Browsing by Subject "INDIVIDUAL TREES"

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  • Kuzmin, Anton; Korhonen, Lauri; Kivinen, Sonja; Hurskainen, Pekka; Korpelainen, Pasi; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Maltamo, Matti; Vihervaara, Petteri; Kumpula, Timo (2021)
    European aspen (Populus tremula L.) is a keystone species for biodiversity of boreal forests.Large-diameter aspens maintain the diversity of hundreds of species, many of which are threatened in Fennoscandia. Due to a low economic value and relatively sparse and scattered occurrence of aspen in boreal forests, there is a lack of information of the spatial and temporal distribution of aspen, which hampers efficient planning and implementation of sustainable forest management practices and conservation efforts. Our objective was to assess identification of European aspen at the individual tree level in a southern boreal forest using high-resolution photogrammetric point cloud (PPC) and multispectral (MSP) orthomosaics acquired with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The structure-from-motion approach was applied to generate RGB imagery-based PPC to be used for individual tree-crown delineation. Multispectral data were collected using two UAV cameras:Parrot Sequoia and MicaSense RedEdge-M. Tree-crown outlines were obtained from watershed segmentation of PPC data and intersected with multispectral mosaics to extract and calculate spectral metrics for individual trees. We assessed the role of spectral data features extracted from PPC and multispectral mosaics and a combination of it, using a machine learning classifier—Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform two different classifications: discrimination of aspen from the other species combined into one class and classification of all four species (aspen, birch, pine, spruce) simultaneously. In the first scenario, the highest classification accuracy of 84% (F1-score) for aspen and overall accuracy of 90.1% was achieved using only RGB features from PPC, whereas in the second scenario, the highest classification accuracy of 86 % (F1-score) for aspen and overall accuracy of 83.3% was achieved using the combination of RGB and MSP features. The proposed method provides a new possibility for the rapid assessment of aspen occurrence to enable more efficient forest management as well as contribute to biodiversity monitoring and conservation efforts in boreal forests.
  • Tanhuanpää, Topi; Yu, Xiaowei; Luoma, Ville; Saarinen, Ninni; Raisio, Juha; Hyyppä, Juha; Kumpula, Timo; Holopainen, Markus (2019)
    Urban forests consist of patches of recreational areas, parks, and single trees on roadsides and other forested urban areas. Large number of tree species and heterogeneous growing conditions result in diverse canopy structure. High variation can be found both at level of single tree crowns and in canopy characteristics of larger areas. As urban forests are typically managed with small-scale, even tree-level operations, there is a need for detailed forest information. In this study, the effect of varying canopy conditions was tested on nine individual tree detection (ITD) methods. All methods utilized airborne laser scanning (ALS)-derived canopy height models (CHM) and different modifications of watershed segmentation (WS). The performance of mapping methods was compared in three strata with varying mean height and canopy cover. The results showed considerable variation between the methods when tested in varying canopy conditions. Especially, presence of large broadleaved trees affected the accuracy of detecting individual trees. The best performing methods for the three strata were G0.7, F2 and Gadapt. The areas with low canopy cover turned out problematic for all ITD methods tested as co-occurrence of small trees and large deciduous trees affected the accuracy significantly. Overall, The results show that stratification can be used to enhance the quality of ITD in urban park areas. However, heterogeneous canopy structure and varying growth patterns typical for urban parks lower the accuracy of tree detection. Also, according to our results we suggest that canopy height and canopy cover alone are insufficient attributes for stratifying urban canopy conditions.
  • Yu, Xiaowei; Hyyppa, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Kaartinen, Harri; Vastaranta, Mikko; Holopainen, Markus (2017)
    This paper investigated the potential of multispectral airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for individual tree detection and tree species classification. The aim was to develop a single-sensor solution for forest mapping that is capable of providing species-specific information, required for forest management and planning purposes. Experiments were conducted using 1903 ground measured trees from 22 sample plots and multispectral ALS data, acquired with an Optech Titan scanner over a boreal forest, mainly consisting of Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea Abies), and birch (Betula sp.), in southern Finland. ALS-features used as predictors for tree species were extracted from segmented tree objects and used in random forest classification. Different combinations of features, including point cloud features, and intensity features of single and multiple channels, were tested. Among the field-measured trees, 61.3% were correctly detected. The best overall accuracy (OA) of tree species classification achieved for correctly-detected trees was 85.9% (Kappa = 0.75), using a point cloud and single-channel intensity features combination, which was not significantly different from the ones that were obtained either using all features (OA = 85.6%, Kappa = 0.75), or single-channel intensity features alone (OA = 85.4%, Kappa = 0.75). Point cloud features alone achieved the lowest accuracy, with an OA of 76.0%. Field-measured trees were also divided into four categories. An examination of the classification accuracy for four categories of trees showed that isolated and dominant trees can be detected with a detection rate of 91.9%, and classified with a high overall accuracy of 90.5%. The corresponding detection rate and accuracy were 81.5% and 89.8% for a group of trees, 26.4% and 79.1% for trees next to a larger tree, and 7.2% and 53.9% for trees situated under a larger tree, respectively. The results suggest that Channel 2 (1064 nm) contains more information for separating pine, spruce, and birch, followed by channel 1 (1550 nm) and channel 3 (532 nm) with an overall accuracy of 81.9%, 78.3%, and 69.1%, respectively. Our results indicate that the use of multispectral ALS data has great potential to lead to a single-sensor solution for forest mapping.
  • Liang, Xinlian; Kankare, Ville; Hyyppä, Juha; Wang, Yunsheng; Kukko, Antero; Haggren, Henrik; Yu, Xiaowei; Kaartinen, Harri; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Guan, Fengying; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko (2016)
    Decision making on forest resources relies on the precise information that is collected using inventory. There are many different kinds of forest inventory techniques that can be applied depending on the goal, scale, resources and the required accuracy. Most of the forest inventories are based on field sample. Therefore, the accuracy of the forest inventories depends on the quality and quantity of the field sample. Conventionally, field sample has been measured using simple tools. When map is required, remote sensing materials are needed. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides a measurement technique that can acquire millimeter-level of detail from the surrounding area, which allows rapid, automatic and periodical estimates of many important forest inventory attributes. It is expected that TLS will be operationally used in forest inventories as soon as the appropriate software becomes available, best practices become known and general knowledge of these findings becomes more wide spread. Meanwhile, mobile laser scanning, personal laser scanning, and image-based point clouds became capable of capturing similar terrestrial point cloud data as TLS. This paper reviews the advances of applying TLS in forest inventories, discusses its properties with reference to other related techniques and discusses the future prospects of this technique. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Vastaranta, Mikko; Kankare, Ville; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Hyyppa, Hannu (2014)