvello, M.; Campbell, I.G.; Carnevali, I.; Carrasco, E.; Chan, T.L.; Chu, A.T.W.; Chung, W.K.; Claes, K.B.M.; Cook, J.; Cortesi, L.; Couch, F.J.; Daly, M.B.; Damante, G.; Darder, E.; Davidson, R.; De La Hoya, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Dennis, J.; Díez, O.; Ding, Y.C.; Ditsch, N.; Domchek, S.M.; Donaldson, A.; Dworniczak, B.; Easton, D.F.; Eccles, D.M.; Eeles, R.A.; Ehrencrona, H.; Ejlertsen, B.; Engel, C.; Evans, D.G.; Faivre, L.; Faust, U.; Feliubadalo, L.; Foretova, L.; Fostira, F.; Fountzilas, G.; Frost, D.; García-Barberan, V.; Garre, P.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Geczi, L.; Gehrig, A.; Gerdes, A.-M.; Gesta, P.; Giannini, G.; Glendon, G.; Godwin, A.K.; Goldgar, D.E.; Greene, M.H.; Gutierrez-Barrera, A.M.; Hahnen, E.; Hamann, U.; Hauke, J.; Herold, N.; Hogervorst, F.B.L.; Honisch, E.; Hopper, J.L.; Hulick, P.J.; Izatt, L.; Jager, A.; James, P.; Janavicius, R.; Jensen, U.B.; Jensen, T.D.; Johannsson, O.Th.; John, E.M.; Joseph, V.; Kang, E.; Kast, K.; Kiiski, J.I.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Z.; Ko, K.-P.; Konstantopoulou, I.; Kramer, G.; Krogh, L.; Kruse, T.A.; Kwong, A.; Larsen, M.; Lasset, C.; Lautrup, C.; Lazaro, C.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, M.H.; Lemke, J.; Lesueur, F.; Liljegren, A.; Lindblom, A.; Llovet, P.; Lopez-Fernandez, A.; Lopez-Perolio, I.; Lorca, V.; Loud, J.T.; Ma, E.S.K.; Mai, P.L.; Manoukian, S.; Mari, V.; Martin, L.; Matricardi, L.; Mebirouk, N.; Medici, V.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.J.; Meindl, A.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Miller, C.; Gomes, D.M.; Montagna, M.; Mooij, T.M.; Moserle, L.; Mouret-Fourme, E.; Mulligan, A.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Navratilova, M.; Nevanlinna, H.; Niederacher, D.; Cilius Nielsen, F.C.; Nikitina-Zake, L.; Offit, K.; Olah, E.; Olopade, O.I.; Ong, K.-R.; Osorio, A.; Ott, C.-E.; Palli, D.; Park, S.K.; Parsons, M.T.; Pedersen, I.S.; Peissel, B.; Peixoto, A.; Perez-Segura, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Petersen, A.H.; Porteous, M.E.; Pujana, M.A.; Radice, P.; Ramser, J.; Rantala, J.; Rashid, M.U.; Rhiem, K.; Rizzolo, P.; Robson, M.E.; Rookus, M.A.; Rossing, C.M.; Ruddy, K.J.; Santos, C.; Saule, C.; Scarpitta, R.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Schuster, H.; Senter, L.; Seynaeve, C.M.; Shah, P.D.; Sharma, P.; Shin, V.Y.; Silvestri, V.; Simard, J.; Singer, C.F.; Skytte, A.-B.; Snape, K.; Solano, A.R.; Soucy, P.; Southey, M.C.; Spurdle, A.B.; Steele, L.; Steinemann, D.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Stradella, A.; Sunde, L.; Sutter, C.; Tan, Y.Y.; Teixeira, M.R.; Teo, S.H.; Thomassen, M.; Tibiletti, M.G.; Tischkowitz, M.; Tognazzo, S.; Toland, A.E.; Tommasi, S.; Torres, D.; Toss, A.; Trainer, A.H.; Tung, N.; Van Asperen, C.J.; Van Der Baan, F.H.; Van Der Kolk, L.E.; Van Der Luijt, R.B.; Van Hest, L.P.; Varesco, L.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Viel, A.; Vierstrate, J.; Villa, R.; Von Wachenfeldt, A.; Wagner, P.; Wang-Gohrke, S.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Weitzel, J.N.; Wieme, G.; Yadav, S.; Yannoukakos, D.; Yoon, S.-Y.; Zanzottera, C.; Zorn, K.K.; D’Amico, A.V.; Freedman, M.L.; Pomerantz, M.M.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ottini, L.; Nielsen, H.R.; Rebbeck, T.R. (2020)
    Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. Weevaluated whether PSVs inBRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 30 region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. Significance: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.
  • Honkamäki, Jasmin; Piirilä, Päivi; Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Andersen, Heidi; Huhtala, Heini; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lindqvist, Ari; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Pallasaho, Paula; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2021)
    BACKGROUND: Child-onset asthma is known to remit with high probability, but remission in adult-onset asthma is seem-ingly less frequent. Reports of the association between remission and asthma age of onset up to late adulthood are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between asthma remission, age at diagnosis and gender, and assess risk factors of nonremission. METHODS: In 2016, a random sample of 16,000 subjects aged 20 to 69 years from Helsinki and Western Finland were sent a FinEsS questionnaire. Physician-diagnosed asthma was catego-rized by age at diagnosis to early-(0-11 years), intermediate-(12-39 years), and late-diagnosed (40-69 years) asthma. Asthma remission was defined by not having had asthma symptoms and not having used asthma medication in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Totally, 8199 (51.5%) responded, and 879 reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Remission was most common in early-diagnosed (30.2%), followed by intermediate-diagnosed (17.9%), and least common in late-diagnosed asthma (5.0%) (P < .001), and the median times from diagnosis were 27, 18.5, and 10 years, respectively. In males, the corresponding remission rates were 36.7%, 20.0%, and 3.4%, and in females, 20.4%, 16.6%, and 5.9% (gender difference P < .001). In multivariable binary logistic regression analysis, signifi-cant risk factors of asthma nonremission were intermediate (odds ratio [OR] = 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.373.36) and late diagnosis (OR = 11.06, 4.82-25.37) compared with early diagnosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 5.56, 1.26-24.49), allergic rhinitis (OR = 2.28, 1.50-3.46), and family history of asthma (OR = 1.86, 1.22-2.85). Results were similar after excluding COPD. CONCLUSION: Remission was rare in adults diagnosed with asthma after age 40 years in both genders. Late-diagnosed asthma was the most significant independent risk factor for nonremission. (C) 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Louvanto, Karolina; Eriksson, Tiina; Gray, Penelope; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Bly, Anne; Harjula, Katja; Heikkila, Kaisa; Hokkanen, Mari; Huhtinen, Leila; Ikonen, Marja; Karttunen, Heidi; Nummela, Mervi; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Veivo, Ulla; Dillner, Joakim; Elfstöm, Miriam; Nieminen, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Less frequent cervical cancer screening in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinated birth cohorts could produce considerable savings without increasing cervical cancer incidence and loss of life-years. We report here the baseline findings and interim results of safety and accuracy of infrequent screening among HPV16/18 vaccinated females. The entire 1992-1994 birth-cohorts (30,139 females) were invited to a community-randomized HPV16/18-vaccination trial. A total of 9,482 female trial participants received HPV16/18-vaccination in 2007-2009 at age of 13-15. At age 22, 4,273 (45%) of these females consented to attend a randomized trial on frequent (ages 22/25/28; Arm 1: 2,073 females) vs. infrequent screening (age 28; Arm 2: 2,200 females) in 2014-2017. Females (1,329), who had got HPV16/18 vaccination at age 18 comprised the safety Arm 3. Baseline prevalence and incidence of HPV16/18 and other high-risk HPV types were: 0.5% (53/1,000 follow-up years, 10(4)) and 25% (2,530/10(4)) in the frequently screened Arm 1; 0.2% (23/10(4)) and 24% (2,413/10(4)) in the infrequently screened Arm 2; and 3.1% (304/10(4)) and 23% (2,284/10(4)) in the safety Arm 3. Corresponding prevalence of HSIL/ASC-H and of any abnormal cytological findings were: 0.3 and 4.2% (Arm 1), 0.4 and 5.3% (Arm 2) and 0.3 and 4.7% (Arm 3). Equally rare HSIL/CIN3 findings in the infrequently screened safety Arm A3 (0.4%) and in the frequently screened Arm 1 (0.4%) indicate no safety concerns on infrequent screening despite the up to 10 times higher HPV16/18 baseline prevalence and incidence in the former.
  • Köykkä, Laura Katariina; Absetz, Pilvikki; Araújo-Soares, Vera; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Hankonen, Nelli Elisa (2019)
    Creating active classroom environments and reducing excessive student sitting requires changes in teachers' behaviours. This study examines a teacher training intervention, which aimed to increase the extent to which teachers use strategies to interrupt prolonged periods of students' sitting, as well as strategies to reduce total sitting time. The training was part of the Let's Move It (LMI) multi-level school-based intervention that aimed to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase physical activity among older adolescents, drawing on insights from social psychological theories, such as the reasoned action approach, self-regulation approaches and habit formation. We explore (1) whether the intervention increased teachers' use of sitting reduction strategies, (2) whether theoretical mechanisms mediated these changes, and (3) how teachers utilized habit formation. This pragmatic experimental study of vocational school teachers (n = 234) was embedded within a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating LMI, in which schools were randomized to intervention or no-treatment control arms. Three intervention workshops targeted skills and motivation to use sitting reduction strategies in class (e.g., active teaching methods, activity breaks). Participants self-reported sitting reduction activities, theoretical mediators, and use of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) at baseline and 8-weeks follow-up. Compared to controls, intervention schools' teachers increased breaks to interrupt sitting, but not their outcome expectations, perceived behavioural control or intentions - potentially due to ceiling effects. Effects were mediated by BCT use and perceived behavioural control. Descriptive norms mediated the effects of the intervention on intention, which in turn mediated the intervention effects on BCT use. BCT use and intention were positively related to reducing students' sitting.
  • Zöldi, Viktor; Sane, Jussi; Kantele, Anu; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Salmenlinna, Saara; Lyytikäinen, Outi (2018)
    Background: Overnight international travels made by Finns more than doubled during 1995-2015. To estimate risks and observe trends of travel-related notifiable sexually transmitted and food- and water-borne infections (STIs and FWIs) among travellers, we analysed national reports of gonorrhoea, syphilis, hepatitis A, shigellosis, campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis cases and related them to travel statistics. Method: Cases notified as travel-related to the Finnish infectious diseases register were used as numerators and overnight stays of Statistics Finland surveys as denominator. We calculated overall risks (per 100,000 travellers) and assessed trends (using regression model) in various geographic regions. Results: Of all travel-related cases during 1995-2015, 2304 were STIs and 70,929 FWIs. During 2012-2015, Asia-Oceania showed highest risk estimates for gonorrhoea (11.0; 95%CI, 9.5-13), syphilis (1.4; 0.93-2.1), salmonellosis (157; 151-164), and campylobacteriosis (135; 129-141), and Africa for hepatitis A (4.5; 2.5-7.9), and shigellosis (35; 28-43). When evaluating at country level, the highest risks of infections was found in Thailand, except for hepatitis A ranking Hungary the first. During 2000-2011, significantly decreasing trends occurred for most FWIs particularly in the European regions and for STIs in Russia-Baltics. Conclusions: Our findings can be used in targeting pre-travel advice, which should also cover those visiting Thailand or European hepatitis A risk areas.
  • Leppaaho, Eemeli; Renvall, Hanna; Salmela, Elina; Kere, Juha; Salmelin, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel (2019)
    Brain structure and many brain functions are known to be genetically controlled, but direct links between neuroimaging measures and their underlying cellular-level determinants remain largely undiscovered. Here, we adopt a novel computational method for examining potential similarities in high-dimensional brain imaging data between siblings. We examine oscillatory brain activity measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG) in 201 healthy siblings and apply Bayesian reduced-rank regression to extract a low-dimensional representation of familial features in the participants' spectral power structure. Our results show that the structure of the overall spectral power at 1-90Hz is a highly conspicuous feature that not only relates siblings to each other but also has very high consistency within participants' own data, irrespective of the exact experimental state of the participant. The analysis is extended by seeking genetic associations for low-dimensional descriptions of the oscillatory brain activity. The observed variability in the MEG spectral power structure was associated with SDK1 (sidekick cell adhesion molecule 1) and suggestively with several other genes that function, for example, in brain development. The current results highlight the potential of sophisticated computational methods in combining molecular and neuroimaging levels for exploring brain functions, even for high-dimensional data limited to a few hundred participants.
  • Gammal, Johanna; Hewitt, Judi; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf; Thrush, Simon (2020)
    The biodiversity crisis has increased interest in understanding the role of biodiversity for ecosystem functioning. Functional traits are often used to infer ecosystem functions to increase our understanding of these relationships over larger spatial scales. The links between specific traits and ecosystem functioning are, however, not always well established. We investigated how the choice of analyzing either individual species, selected modalities, or trait combinations affected the spatial patterns observed on a sandflat and how this was related to the natural variability in ecosystem functioning. A large dataset of 400 benthic macrofauna samples was used to explore distribution patterns. We hypothesized that (1) if multiple species (redundancy) represent a trait combination or a modality their spatial patterns would be smoothed out, and (2) the lost spatial variability within a trait combination or modality, due to the smoothing effect, would potentially affect their utility for predicting ecosystem functioning (tested on a dataset of 24 samples). We predicted that species would show heterogeneous small spatial patterns, while modalities and trait combinations would show larger and more homogeneous patterns because they would represent a collection of many distributions. If modalities and trait combinations are better predictors of ecosystem functioning than species, then the smoother spatial patterns of modalities and trait combinations would result in a more homogeneous landscape of ecosystem function and the number of species exhibiting specific traits would provide functional redundancy. Our results showed some smoothing of spatial patterns progressing from species through modalities to trait combinations, but generally spatial patterns reflected a few dominant key species. Moreover, some individual modalities and species explained more or equal proportions of the variance in the ecosystem functioning than the combined traits. The findings thus suggest that only some spatial variability is lost when species are combined into modalities and trait combinations and that a homogeneous landscape of ecosystem function is not likely.
  • Vanttola, Päivi; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Oksanen, Tuula; Härmä, Mikko (2020)
    A considerable proportion of shift workers have work schedule-related insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness, a phenomenon described as shift work disorder (SWD). There is yet a lack of evidence on whether or not employees recover from symptoms of SWD between work shifts. We studied whether SWD and its subtypes are associated with insomnia and excessive sleepiness during weekly non-work days and with 24-h sleep time. Hospital employees answered a survey on SWD, insomnia and excessive sleepiness on weekly non-work day s, and 24-h sleep. To identify shift workers with night shifts (n=2,900, 18% with SWD) and SWD, we linked survey responses to employers' register on NI orking hours. SWD included three subtypes: insomnia only (SWD-I, 4%, n=102), excessive sleepiness only (SWD-Es, 8%, n=244), and both insomnia and excessive sleepiness (SWD-IEs, 6%, n=183). Based on regression analy ses, SWD was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07-1.88) and with insomnia on non-work days (0.53, 0.31-0.91). SWD-I was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (2.25, 1.31-3.87) and with shorter sleep (7-7.5 h: 1.96, 1.06-3.63; = 8 h). The results suggest that especially employees with SWD-I may need longer time to overcome excessive sleepiness than allowed by their roster.
  • Reside, April E.; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Moilanen, Atte; Graham, Erin M. (2017)
    With the high rate of ecosystem change already occurring and predicted to occur in the coming decades, long-term conservation has to account not only for current biodiversity but also for the biodiversity patterns anticipated for the future. The trade-offs between prioritising future biodiversity at the expense of current priorities must be understood to guide current conservation planning, but have been largely unexplored. To fill this gap, we compared the performance of four conservation planning solutions involving 662 vertebrate species in the Wet Tropics Natural Resource Management Cluster Region in north-eastern Australia. Input species data for the four planning solutions were: 1) current distributions; 2) projected distributions for 2055; 3) projected distributions for 2085; and 4) current, 2055 and 2085 projected distributions, and the connectivity between each of the three time periods for each species. The four planning solutions were remarkably similar (up to 85% overlap), suggesting that modelling for either current or future scenarios is sufficient for conversation planning for this region, with little obvious trade-off. Our analyses also revealed that overall, species with small ranges occurring across steep elevation gradients and at higher elevations were more likely to be better represented in all solutions. Given that species with these characteristics are of high conservation significance, our results provide confidence that conservation planning focused on either current, near-or distant-future biodiversity will account for these species.
  • Santos, Susana; Eekhout, Iris; Voerman, Ellis; Gaillard, Romy; Barros, Henrique; Charles, Marie-Aline; Chatzi, Leda; Chevrier, Cecile; Chrousos, George P.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Costet, Nathalie; Crozier, Sarah; Doyon, Myriam; Eggesbo, Merete; Fantini, Maria Pia; Farchi, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Gagliardi, Luigi; Georgiu, Vagelis; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gori, Davide; Grote, Veit; Hanke, Wojciech; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Heude, Barbara; Hivert, Marie-France; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Huang, Rae-Chi; Inskip, Hazel; Jusko, Todd A.; Karvonen, Anne M.; Koletzko, Berthold; Kupers, Leanne K.; Lagstrom, Hanna; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehmann, Irina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Mäkelä, Johanna; Manios, Yannis; McDonald, Sheila W.; Mommers, Monique; Morgen, Camilla S.; Moschonis, George; Murinova, Lubica; Newnham, John; Nohr, Ellen A.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Oken, Emily; Oostvogels, Adriette J. J. M.; Pac, Agnieszka; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Pekkanen, Juha; Pizzi, Costanza; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Roeleveld, Nel; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Santos, Ana C.; Smit, Henriette A.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Standl, Marie; Stanislawski, Maggie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Thiering, Elisabeth; Thijs, Carel; Torrent, Maties; Tough, Suzanne C.; Trnovec, Tomas; van Gelder, Marleen M. H. J.; van Rossem, Lenie; von Berg, Andrea; Vrijheid, Martine; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; van Buuren, Stef; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V. (2018)
    BackgroundGestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.MethodsWe used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape.ResultsWe observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40weeks was 14.2kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.ConclusionsGestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
  • Leinonen, Taina; Laaksonen, Mikko; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka (2016)
    Background: Little is known of how pension reforms affect the retirement decisions of people with different health statuses, although this is crucial for the understanding of the broader societal impact of pension policies and for future policy development. We assessed how the Finnish statutory pension age reform introduced in 2005 influenced the role of health as a predictor of retirement. Methods: We used register-based data and cox regression analysis to examine the association of health (measured by purchases of psychotropic medication, hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, and the number of any prescription medications) with the risk of retirement at age 63-64 among those subject to the old pension system with fixed age limit at 65 (pre-reform group born in 1937-1941) and the new flexible system with 63 as the lower age limit (post-reform group born in 1941-1945) while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results: Retirement at age 63-64 was more likely among the post- than the pre-reform group (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.43-1.57). This reform-related increase in retirement was more pronounced among those without a history of psychotropic medication or hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as among those with below median level medication use. As a result, poor health became a weaker predictor of retirement after the reform. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations of the Finnish pension reform aimed at extending working lives, offering choice with respect to the timing of retirement may actually encourage healthy workers to choose earlier retirement regardless of the provided economic incentives for continuing in work. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Rödenbeck, Christian; Zaehle, Sönke; Keeling, Ralph; Heimann, Martin (2018)
    The response of the terrestrial net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 to climate variations and trends may crucially determine the future climate trajectory. Here we directly quantify this response on inter-annual timescales by building a linear regression of inter-annual NEE anomalies against observed air temperature anomalies into an atmospheric inverse calculation based on long-term atmospheric CO2 observations. This allows us to estimate the sensitivity of NEE to inter-annual variations in temperature (seen as a climate proxy) resolved in space and with season. As this sensitivity comprises both direct temperature effects and the effects of other climate variables co-varying with temperature, we interpret it as "inter-annual climate sensitivity". We find distinct seasonal patterns of this sensitivity in the northern extratropics that are consistent with the expected seasonal responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and fire. Within uncertainties, these sensitivity patterns are consistent with independent inferences from eddy covariance data. On large spatial scales, northern extratropical and tropical interannual NEE variations inferred from the NEE-T regression are very similar to the estimates of an atmospheric inversion with explicit inter-annual degrees of freedom. The results of this study offer a way to benchmark ecosystem process models in more detail than existing effective global climate sensitivities. The results can also be used to gap-fill or extrapolate observational records or to separate inter-annual variations from longer-term trends.
  • Vihonen, Hanna; Kuisma, Markku; Salo, Ari; Ångerman, Susanne; Pietiläinen, Kirsi; Nurmi, Jouni (2019)
    Background Hyperglycemia is common and associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Mechanisms behind ultra-acute hyperglycemia are not well known. We performed an explorative study to describe the changes in glucose metabolism mediators during the prehospital postresuscitation phase. Methods We included patients who were successfully resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in two physician-staffed units. Insulin, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) were measured in prehospital and hospital admission samples. Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), cortisol, and HbA1c were measured at hospital admission. Results Thirty patients participated in the study. Of those, 28 cases (71% without diabetes) had sufficient data for analysis. The median time interval between prehospital samples and hospital admission samples was 96 minutes (IQR 85-119). At the time of ROSC, the patients were hyperglycemic (11.2 mmol/l, IQR 8.8-15.7), with insulin and glucagon concentrations varying considerably, although mostly corresponding to fasting levels (10.1 mU/l, IQR 4.2-25.2 and 141 ng/l, IQR 105-240, respectively). GLP-1 increased 2- to 8-fold with elevation of IL-6. The median glucose change from prehospital to hospital admission was -2.2 mmol/l (IQR -3.6 to -0.2). No significant correlations between the change in plasma glucose levels and the changes in insulin (r = 0.30, p = 0.13), glucagon (r = 0.29, p = 0.17), or GLP-1 levels (r = 0.32, p = 0.15) or with IL-6 (r = (-0.07), p = 0.75), cortisol (r = 0.13, p = 0.52) or HbA1c levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.08) were observed. However, in patients who did not receive exogenous epinephrine during resuscitation, changes in blood glucose correlated with changes in insulin (r = 0.59, p = 0.04) and glucagon (r = 0.65, p = 0.05) levels, demonstrating that lowering glucose values was associated with a simultaneous lowering of insulin and glucagon levels. Conclusions Hyperglycemia is common immediately after OHCA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. No clear hormonal mechanisms were observed to be linked to changes in glucose levels during the postresuscitation phase in the whole cohort. However, in patients without exogenous epinephrine treatment, the correlations between glycemic and hormonal changes were more obvious. These results call for future studies examining the mechanisms of postresuscitation hyperglycemia and the metabolic effects of the global ischemic insult and medical treatment.
  • Brink, Christiaan W.; Santangeli, Andrea; Amar, Arjun; Wolter, Kerri; Tate, Gareth; Kruger, Sonja; Tucker, Andrew S.; Thomson, Robert L. (2020)
    Under the current African vulture crisis, supplementary feeding sites (SFS), which provide carrion resources, have become a popular conservation tool to address vulture declines. In South Africa, this practice is unregulated and the context in which SFS operate and their adherence to best management practices is currently unknown. In this study, we conducted a survey with SFS managers regarding the management of their SFS to evaluate potential conservation implications of different practices. Half of the SFS surveyed were associated with livestock farming. Overall, most managers (84%) perceived some benefit from running an SFS, largely attributed to cleaning services provided by vultures. Over half of the managers perceived no disadvantages from running SFS. We found a positive correlation between numbers of vultures seen at SFS and the amount of food provided there. Despite unintentional and intentional poisoning being identified by experts as the most critical threats to vultures in Southern Africa, only 47 and 24% of managers, respectively, listed these as potential threats to vultures, highlighting limited understanding of current vulture conservation issues. Most managers (85%) vetted carcasses for provisioning suitability based on whether they had been treated with veterinary drugs, but relatively few managers (10%) did the same for lead (Pb) contamination. Only 30% of managers considered threats to vultures when they decided on a location for their SFS. Overall, this study unveils that at many SFS, safety conditions are not met and vultures may be exposed to risks, such as the ingestion of toxic substances (e.g., Pb) or electrocution by energy infrastructure. To minimize unintended negative consequences from SFS, it will be essential to increase the interaction between SFS managers and conservation practitioners, to increase the flow of information on best management practices and enforce stringent and clear guidelines that minimize any risks to vultures.
  • Brink, C. W.; Santangeli, A.; Amar, A.; Wolter, K.; Tate, G.; Krüger, S.; Tucker, A. S.; Thomson, R. L. (2020)
    Old world vultures are the most threatened group of raptors globally. Supplementary feeding sites (SFS) are a popular conservation tool, widely used to assist vulture populations. Despite their popularity, the impact of SFS on vultures remains largely unstudied. A lack of knowledge on the number, distribution and management of SFS is a key factor hindering such research. In this study, we compile records of SFS in South Africa and conduct questionnaires with SFS managers to characterize SFS. We identify 143 currently active SFS. Our data suggest that SFS numbers have been stable over the last decade. The average provisioning rate for all SFS was 64.6 kg day(-1). Overall SFS provide an estimated 3301 tonnes of food to scavengers each year, the equivalent of 83% of the energetic needs of all vultures in the region. This contribution was highly skewed, however, with just 17% of active SFS sites providing 69% of all food. Furthermore, these resources were not equally distributed, with SFS in Limpopo, North West and Kwazulu-Natal provinces providing 83% of the total meat provisioned. The three most common meat types provided at SFS were beef (39%), pork (33%) and game (19%). Worryingly, we found that 68% and 28% of SFS managers were unaware of the potential harmful effects of lead and veterinary drugs, respectively, which highlights potential poisoning risks associated with SFS. Examining exposure to SFS by different vulture species, we found that whilst SFS are accessible across the distribution range of vultures with large home ranges (e.g. African white-backed and Cape vultures), those species with smaller home ranges have relatively poor accessibility. With this study, we demonstrate the potential importance, but also associated risks, of SFS to vultures in South Africa, and provide the information base to assess the impacts of this popular but as yet largely unassessed conservation tool.
  • Hällfors, Maria; Antao, Laura; Itter, Malcolm; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lindholm, Tanja Marjukka; Roslin, Tomas; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2020)
    Breeding timed to match optimal resource abundance is vital for the successful reproduction of species, and breeding is therefore sensitive to environmental cues. As the timing of breeding shifts with a changing climate, this may not only affect the onset of breeding but also its termination, and thus the length of the breeding period. We use an extensive dataset of over 820K nesting records of 73 bird species across the boreal region in Finland to probe for changes in the beginning, end, and duration of the breeding period over four decades (1975 to 2017). We uncover a general advance of breeding with a strong phylogenetic signal but no systematic variation over space. Additionally, 31% of species contracted their breeding period in at least one bioclimatic zone, as the end of the breeding period advanced more than the beginning. We did not detect a statistical difference in phenological responses of species with combinations of different migratory strategy or number of broods. Nonetheless, we find systematic differences in species responses, as the contraction in the breeding period was found almost exclusively in resident and short-distance migrating species, which generally breed early in the season. Overall, changes in the timing and duration of reproduction may potentially lead to more broods co-occurring in the early breeding season-a critical time for species' reproductive success. Our findings highlight the importance of quantifying phenological change across species and over the entire season to reveal shifts in the community-level distribution of bird reproduction.