Browsing by Subject "INDUSTRY"

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  • Foulds, Chris; Royston, Sarah; Berker, Thomas; Nakopoulou, Efi; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez; Robison, Rosie; Abram, Simone; Ancic, Branko; Arapostathis, Stathis; Badescu, Gabriel; Bull, Richard; Cohen, Jed; Dunlop, Tessa; Dunphy, Niall; Dupont, Claire; Fischer, Corinna; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Grandclement, Catherine; Heiskanen, Eva; Labanca, Nicola; Jeliazkova, Maria; Jorgens, Helge; Keller, Margit; Kern, Florian; Lombardi, Patrizia; Mourik, Ruth; Ornetzeder, Michael; Pearson, Peter J. G.; Rohracher, Harald; Sahakian, Marlyne; Sari, Ramazan; Standal, Karina; Zivcic, Lidija (2022)
    Decades of techno-economic energy policymaking and research have meant evidence from the Social Sciences and Humanities (SSH)-including critical reflections on what changing a society's relation to energy (efficiency) even means-have been underutilised. In particular, (i) the SSH have too often been sidelined and/or narrowly pigeonholed by policymakers, funders, and other decision-makers when driving research agendas, and (ii) the setting of SSH-focused research agendas has not historically embedded inclusive and deliberative processes. The aim of this paper is to address these gaps through the production of a research agenda outlining future SSH research priorities for energy efficiency. A Horizon Scanning exercise was run, which sought to identify 100 priority SSH questions for energy efficiency research. This exercise included 152 researchers with prior SSH expertise on energy efficiency, who together spanned 62 (sub-)disciplines of SSH, 23 countries, and a full range of career stages. The resultant questions were inductively clustered into seven themes as follows: (1) Citizenship, engagement and knowledge exchange in relation to energy efficiency; (2) Energy efficiency in relation to equity, justice, poverty and vulnerability; (3) Energy efficiency in relation to everyday life and practices of energy consumption and production; (4) Framing, defining and measuring energy efficiency; (5) Governance, policy and political issues around energy efficiency; (6) Roles of economic systems, supply chains and financial mechanisms in improving energy efficiency; and (7) The interactions, unintended consequences and rebound effects of energy efficiency interventions. Given the consistent centrality of energy efficiency in policy programmes, this paper highlights that well-developed SSH approaches are ready to be mobilised to contribute to the development, and/or to understand the implications, of energy efficiency measures and governance solutions. Implicitly, it also emphasises the heterogeneity of SSH policy evidence that can be produced. The agenda will be of use for both (1) those new to the energy-SSH field (including policyworkers), for learnings on the capabilities and capacities of energy-SSH, and (2) established energy-SSH researchers, for insights on the collectively held futures of energy-SSH research.
  • Holopainen, Jani; Mattila, Osmo; Poyry, Essi; Parvinen, Petri (2020)
  • Jonsson, Ragnar; Rinaldi, Francesca; Pilli, Roberto; Fiorese, Giulia; Hurmekoski, Elias; Cazzaniga, Noemi; Robert, Nicolas; Camia, Andrea (2021)
    This study adds to the scientific literature dealing with the climate change mitigation implications of wood substitution. Its main scientific contribution rests with the modelling approach. By fully integrating forest resource and wood-product markets modelling in quantitative scenario analysis, we account for international trade in wood products as well as impacts on EU forests and forest-based sector employment of an increased EU uptake of wood-based construction and/or biochemicals and biofuels. Our results confirm the crucial role of the sawmilling industry in the forest-based bioeconomy. Thus, boosting wood-based construction in the EU would be most effective in increasing EU production and employment—in logging and solid wood-products manufacturing, but also in sectors using sawmilling byproducts as feedstock. Vertical integration in wood-based biorefineries should thus be advantageous. The positive EU climate-change mitigation effects of increased carbon storage in harvested wood products (HWP) and material substitution from increased wood construction are more than offset by reduced net forests carbon sinks by 2030, due to increased EU harvests. Further, increased EU imports, resulting in lower consumption of sawnwood outside the EU, would reduce extra-EU long-life HWP carbon storage and substitution of GHG-intensive materials, highlighting the need for concerted international climate change mitigation
  • Raheem, Dele; Ferrer, Borja Ramis; Lastra, Jose L. Martinez (Routledge, 2021)
    Routledge Research in Polar Regions
    Food processing, storage, and distribution are at the centre of environmental damage. Food security gaps include failure to track the geographical origin of foods, food waste, food safety and the quality of food products. To achieve sustainability, changes are required in food supply chains and the entire food system. Consumers need information to make informed choices about what to eat. They need to know where food came from, the conditions under which it grew, and the food’s nutritional profile. The food industry has been slow to take advantage of the internet. However, with increasing interests in redistributed manufacturing, circumpolar regions such as the European High North will need to digitise. The Internet of Food (IoF) is an emerging trend. It will make food traceable, transparent, and trustworthy and empower consumers with more personalised food that caters precisely to individual food, diet, and health choices. It is therefore important to build an information infrastructure around the IoF. This chapter examines how food security gaps can be bridged by collating data that will help to leapfrog local foods into the digital era.
  • Lahtinen, Katja; Hayrinen, Liina; Roos, Anders; Toppinen, Anne; Cabezas, Francisco X. Aguilar; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Hujala, Teppo; Nyrud, Anders Q.; Hoen, Hans Fredrik (2021)
    So far, consumer housing values have not been addressed as factors affecting the market diffusion potential of multi-storey wood building (MSWB). To fill the void, this study addresses different types of consumer housing values in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden (i.e., Nordic region), and whether they affect the likelihood of prejudices against building with wood in the housing markets. The data collected in 2018 from 2191 consumers in the Nordic region were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis and logistic binary regression analysis. According to the results, consumers' perceptions on ecological sustainability, material usage and urban lifestyle were similar in all countries, while country-specific differences were detected for perceptions on aesthetics and natural milieus. In all countries, appreciating urban lifestyle and living in attractive neighborhoods with good reputation increased the likelihood of prejudices against wood building, while appreciation of aesthetics and natural milieus decreased the likelihood of prejudices. In strengthening the demand for MSWB and sustainable urbanization through actions in businesses (e.g., branding) and via public policy support (e.g., land zoning), few messages derive from the results. In all, abreast with the already existing knowledge on the supply side factors (e.g., wood building innovations), more customized information is needed on the consumer-driven issues affecting the demand potential of MSWB in the housing markets. This would enable, e.g., both enhancing the supply of wooden homes for consumers appreciating urban lifestyle and neighborhoods and fortifying positive image of wood among consumers especially appreciating good architecture and pleasant environmental milieus.
  • Quist, Liina-Maija; Nygren, Anja (2019)
    Marine extraction accounts for one third of the world's hydrocarbon production. Several analyses suggest that seismic surveys employed in oil exploration harm marine life; however, their long-term impacts have not been extensively studied. We examine debates between fishers, the oil industry, and governmental authorities over the effects of oil explorations in Tabasco, Mexico. The study employs ideas from historical ontology in tracing the contested production of truth-claims about exploration in the context of scientific uncertainty. It shows how actors, through their different engagements with the sea, and with different degrees of power, frame claims about the relations between exploration and fish. We argue that fishers, through their efforts to "think like fish" produce situated knowledges about the effects of oil exploration. They explain a disappearance of fish by their understanding that seismic surveys disturb fish migration, impair the hearing of fish and cause fish death. Oil company and governmental representatives frame the impacts of oil exploration as insignificant by separating environmental and social dimensions, by isolating individual exploration events, and by arguing that possible effects are transitional. Due to scientific indeterminacy, oil exploration is malleable in the hands of powerful political representations that understate its possible impacts on marine socio-environments.
  • Lu, FeiFei; Kozak, Robert; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; D'amato, Dalia; Wen, Zuomin (2017)
    With the international community's increasing concern for social and environmental problems, the fulfilment and disclosure of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been advocated and promoted across the world. Forestry companies, which are particularly sensitive to environmental and social issues, are increasingly developing and improving their levels of CSR disclosure. However, information on emerging country contexts is still lacking. To fill this gap, this study focuses on Chinese forestry companies' CSR disclosure and introduces new disclosure indices through content analysis of annual reports by listed companies between 2011 and 2015. It then builds a correlation analysis of the factors influencing these companies' disclosure indices in order to gain a better understanding of the current situation for CSR implementation by forestry companies in emerging economies like China. Although context-specific, our findings can provide a reference for researchers and policy makers, and promote sustainable development via improved CSR disclosure by forestry companies, especially in developing regions.
  • Ghahramani, Abolfazl (2016)
    Many organizations are adapting to the requirements of occupational health and safety management systems worldwide. Despite the considerable acceptance of the systems for managing occupational health and safety in organizations, there is still no clear consensus on their effectiveness. The present study aimed to identify potential areas for improvements based on the experience and perception of the managers who worked in companies that are adopting the occupational health and safety assessment series 18001 standard in Iran. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers. A qualitative study design using a grounded theory approach was used to analyze the gathered data. Eleven categories emerged to explain the influencing factors that hinder or facilitate the effectiveness of the standard in the companies: (1) management commitment; (2) safety communication; (3) employee involvement; (4) integration; (5) training; (6) safety culture; (7) internal incentives; (8) enforcement; (9) occupational health and safety authority' support, (10) auditing, and (11) external incentives. Moreover, a conceptual model was developed based on the categories. The commitment of the senior managers to safety and their support of the system in practice can facilitate the improvement of the adaptation to the standard in the companies. Conducting efforts to train employees about occupational health and safety and to involve them in the practices required by the standard can help the companies in creating a positive safety culture. The development of a new inspection program with more enforcement on occupational health and safety legislation by the authorities would help the companies to adopt the requirements of the legislation. The application of an enforced policy by accreditation bodies to check the third-party auditing process could also increase the quality of auditing and help to improve the effectiveness of their systems to achieve a better occupational health and safety performance. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton (2022)
    Introduction The world’s first global health treaty, WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) aims to reduce tobacco product demand by focusing on tobacco taxes, smoking bans, health warning labels, and tobacco advertising bans. Previous studies almost unanimously suggest that FCTC has prompted countries to implement more effective tobacco demand reduction policies. Aims and Methods By taking into account the pre-FCTC status, country income level, and state capacity we studied if ratifying FCTC was associated with tobacco demand reduction measures in 2018/2019. We used logistic regression to assess the association of FCTC ratification with adoption demand reduction measures, accounting for years since ratification, baseline status, and other covariates. Results Except for taxes, state of tobacco policy implementation before FCTC ratification did not predict adoption of FCTC policies. Time since FCTC ratification was associated with implementing smoking bans and pictorial HWLs. In contrast, while the tax rate prior to FCTC ratification was positively associated with increased taxes after FCTC ratification, time since FCTC ratification was marginally negatively associated with increases in tobacco taxes. Conclusions While the FCTC was followed by implementation of compliant demand reduction policies, there are still many parties that have not implemented the FCTC, particularly increasing taxes and ending tobacco advertising and promotions. Implications We assessed changes in tobacco demand reductions measures over 22 years in 193 countries. By using internal tobacco industry documents, we were able establish a baseline before the FCTC negotiations. Unlike previous studies, we included four tobacco demand reductions measures: tobacco taxes, smoking bans, health warning labels, and tobacco advertising ban. The limitation of the study is that we do not have data to describe if demand reduction measures are actually enforced or what their effect on tobacco consumption is.
  • Weiss, Gerhard; Hansen, Eric; Ludvig, Alice; Nybakk, Erlend; Toppinen, Anne (2021)
    Innovation in the forest sector is a growing research interest and within this field, there is a growing attention for institutional, policy and societal dimensions and particular when it comes to the question of how to support innovativeness in the sector. This Special Issue therefore focuses on governance aspects, relating to and bridging business and political-institutional-societal levels. This includes social/societal factors, goals and implications that have recently been studied under the label of social innovation. Furthermore, the emergence of bioeconomy as a paradigm and policy goal has become a driver for a variety of innovation processes on company and institutional levels. Our article provides a tentative definition of & ldquo;innovation governance & rdquo; and attempts a stateof-art review of innovation governance research in the forest sector. For structuring the research field, we propose to distinguish between organizational/managerial, policy or innovation studies. For the forestry sector, specifically, we suggest to distinguish between studies focusing on (i) innovative governance of forest management and forest goods and services; on (ii) the governance of innovation processes as such, or (iii) on specific (transformational) approaches that may be derived from combined goals such as innovation governance for sustainability, regional development, or a bioeconomy. Studies in the forest sector are picking up new trends from innovation research that increasingly include the role of societal changes and various stakeholders such as civil society organizations and users. They also include public-private partnership models or participatory governance. We finally should not only look in how far research approaches from outside are applied in the sector but we believe that the sector could contribute much more to our general scientific knowledge on ways for a societal transformation to sustainability.
  • Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Sauru, Miska Eemil; Pätäri, Satu; Lähtinen, Katja; Tuppura, Anni (2019)
    In transitioning to a renewable material-based bio economy, growing public and industry interest is apparent for using wooden multistory construction (WMC) as a sustainable urban housing solution in Europe, but its business implications are not well understood. In our study, we evaluate, which internal and external factors of competitiveness are shaping the future of WMC, especially in the context of Finland and Sweden. Based on a multi-level perspective of socio-technical transitions, we conducted a three-stage dissensus-based Delphi study. The identified internal and external factors affecting the future competitiveness of the WMC business emphasize the importance of skilled architects and builders and the role of standardized building systems. Based on our results, the key aspects influencing the future competitiveness of WMC in the region are related to the development of technical infrastructure and project-based business networks, while additional changes in regulatory framework are perceived as less important. We conclude that towards 2030, the strong cognitive rules founded in the concrete-based building culture in these countries is likely to inhibit the dynamics of the socio-technical regime level. A change is also needed in the WMC business culture towards more open cross-sectoral collaboration and new business networks between different-sized players.
  • Lu, FeiFei; Wang, Zhaohua; Toppinen, Anne; D'amato, Dalia; Wen, Zuomin (2021)
    Understanding how managers perceive risks in the decision-making process of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure is vital, especially in sectors with high social and environmental demands on sustainability. The main aim of this study was to explore the impact of managerial risk perceptions and influencing factors on CSR disclosure in the forestry sector of China and to improve the sustainable development of forestry. Utilizing survey data of 214 managers from Chinese forestry enterprises, we analyzed how manager backgrounds, including six variables (gender, age, education level, degree major, number of years working as a manager, and work experience) related to the managers' risk perceptions of CSR disclosure via a two-stage model. The analyses of the two-stage model revealed that the influence factors differ in the two stages of risk perception. According to our results, influencing factors were not the same at various stages of the CSR reporting process. This requires decision makers to take practical driving factors into account and select managers with different characteristics to carry out the CSR disclosure of forestry enterprises.
  • D'Amato, D.; Wan, M.; Li, Ning; Rekola, M.; Toppinen, A. (2018)
    A line of research is emerging investigating the private sector impacts and dependencies on critical biodiversity and ecosystem services, and related business risks and opportunities. While the ecosystem services narrative is being forwarded globally as a key paradigm for promoting business sustainability, there is scarce knowledge of how these issues are considered at managerial level. This study thus investigates managerial views of corporate sustainability after the ecosystem services concept. We analyse interviews conducted with 20 managers from domestic and international forestry companies operating with a plantation-based business model in China. Content analysis was employed to analyse the data, with a focus on four key areas: (1) interviewee familiarity with the ecosystem services concept; (2) their views of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services; (3) related business risks and opportunities; and (4) viability of existing instruments and practices that can be employed in detecting and addressing business impacts and dependencies on ecosystem services. Through an inductive approach to the empirical findings, we refined a framework that holds operational value for developing company response strategies to ecosystem services impact/dependence assessment, ensuring that all issues are addressed comprehensively, and that related risks and opportunities are properly acknowledged.
  • Rekola, Mika; Nippala, Jaakko; Tynjälä, Päivi; Virtanen, Anne V. (2018)
    This explorative study examined practices of competence modelling in the forest sector organisations and how organisations anticipate changes in competence needs in the future. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (n=10) were conducted amongst forest sector experts in Finland and data was analysed by thematic analysis. The findings showed that the practices of modelling competences were diverse, most frequently used ones being superior-subordinate review discussions and quantitative competence surveys. In addition to these formal systems, informal modelling, especially on the team level and in smaller companies was also frequent. Organisations used competence modelling for several human resources functions, such as appraisal, motivation and promotion of employees. Surprisingly hiring and compensation functions were not mentioned. Perceptions related to competence modelling were generally speaking positive. The most important challenges were the lack of further actions and sometimes the extraordinary burden to the employees. When anticipating the future, the experts interviewed mentioned several commonly recognised trends, e.g., development of information technology, fragmentation of working life and structural changes in labour markets. All these require more generic competences related to information processing and personal self-management, especially respondents highlighted the importance of self-awareness skills. It is concluded that several useful practices for competence modelling already exist and that present study provides a basis for further quantitative further study.
  • Lehto, Marja; Kuisma, Risto Martti Johannes; Kymäläinen, Hanna-Riitta; Mäki, Maarit (2018)
    The effect of decontamination methods on fresh-cut vegetable washing waters was evaluated. NEW, ClO2, organic acid-based product FPW, and UV-C were tested with and without an interfering carrot juice of 1% (IS), on Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and yeast Candida lambica. The use of ClO2 (50 ppm active chlorine) resulted in >4 log reduction of Y. enterocolitica, Y. pseudotuberculosis, E. coli and >3 log reduction of C. lambica. The antibacterial effect of NEW was less effective in the presence of IS when compared with ClO2. The inactivation of C. lambica by FPW reached a maximum of 2.8 log cfu/mL (concentration 0.125%), but the antimicrobial effect was delayed by the IS. The effect of FPW on E. coli was significantly reduced by 1% IS. The inactivation of E. coli and C. lambica with UV-C IS decreased the inactivation and lengthened its time. Filtration improved the effect of UV-C inactivation. Practical applicationsWhen chemical decontamination methods were used in fresh-cut vegetable processing, the presence of organic matter in process water increased the reaction times and the need for higher concentrations of the chemical decontamination and the time of physical decontamination. Yersinia required longer inactivation times than E. coli. When UV-C is used for decontamination of process waters, waters should be filtered to enhance the disinfection efficacy.
  • Fontana, Flavia; Figueiredo, Patricia; Martins, João Pedro; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    In vivo models remain a principle screening tool in the drug discovery pipeline. Here, the challenges associated with the need for animal experiments, as well as their impact on research, individual/societal, and economic contexts are discussed. A number of alternatives that, with further development, optimization, and investment, may replace animal experiments are also revised.
  • Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Röhr, Raul Edvard Axel; Pätäri, Satu; Lähtinen, Katja Päivikki; Toivonen, Ritva Marketta (2018)
    The rise of wooden multistory construction (WMC) in the Nordic countries has turned out to be the most evident construction-related new business opportunity in the emerging bioeconomy. Based on earlier literature, the future growth prospects for the rise of WMC are rooted in the concerns regarding environmental issues, as witnessed in a plethora of studies focusing on carbon footprinting. But do new (performance-based) regulations ‘favor’ WMC or do they give a more ‘just’ comparison of alternative building concepts? Therefore, more information is needed on the role of growing environmental awareness and preferences for wood as a renewable and recyclable material in the markets. Our paper presents results from a two-round Delphi study focusing on the relative strength and perceived interplay between likelihood and the desirability of environmental concerns in driving WMC in Finland and Sweden. Using qualitative analysis of expert interviews in the first Delphi round, the issues related to sustainable development appear to have growing importance in the marketplace. However, the panelists perceive that the emphasis on sustainability is mainly driven by the changing regulation reflecting societal needs, and only few experts saw it as echoing directly from changing individual consumer needs. In the second Delphi round, implemented with an online survey, the likelihood and desirability of sustainability as a megatrend in housing was perceived to gain further impetus toward 2030, both in the form of consumer demand for sustainable living and wood construction as a modern way of living. However, future research is needed to get a better understanding on the strength and scope of these drivers.
  • Hoffmann, Stephan; Schoenauer, Marian; Heppelmann, Joachim; Asikainen, Antti; Cacot, Emmanuel; Eberhard, Benno; Hasenauer, Hubert; Ivanovs, Janis; Jaeger, Dirk; Lazdins, Andis; Mohtashami, Sima; Moskalik, Tadeusz; Nordfjell, Tomas; Sterenczak, Krzysztof; Talbot, Bruce; Uusitalo, Jori; Vuillermoz, Morgan; Astrup, Rasmus (2022)
    Purpose of Review Mechanized logging operations with ground-based equipment commonly represent European production forestry but are well-known to potentially cause soil impacts through various forms of soil disturbances, especially on wet soils with low bearing capacity. In times of changing climate, with shorter periods of frozen soils, heavy rain fall events in spring and autumn and frequent needs for salvage logging, forestry stakeholders face increasingly unfavourable conditions to conduct low-impact operations. Thus, more than ever, planning tools such as trafficability maps are required to ensure efficient forest operations at reduced environmental impact. This paper aims to describe the status quo of existence and implementation of such tools applied in forest operations across Europe. In addition, focus is given to the availability and accessibility of data relevant for such predictions. Recent Findings A commonly identified method to support the planning and execution of machine-based operations is given by the prediction of areas with low bearing capacity due to wet soil conditions. Both the topographic wetness index (TWI) and the depth-to-water algorithm (DTW) are used to identify wet areas and to produce trafficability maps, based on spatial information. Summary The required input data is commonly available among governmental institutions and in some countries already further processed to have topography-derived trafficability maps and respective enabling technologies at hand. Particularly the Nordic countries are ahead within this process and currently pave the way to further transfer static trafficability maps into dynamic ones, including additional site-specific information received from detailed forest inventories. Yet, it is hoped that a broader adoption of these information by forest managers throughout Europe will take place to enhance sustainable forest operations.