Browsing by Subject "INDEXES"

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  • Häppölä, Paavo; Havulinna, Aki S.; Tasa, Tönis; Mars, Nina; Perola, Markus; Kallela, Mikko; Milani, Lili; Koskinen, Seppo; Salomaa, Veikko; Neale, Benjamin M.; Palotie, Aarno; Daly, Mark; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Health differences among the elderly and the role of medical treatments are topical issues in aging societies. We demonstrate the use of modern statistical learning methods to develop a data-driven health measure based on 21 years of pharmacy purchase and mortality data of 12,047 aging individuals. The resulting score was validated with 33,616 individuals from two fully independent datasets and it is strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.18 per point increase in score; 95% CI 1.14-1.22; p=2.25e-16). When combined with Charlson comorbidity index, individuals with elevated medication score and comorbidity index had over six times higher risk (HR 6.30; 95% CI 3.84-10.3; AUC=0.802) compared to individuals with a protective score profile. Alone, the medication score performs similarly to the Charlson comorbidity index and is associated with polygenic risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
  • IDEFICS and I. Family Consortia; Thumann, Barbara F.; Michels, Nathalie; Felső, Regina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Börnhorst, Claudia (2020)
    Background Short sleep duration has been suggested to lead to insulin resistance both directly by altering glucose metabolism and indirectly through obesity. This study aims to investigate associations between nocturnal sleep duration and insulin resistance considering abdominal obesity as a mediator. Methods We analysed data of 3 900 children aged 2–15 years participating in the second (2009/10) and third (2013/14) examination wave of the European IDEFICS/I.Family study (hereafter referred to as baseline and follow-up). Information on nocturnal sleep duration was collected by questionnaires and age-standardised (SLEEP z-score). The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) was calculated from fasting insulin and fasting glucose obtained from blood samples; waist circumference (WAIST) was measured with an inelastic tape. HOMA and WAIST were used as indicators for insulin resistance and abdominal obesity, respectively, and transformed to age- and sex-specific z-scores. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SLEEP z-score and HOMA z-score were investigated based on a path model considering WAIST z-score as a mediator adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Cross-sectionally, baseline SLEEP z-score was negatively associated with baseline WAIST z-score (unstandardised effect estimate -0.120, 95% confidence interval [-0.167; -0.073]). We observed no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on baseline HOMA z-score but a negative indirect effect through baseline WAIST z-score (-0.042 [-0.058; -0.025]). Longitudinally, there was no direct effect of baseline SLEEP z-score on HOMA z-score at follow-up but a negative indirect effect through both baseline WAIST z-score and WAIST z-score at follow-up (-0.028 [-0.040; -0.016]). Conclusions Our results do not support the hypothesis of an association between short sleep duration and insulin resistance independent of abdominal obesity. However, longer sleep duration may exert short and long term beneficial effects on insulin resistance through its beneficial effects on abdominal obesity.
  • Ahonen, Lauri; Cowley, Benjamin; Torniainen, Jari; Ukkonen, Antti; Vihavainen, Arto; Puolamäki, Kai (2016)
    It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators' physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchrony in physiological signals between collaborating computer science students performing pair-programming exercises in a class room environment. We recorded electrocardiography over the course of a 60 minute programming session, using lightweight physiological sensors. We employ correlation of heart-rate variability features to study social psychophysiological compliance of the collaborating students. We found evident physiological compliance in collaborating dyads' heart-rate variability signals. Furthermore, dyads' self-reported workload was associated with the physiological compliance. Our results show viability of a novel approach to field measurement using lightweight devices in an uncontrolled environment, and suggest that self-reported collaboration quality can be assessed via physiological signals.
  • Thelin, Eric P.; Raj, Rahul; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Nelson, David; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Siironen, Jari; Tanskanen, Päivi; Hawryluk, Gregory; Hasen, Mohammed; Unger, Bertram; Zeiler, Frederick A. (2020)
    Current accepted cerebrovascular reactivity indices suffer from the need of high frequency data capture and export for post-acquisition processing. The role for minute-by-minute data in cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring remains uncertain. The goal was to explore the statistical time-series relationships between intra-cranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pressure reactivity index (PRx) using both 10-s and minute data update frequency in TBI. Prospective data from 31 patients from 3 centers with moderate/severe TBI and high-frequency archived physiology were reviewed. Both 10-s by 10-s and minute-by-minute mean values were derived for ICP and MAP for each patient. Similarly, PRx was derived using 30 consecutive 10-s data points, updated every minute. While long-PRx (L-PRx) was derived via similar methodology using minute-by-minute data, with L-PRx derived using various window lengths (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 min; denoted L-PRx_5, etc.). Time-series autoregressive integrative moving average (ARIMA) and vector autoregressive integrative moving average (VARIMA) models were created to analyze the relationship of these parameters over time. ARIMA modelling, Granger causality testing and VARIMA impulse response function (IRF) plotting demonstrated that similar information is carried in minute mean ICP and MAP data, compared to 10-s mean slow-wave ICP and MAP data. Shorter window L-PRx variants, such as L-PRx_5, appear to have a similar ARIMA structure, have a linear association with PRx and display moderate-to-strong correlations (r ~ 0.700, p 
  • Mammola, Stefano; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    The use ofn-dimensional hypervolumes in trait-based ecology is rapidly increasing. By representing the functional space of a species or community as a Hutchinsonian niche, the abstract Euclidean space defined by a set of independent axes corresponding to individuals or species traits, these multidimensional techniques show great potential for the advance of functional ecology theory. In the panorama of existing methods for delineating multidimensional spaces, therpackagehypervolume(Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 2014, 595-609) is currently the most used. However, functions for calculating the standard set of functional diversity (FD) indices-richness, divergence and regularity-have not been developed within thehypervolumeframework yet. This gap is delaying its full exploitation in functional ecology, meanwhile preventing the possibility to compare its performance with that of other methods. We develop a set of functions to calculate FD indices based onn-dimensional hypervolumes, including alpha (richness), beta (and respective components), dispersion, evenness, contribution and originality. Altogether, these indices provide a coherent framework to explore the primary mathematical components of FD within a multidimensional setting. These new functions can work either with hypervolume objects or with raw data (species presence or abundance and their traits) as input data, and are versatile in terms of input parameters and options. These functions are implemented withinbat(Biodiversity Assessment Tools), anrpackage for biodiversity assessments. As a coherent corpus of functional indices based on a common algorithm, it opens the possibility to fully explore the strengths of the Hutchinsonian niche concept in community ecology research.
  • Lehtonen, Arttu O.; Langen, Ville L.; Puukka, Pauli J.; Kahonen, Mika; Nieminen, Markku S.; Jula, Antti M.; Niiranen, Teemu J. (2017)
    Background: Scant data exist on incidence rates, correlates, and prognosis of electrocardiographic P-wave abnormalities in the general population. Methods: We recorded ECG and measured conventional cardiovascular risk factors in 5667 Finns who were followed up for incident atrial fibrillation (AF). We obtained repeat ECGs from 3089 individuals I I years later. Results: The incidence rates of prolonged P-wave duration, abnormal P terminal force (PTF), left P-wave axis deviation, and right P-wave axis deviation were 16.0%, 7.4%, 3.4%, and 2.2%, respectively. Older age and higher BMI were associated with incident prolonged P-wave duration and abnormal PTF (P Conclusions: Modifiable risk factors associate with P-wave abnormalities that are common and may represent intermediate steps of atrial cardiomyopathy on a pathway leading to AF. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Zawiska, Izabela; Dimante-Deimantovica, Inta; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Saarni, Saija; Stivrins, Normunds; Tylmann, Wojciech; Lanka, Anna; Robeznieks, Martins; Jilbert, Tom (2020)
    Cultural eutrophication, the process by which pollution due to human activity speeds up natural eutrophication, is a widespread and consequential issue. Here, we present the 85-year history of a small, initially Lobelia-Isoetes dominated lake. The lake's ecological deterioration was intensified by water pumping station activities when it received replenishment water for more than 10 years from a eutrophic lake through a pipe. In this study, we performed a paleolimnological assessment to determine how the lake's ecosystem functioning changed over time. A multi-proxy (pollen, Cladocera, diatoms, and Chironomidae) approach was applied alongside a quantitative reconstruction of total phosphorus using diatom and hypolimnetic dissolved oxygen with chironomid-based transfer functions. The results of the biotic proxy were supplemented with a geochemical analysis. The results demonstrated significant changes in the lake community's structure, its sediment composition, and its redox conditions due to increased eutrophication, water level fluctuations, and erosion. The additional nutrient load, particularly phosphorus, increased the abundance of planktonic eutrophic-hypereutrophic diatoms, the lake water's transparency decreased, and hypolimnetic anoxia occurred. Cladocera, Chironomidae, and diatoms species indicated a community shift towards eutrophy, while the low trophy species were suppressed or disappeared.
  • Zhao, Bailu; Zhuang, Qianlai; Shurpali, Narasinha; Köster, Kajar; Berninger, Frank; Pumpanen, Jukka (2021)
    Wildfires are a major disturbance to forest carbon (C) balance through both immediate combustion emissions and post-fire ecosystem dynamics. Here we used a process-based biogeochemistry model, the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), to simulate C budget in Alaska and Canada during 1986-2016, as impacted by fire disturbances. We extracted the data of difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) for fires from Landsat TM/ETM imagery and estimated the proportion of vegetation and soil C combustion. We observed that the region was a C source of 2.74 Pg C during the 31-year period. The observed C loss, 57.1 Tg C year(-1), was attributed to fire emissions, overwhelming the net ecosystem production (1.9 Tg C year(-1)) in the region. Our simulated direct emissions for Alaska and Canada are within the range of field measurements and other model estimates. As burn severity increased, combustion emission tended to switch from vegetation origin towards soil origin. When dNBR is below 300, fires increase soil temperature and decrease soil moisture and thus, enhance soil respiration. However, the post-fire soil respiration decreases for moderate or high burn severity. The proportion of post-fire soil emission in total emissions increased with burn severity. Net nitrogen mineralization gradually recovered after fire, enhancing net primary production. Net ecosystem production recovered fast under higher burn severities. The impact of fire disturbance on the C balance of northern ecosystems and the associated uncertainties can be better characterized with long-term, prior-, during- and post-disturbance data across the geospatial spectrum. Our findings suggest that the regional source of carbon to the atmosphere will persist if the observed forest wildfire occurrence and severity continues into the future.
  • Tähtinen, Katja; Remes, Jouko; Karvala, Kirsi; Salmi, Kari; Lahtinen, Marjaana; Reijula, Kari (2020)
    Objectives: The study examined the extent and prevalence of perceived indoor environment-related (IE-related) symptoms environmental complaints and psychosocial work environmental factors in Finnish office, school and health care environments. Material and Methods: The data were collected from non-industrial workplaces (N = 455) in 2011-2012 and 2015-2017 using the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health's Indoor Air Questionnaire (IA Questionnaire). Suspicion of IE-related problems was reported in 59% of workplaces. The data consisted of 28 826 employees' responses. Results: The employees reported symptoms and environmental discomfort in office environments less often than in school or health care environments. The most often reported IE-related complaints were stuffy air (39% of respondents), dry air (34%) and insufficient ventilation (33%). The most often reported symptoms were irritation of the nose (27% of respondents), irritation of the eyes (26%), and hoarse or dry throat (24%). The results showed differences between the perceived IE in office, school and health care environments. Conclusions: Compared to earlier findings, the most often perceived IE-related symptoms and complaints have increased in Finnish health care environments. The office employees' perceptions of psychosocial work environment remained fairly unchanged whereas health care personnel more often assessed their psychosocial environment as positive compared to previous reports. Instead of exact reference values, comparing the results of IA Questionnaires with the distributions and mean values of the results of this study may be more informative for those striving to solve IE-related problems. The presented distribution and mean values of perceived symptoms, environmental complaints and psychosocial work environment might help to relate the results to other workplaces. This, in turn, might increase the understanding that IA Questionnaire results are influenced by many factors. The results presented can be used as new reference material when interpreting the results of IA Questionnaires in office, school and health care environments.
  • Kim, Chee Hae; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Dehbi, Hakim-Moulay; Lee, Joo Myung; Doh, Joon-Hyung; Nam, Chang-Wook; Shin, Eun-Seok; Cook, Christopher M.; Al-Lamee, Rasha; Petraco, Ricardo; Sen, Sayan; Malik, Iqbal S.; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Mejia-Renteria, Hernan; Alegria-Barrero, Eduardo; Alghamdi, Ali; Altman, John; Baptista, Sergio B.; Bhindi, Ravinay; Bojara, Waldemar; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Silva, Pedro Canas; Di Mario, Carlo; Erglis, Andrejs; Gerber, Robert T.; Going, Olaf; Haerle, Tobias; Hellig, Farrel; Indolfi, Ciro; Janssens, Luc; Jeremias, Allen; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Khashaba, Ahmed; Kikuta, Yuetsu; Krackhardt, Florian; Laine, Mika; Lehman, Sam J.; Matsuo, Hitoshi; Meuwissen, Martijin; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Piek, Jan J.; Ribichini, Flavo; Samady, Habib; Sapontis, James; Seto, Arnold H.; Sezer, Murat; Sharp, Andrew S. P.; Singh, Jasvindar; Takashima, Hiroaki; Talwar, Suneel; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Tang, Kare; Van Belle, Eric; van Royen, Niels; Vinhas, Hugo; Vrints, Christiaan J.; Walters, Darren; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Samuels, Bruce; Buller, Christopher; Patel, Manesh R.; Serruys, Patrick W.; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin E. (2019)
    OBJECTIVES This study sought to evaluate sex differences in procedural characteristics and clinical outcomes of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR)- and fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided revascularization strategies. BACKGROUND An iFR-guided strategy has shown a lower revascularization rate than an FFR-guided strategy, without differences in clinical outcomes. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis of the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate stenosis to guide Revascularization) study, in which 601 women and 1,891 men were randomized to iFR- or FFR-guided strategy. The primary endpoint was 1-year major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization. RESULTS Among the entire population, women had a lower number of functionally significant lesions per patient (0.31 +/- 0.51 vs. 0.43 +/- 0.59; p <0.001) and less frequently underwent revascularization than men (42.1% vs. 53.1%; p <0.001). There was no difference in mean iFR value according to sex (0.91 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.91 +/- 0.10; p = 0.442). However, the mean FFR value was lower in men than in women (0.83 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.10; p = 0.001). In men, an FFR-guided strategy was associated with a higher rate of revascularization than an iFR-guided strategy (57.1% vs. 49.3%; p = 0.001), but this difference was not observed in women (41.4% vs. 42.6%; p = 0.757). There was no difference in MACE rates between iFR- and FFR-guided strategies in both women (5.4% vs. 5.6%, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 0.50 to 2.43; p = 0.805) and men (6.6% vs. 7.0%, adjusted hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.46; p = 0.919). CONCLUSIONS An FFR-guided strategy was associated with a higher rate of revascularization than iFR-guided strategy in men, but not in women. However, iFR- and FFR-guided strategies showed comparable clinical outcomes, regardless of sex. (C) 2019 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Hoffmann, Rasmus; Borsboom, Gerard; Saez, Marc; Mari Dell'Olmo, Marc; Burstrom, Bo; Corman, Diana; Costa, Claudia; Deboosere, Patrick; Felicitas Dominguez-Berjon, M.; Dzurova, Dagmar; Gandarillas, Ana; Gotsens, Merce; Kovacs, Katalin; Mackenbach, Johan; Martikainen, Pekka; Maynou, Laia; Morrison, Joana; Palencia, Laia; Perez, Gloria; Pikhart, Hynek; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Santana, Paula; Saurina, Carme; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Borrell, Carme (2014)