Browsing by Subject "INDONESIA"

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  • Hooijer, A.; Page, S.; Canadell, J. G.; Silvius, M.; Kwadijk, J.; Wosten, H.; Jauhiainen, J. (2010)
  • Könönen, M.; Jauhiainen, J.; Straková, P.; Heinonsalo, J.; Laiho, R.; Kusin, K.; Limin, S.; Vasander, H. (2018)
    Swamp forests on deep tropical peatlands have undergone extensive deforestation and draining for agriculture and plantations, consequently becoming globally significant carbon (C) sources. To study the effects of land-use change on peat as a biological environment, which directly affects decomposition dynamics and greenhouse gas emissions, we sampled peat from four common land-use types representing different management intensities in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. The near-pristine swamp forest was used to describe unmanaged conditions, and the three other sites in order of increasing management intensity were reforested; degraded; and agricultural. We examined peat substrate quality (total C & nitrogen (N), dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON)), organic matter quality characterized by infrared spectroscopy, and microbial biomass and extracellular enzyme activity, to describe both biotic and abiotic conditions in peat. We found that the peat at altered sites was poorer in quality, i.e. decomposability, as demonstrated by the higher intensity of aromatic and aliphatic compounds, and lower intensity of polysaccharides, and concentration of total N, DOC, and DON compared to the peat in the swamp forest. The observed differences in peat properties can be linked to changes in litter input and decomposition conditions altered after deforestation and draining, as well as increased leaching and fires. The quality of the peat substrate was directly related to its biotic properties, with altered sites generally having lower microbial biomass and enzyme activity. However, irrespective of management intensity or substrate quality, enzyme activity was limited primarily to the first 0–3 cm of the peat profile. Some differences between wet and dry seasons were observed in enzyme activity especially in swamp forest, where the most measured enzyme activities were higher in dry season. Reforestation 6 years before our measurements had not yet restored enzyme activity in the peat to the level of the swamp forest, although the topmost peat characteristics in the reforested site already resembled those in the swamp forest. This is likely contributed by the limited capacity of the young tree stand to produce litter to support peat formation and restore the quality and structure of the peat, and the chemical weed control performed at the site. Therefore, we conclude that intensive land management, including deforestation and draining, leads to the surface peat becoming poorer biological environment, and it may take long time to restore the peat properties.
  • Larjavaara, Markku; Kanninen, Markku; Ruesta, Harold Gordillo; Koskinen, Joni; Kukkonen, Markus; Käyhkö, Niina; Larson, Anne M.; Wunder, Sven (2018)
    Slowing the reduction, or increasing the accumulation, of organic carbon stored in biomass and soils has been suggested as a potentially rapid and cost-effective method to reduce the rate of atmospheric carbon increase(1). The costs of mitigating climate change by increasing ecosystem carbon relative to the baseline or business-as-usual scenario has been quantified in numerous studies, but results have been contradictory, as both methodological issues and substance differences cause variability(2). Here we show, based on 77 standardized face-to-face interviews of local experts with the best possible knowledge of local land-use economics and sociopolitical context in ten landscapes around the globe, that the estimated cost of increasing ecosystem carbon varied vastly and was perceived to be 16-27 times cheaper in two Indonesian landscapes dominated by peatlands compared with the average of the eight other landscapes. Hence, if reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) and other land-use mitigation efforts are to be distributed evenly across forested countries, for example, for the sake of international equity, their overall effectiveness would be dramatically lower than for a cost-minimizing distribution.
  • Di Gregorio, Monica; Gallemore, Caleb Tyrell; Brockhaus, Maria; Fatorelli, Leandra; Efrian, Muharrom (2017)
    This paper investigates the adoption of discourses on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD +) across different national contexts. It draws on institutional theories to develop and test a number of hypotheses on the role of shared beliefs and politico-economic institutions in determining the discursive choices of policy actors. The results show that win win ecological modernization discourse, embraced by powerful government agencies and international actors, dominates national REDD + policy arenas. This discourse is challenged primarily by a minority reformist civic environmentalist discourse put forward primarily by domestic NGOs. We find evidence that countries with a less democratic political system and large-scale primary sector investments facilitate the adoption of reconciliatory ecological modernization discourse, which may not directly challenge the drivers of deforestation. Policy actors who believe in and are engaged in market-based approaches to REDD + are much more likely to adopt ecological modernization discourses, compared to policy actors who work on community development and livelihoods issues.
  • Horton, Alexander; Virkki, Vili; Lounela, Anu; Miettinen, Jukka; Alibakhshi, Sara; Kummu, Matti (2021)
    Throughout Indonesia ecological degradation, agricultural expansion, and the digging of drainage canals has compromised the integrity and functioning of peatland forests. Fragmented landscapes of scrubland, cultivation, degraded forest, and newly established plantations are then susceptible to extensive fires that recur each year. However, a comprehensive understanding of all the drivers of fire distribution and the conditions of initiation is still absent. Here we show the first analysis in the region that encompasses a wide range of driving factors within a single model that captures the inter-annual variation, as well as the spatial distribution of peatland fires. We developed a fire susceptibility model using machine learning (XGBoost random forest) that characterizes the relationships between key predictor variables and the distribution of historic fire locations. We then determined the relative importance of each predictor variable in controlling the initiation and spread of fires. The model included land-cover classifications, a forest clearance index, vegetation indices, drought indices, distances to infrastructure, topography, and peat depth, as well as the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). The model performance consistently scores highly in both accuracy and precision across all years (>75% and >67.5% respectively), though recall metrics are much lower (>25%). Our results confirm the anthropogenic dependence of extreme fires in the region, with distance to settlements and distance to canals consistently weighted the most important driving factors within the model structure. Our results may help target the root causes of fire initiation and propagation to better construct regulation and rehabilitation efforts to mitigate future fires.
  • Myers, Rodd; Rutt, Rebecca L.; McDermott, Constance; Maryudi, Ahmad; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Camargo, Marisa; Cam, Hoang (2020)
    Timber legality trade restrictions and verification are a bundle of contemporary mechanisms triggered by global concerns about forest degradation and deforestation. The European Union Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade initiative is a significant effort to not only screen out illegal timber and wood products from the EU, but also support trading partner countries to improve their legality definitions and verification processes. But by using bilateral agreements (Voluntary Partnership Agreements) as a key mechanism, the EU legitimizes trade partner nation-states as the authority to decide what is legal. We engage in a theoretical debate about the complexities of the meaning of legality, and then analyze empirical data collected from interviews in Ghana, Indonesia, Vietnam and Europe with policy, civil society and industry actors to understand how different actors understand legality. We find hegemonic notions of Westphalian statehood at the core of 'global' notions of legality and often contrast with local understandings of legality. Non-state actors understand these hegemonic notions of legality as imposed upon them and part of a colonial legacy. Further, notions of legality that fail to conform with hegemonic understandings are readily framed by nation- states as immoral or criminal. We emphasize the importance of understanding these framings to elucidate the embedded assumptions about what comprises legality within assemblages of global actors.
  • Schroeder, Heike; Di Gregorio, Monica; Brockhaus, Maria; Thu Thuy Pham (2020)
  • Jamaludin, Johanness; De Alban, Jose Don T.; Carrasco, L. Roman; Webb, Edward L. (2022)
    As deforestation breaches into new tropical frontiers, proactive conservation strategies require a trifecta of information on where deforestation is accelerating (emergent), how drivers of deforestation vary spatiotemporally, and where to focus limited conservation resources in protecting the most integral yet threatened forested landscapes. Here we introduce Emergent Threat Analysis, a process integrating Emerging Hot Spot Analysis of deforestation, visual classification of deforestation outcomes over time, and spatial quantification of contemporary forest condition. We applied Emergent Threat Analysis to tropical Southeast Asia, a global epicentre of biodiversity threatened by deforestation. We found that emergent hot spots (EHS)-a subset of hot spots characterized by strong, recent, and clustered patterns of deforestation-accounted for 26.1% of total forest loss from 1992 to 2018, with deforestation within EHS proceeding at 2.5 times the regional rate of gross loss. Oil palm and rubber plantation expansion were the principal drivers of deforestation within EHS of insular and mainland SE Asia, respectively. Over the study period, oil palm shifted in importance from Sumatra and Sarawak to Papua and Kalimantan, whereas rubber became prominent in Cambodia and Tanintharyi from 2006 to 2015. As of 2019, more than 170 000 km(2) of SE Asia's remaining forest occurred within EHS, of which 21.7% was protected. High and medium-integrity forest constituted 19.2% and 49.1% of remaining EHS forest, respectively, but of these, 35.0% of high-integrity and 23.9% of medium-integrity EHS forest were protected. Because we anticipate that tree plantation expansion will continue to drive deforestation in SE Asia, significantly heightened protection is needed to secure the long-term preservation of high and medium-integrity forest, especially in highly contested forest frontier regions. Finally, as a flexible, integrated process, Emergent Threat Analysis is applicable to deforestation fronts across the global tropics.
  • Tegegne, Yitagesu T.; Ramcilovic-Suominen, Sabaheta; Kalame, Fobissie Blese; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J.; Lindner, Marcus; Kanninen, Markku (2017)
  • Lampela, Maija; Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Sarkkola, Sakari; Vasander, Harri (2018)
    Degraded tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are a major challenge for reforestation. Often treeless, drained and several times burnt, these peatland areas are nutrient-poor hostile environments prone to droughts, heavy flooding and extreme diurnal temperature changes. In order to succeed in establishment of a viable tree stand, careful selection of species and management techniques is needed. In this study we investigated the suitability of five native tree species for reforestation of tropical peatlands with three site preparation treatments for potentially enhancing seedling success: weeding, mounding and fertilizing. The study area was a clear-cut, drained and repeatedly burnt former tropical peat swamp forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seedlings were grown in a field nursery, planted in the field and their growth and survival were monitored regularly for 1.5 years. Seedling growth in response to environmental variables and treatments was studied by linear mixed models and seedling survival with Cox regression models. In most cases, weeding and fertilizing proved beneficial for the growth and survival of the seedlings, whereas mounding only had a minor impact on seedling performance. The seedlings of Shorea balangeran performed the best and can be recommended for reforestation of heavily degraded areas. Alstonia pneumatophora and Dacryodes rostrata performed relatively well depending on the treatments, whereas Dyera polyphylla had mixed results with problems in seedling production, and Campnosperma squamatum performed rather poorly. The effects of wildfires which engulfed the study area two years after planting were also monitored and are discussed.
  • Korhonen, E. M.; Huhtamo, E.; Smura, T.; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Raassina, M.; Vapalahti, O. (2016)
    We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.