Browsing by Subject "INDUCED CARDIOMYOPATHY"

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  • Soini, Tea; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Kyronlahti, Antti; Andersson, Leif C.; Wilson, David B.; Heikinheimo, Markku (2017)
    Hepatoblastoma, the most common type of pediatric liver cancer, is treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. An essential drug in the treatment of hepatoblastoma is doxorubicin, which in high doses is cardiotoxic. This adverse effect is due to downregulation of cardiac expression of transcription factor GATA4, leading in turn to diminished levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) protein family members. GATA4 is also expressed in early fetal liver, but absent from normal postnatal hepatocytes. However, GATA4 is highly expressed in hepatoblastoma tissue. In this study, we assessed the role of GATA4 in doxorubicin-induced apoptosis of hepatoblastoma cells. Herein, we demonstrate that doxorubicin decreases GATA4 expression and alters the expression pattern of BCL2 family members, most profoundly that of BCL2 and BAK, in the HUH6 hepatoblastoma cell line. Silencing of GATA4 by siRNA prior to doxorubicin treatment sensitizes HUH6 cells to the apoptotic effect of this drug by further shifting the balance of BCL2 family members to the pro-apoptotic direction. Specifically, expression levels of anti-apoptotic BCL2 were decreased and pro-apoptotic BID were increased after GATA4 silencing. On the whole, our results indicate that since high endogenous levels of transcription factor GATA4 likely protect hepatoblastoma cells from doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, these cells can be rendered more sensitive to the drug by downregulation of GATA4.
  • Bousquet, Jean; Le Moing, Vincent; Blain, Hubert; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; Zuberbier, Torsten; Torre, Raphael de la; Lozano, Nieves Pizarro; Reynes, Jacques; Bedbrook, Anna; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Haahtela, Tari; Iaccarino, Guido; Klimek, Ludger; Kuna, Piotr; Melén, Erik; Mullol, Joaquim; Samolinski, Boleslaw; Valiulis, Arunas; Anto, Josep M. (2021)
    COVID-19 is described in a clinical case involving a patient who proposed the hypothesis that Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-interacting nutrients may help to prevent severe COVID-19 symptoms. Capsules of broccoli seeds containing glucoraphanin were being taken before the onset of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were continued daily for over a month after the first COVID-19 symptoms. They were found to reduce many of the symptoms rapidly and for a duration of 6-12 h by repeated dosing. When the patient was stable but still suffering from cough and nasal obstruction when not taking the broccoli capsules, a double-blind induced cough challenge confirmed the speed of onset of the capsules (less than 10 min). A second clinical case with lower broccoli doses carried out during the cytokine storm confirmed the clinical benefits already observed. A third clinical case showed similar effects at the onset of symptoms. In the first clinical trial, we used a dose of under 600 mmol per day of glucoraphanin. However, such a high dose may induce pharmacologic effects that require careful examination before the performance of any study. It is likely that the fast onset of action is mediated through the TRPA1 channel. These experimental clinical cases represent a proof-of-concept confirming the hypothesis that Nrf2interacting nutrients are effective in COVID-19. However, this cannot be used in practice before the availability of further safety data, and confirmation is necessary through proper trials on efficacy and safety.
  • Karhu, S. Tuuli; Kinnunen, Sini M.; Tölli, Marja; Välimäki, Mika J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Talman, Virpi; Ruskoaho, Heikki (2020)
    Doxorubicin is a widely used anticancer drug that causes dose-related cardiotoxicity. The exact mechanisms of doxorubicin toxicity are still unclear, partly because most in vitro studies have evaluated the effects of short-term high-dose doxorubicin treatments. Here, we developed an in vitro model of long-term low-dose administration of doxorubicin utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Moreover, given that current strategies for prevention and management of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity fail to prevent cancer patients developing heart failure, we also investigated whether the GATA4-targeted compound 3i-1000 has cardioprotective potential against doxorubicin toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The final doxorubicin concentration used in the chronic toxicity model in vitro was chosen based on cell viability data evaluation. Exposure to doxorubicin at the concentrations of 1-3 mu M markedly reduced (60%) hiPSC-CM viability already within 48 h, while a 14-day treatment with 100 nM doxorubicin concentration induced only a modest 26% reduction in hiPCS-CM viability. Doxorubicin treatment also decreased DNA content in hiPSC-CMs. Interestingly, the compound 3i-1000 attenuated doxorubicin-induced increase in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) expression and caspase-3/7 activation in hiPSC-CMs. Moreover, treatment with 3i-1000 for 2 weeks (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) inhibited doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by restoring left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening in chronic in vivo rat model. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that long-term exposure of hiPSC-CMs can be utilized as an in vitro model of delayed doxorubicin-induced toxicity and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that targeting GATA4 may be an effective strategy to counteract doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
  • Freiwan, Marah; Kovacs, Monika G.; Kovacs, Zsuzsanna Z. A.; Szucs, Gergo; Hoa Dinh; Losonczi, Reka; Siska, Andrea; Kriston, Andras; Kovacs, Ferenc; Horvath, Peter; Foldesi, Imre; Cserni, Gabor; Dux, Laszlo; Csont, Tamas; Sarkozy, Marta (2022)
    Despite the effectiveness of doxorubicin (DOXO) as a chemotherapeutic agent, dose-dependent development of chronic cardiotoxicity limits its application. The angiotensin-II receptor blocker losartan is commonly used to treat cardiac remodeling of various etiologies. The beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonist mirabegron was reported to improve chronic heart failure. Here we investigated the effects of losartan, mirabegron and their combination on the development of DOXO-induced chronic cardiotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: (i) control; (ii) DOXO-only; (iii) losartan-treated DOXO; (iv) mirabegron-treated DOXO; (v) losartan plus mirabegron-treated DOXO groups. The treatments started 5 weeks after DOXO administration. At week 8, echocardiography was performed. At week 9, left ventricles were prepared for histology, qRT-PCR, and Western blot measurements. Losartan improved diastolic but not systolic dysfunction and ameliorated SERCA2a repression in our DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity model. The DOXO-induced overexpression of Il1 and Il6 was markedly decreased by losartan and mirabegron. Mirabegron and the combination treatment improved systolic and diastolic dysfunction and significantly decreased overexpression of Smad2 and Smad3 in our DOXO-induced cardiotoxicity model. Only mirabegron reduced DOXO-induced cardiac fibrosis significantly. Mirabegron and its combination with losartan seem to be promising therapeutic tools against DOXO-induced chronic cardiotoxicity.