Browsing by Subject "INEQUALITY"

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Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Lounela, Anu (2020)
    Climate change mitigation pilot projects (REDD+ - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) affect and interact with the local population in Central Kalimantan and many other parts of Indonesia. Rather than being politically and economically neutral activities, climate change mitigation projects tend to objectify the value of carbon, land and labour, contributing to a process of commodification of nature and social relations. In this specific case study, a set of values - equality and autonomy - central to the Ngaju people, the indigenous population in Central Kalimantan, become contested in the course of the climate change mitigation project. These central values are produced in everyday activities that include mobility and the productive base - subsistence and market-based production - among the Ngaju people. On the other hand, the climate change mitigation project-related environmental practices and actions produce values that point to individual (material) benefit and stratification of the society. The aim of the paper is to draw attention to and create understanding of value production and related tensions in the efforts to 'fix' environmental degradation problems through the climate change mitigation pilot project in Central Kalimantan.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne Maria; Varje, Pekka; Pirkola, Sami Pekka; Väänänen, Ari (2018)
    Background It is unknown whether newer, mainly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and older tricyclic antidepressants are used similarly regardless of the geographical area of residence and education. Methods We included four randomly sampled cohorts of the Finnish working aged population (n = 998,540–1,033,135). The sampling (Dec 31st in 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2010) resulted in non-overlapping time windows where each participant was followed up for four years for the first antidepressant use. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we examined whether the hazard of antidepressant use differed between the capital area and three other areas (Southern, Western and Northern/Eastern Finland). Educational differences were examined using four sub-groups: capital area/high education (reference category); other areas/high education; capital area/low education; and other areas/low education. Results Hazard ratios for the use of newer antidepressants were significantly lower in all other areas compared to the capital area after adjustment for age, sex, marital status, employment status, education, income, and area-level unemployment. Findings remained consistent in all time windows, differences increasing slightly. In the sub-group analysis those with low education had the lowest level of use in all areas, also within the capital area. The results were opposite for older antidepressants in all but the last time window. Limitations Some degree of unmeasured confounding and exposure misclassification is likely to exist. Conclusions Newer antidepressants were more commonly used in the capital than in the other areas, and among those with high versus low education. These differences in antidepressant use suggest socioeconomic inequalities in the mental health treatment quality.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Rimpelä, Arja; Hotulainen, Risto (2018)
    Research on the associations between family and school social capital, school burnout and academic achievement in adolescence is scarce and the results are inconclusive. We examined if family and school social capital at the age of 13 predicts lower school burnout and better academic achievement when graduating at the age of 16. Using data from 4467 Finnish adolescents from 117 schools and 444 classes a three-level multilevel analysis was executed. School social capital, the positive and supportive relationships between students and teachers, predicted lower school burnout and better academic achievement among students. Classmates' family social capital had also significance for students' academic achievement. Our results suggest that building school social capital is an important aspect of school health and education policies and practices.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Latvala, Antti; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Tomizawa, Rie; Watanabe, Mikio; Sakai, Norio; Rebato, Esther; Busjahn, Andreas; Tyler, Jessica; Hopper, John L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Calais-Ferreira, Lucas; Oliveira, Vinicius C.; Ferreira, Paulo H.; Medda, Emanuela; Nistico, Lorenza; Toccaceli, Virgilia; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Silberg, Judy L.; Maes, Hermine H.; Kandler, Christian; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Park, Hang A.; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Soo Ji; Sung, Joohon; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boomsma, Dorret; Kaprio, Jaakko (2020)
    We investigated the heritability of educational attainment and how it differed between birth cohorts and cultural-geographic regions. A classical twin design was applied to pooled data from 28 cohorts representing 16 countries and including 193,518 twins with information on educational attainment at 25 years of age or older. Genetic factors explained the major part of individual differences in educational attainment (heritability: a(2)=0.43; 0.41-0.44), but also environmental variation shared by co-twins was substantial (c(2)=0.31; 0.30-0.33). The proportions of educational variation explained by genetic and shared environmental factors did not differ between Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia. When restricted to twins 30 years or older to confirm finalized education, the heritability was higher in the older cohorts born in 1900-1949 (a(2)=0.44; 0.41-0.46) than in the later cohorts born in 1950-1989 (a(2)=0.38; 0.36-0.40), with a corresponding lower influence of common environmental factors (c(2)=0.31; 0.29-0.33 and c(2)=0.34; 0.32-0.36, respectively). In conclusion, both genetic and environmental factors shared by co-twins have an important influence on individual differences in educational attainment. The effect of genetic factors on educational attainment has decreased from the cohorts born before to those born after the 1950s.
  • McMullin, Patricia; Karhula, Aleksi; Kilpi-Jakonen, Elina; Erola, Jani (2021)
    It is often assumed that families migrate to improve their economic and social prospects, and that these additional resources can benefit the whole family. However, existing research suggests that many children who have experienced (internal) migration underperform compared to their non-migrating peers in terms of different socioeconomic outcomes. In this article, we study the effects of geographical mobility on children's non-completion of upper secondary education in Finland and Germany using Finnish register data and the German National Educational Panel Study. Our findings indicate that moving during childhood is associated with the risk of not attaining any secondary degree in both countries. In Finland, this is mostly explained by negative selection into moving (i.e. those who move are more likely to be disadvantaged). In Germany, however, an independent association between moving and educational attainment remains after taking into account various reasons why families move. Furthermore, for both Germany and Finland, any labour force status or earning gains parents make after a move do not seem to compensate for the negative influence of internal migration on children's educational dropout. Overall, we conclude that geographically mobile children may be a vulnerable subgroup in the inter-generational transmission of inequality, therefore schools have an important role to play in integrating internal migrants-as well as international migrants-into the social networks of the schools they arrive in.
  • Mattila, Vesa Mikko; Rapeli, Lauri (2018)
    This article explores two theoretical possibilities for why personal health may affect political trust: the psychological-democratic contract theory, and the role of personal experience in opinion formation. It argues that citizens with health impairments are more likely to experience the direct effects of political decisions as they are more dependent on public health services. Negative subjective evaluations of public services can lower trust levels, especially if people's expectations are high. Using European Social Survey data, the association between health and trust in 19 Western European states is analysed. The results indicate that people in poor health exhibit lower levels of trust towards the political system than people in good health. The differences in trust between those in good and poor health are accentuated among citizens with left-leaning ideological values. The results suggest that welfare issues may constitute a rare context in which personal, rather than collective, experiences affect opinion formation.
  • Di Plinio, Francesco; Li, Kangwei; Martikainen, Henri; Vuorinen, Emil (2020)
    We develop a general theory of multilinear singular integrals with operator-valued kernels, acting on tuples of UMD Banach spaces. This, in particular, involves investigating multilinear variants of the R-boundedness condition naturally arising in operator-valued theory. We proceed by establishing a suitable representation of multilinear, operator-valued singular integrals in terms of operator-valued dyadic shifts and paraproducts, and studying the boundedness of these model operators via dyadic-probabilistic Banach space-valued analysis. In the bilinear case, we obtain a T(1)-type theorem without any additional assumptions on the Banach spaces other than the necessary UMD. Higher degrees of multilinearity are tackled via a new formulation of the Rademacher maximal function (RMF) condition. In addition to the natural UMD lattice cases, our RMF condition covers suitable tuples of non-commutative L-P spaces. We employ our operator-valued theory to obtain new multilinear, multi-parameter, operator-valued theorems in the natural setting of UMD spaces with property alpha. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Harjulehto, Petteri; Hurri-Syrjänen, Ritva (2018)
    In a smooth domain a function can be estimated pointwise by the classical Riesz potential of its gradient. Combining this estimate with the boundedness of the classical Riesz potential yields the optimal Sobolev-Poincar, inequality. We show that this method gives a Sobolev-Poincar, inequality also for irregular domains whenever we use the modified Riesz potential which arise naturally from the geometry of the domain. The exponent of the Sobolev-Poincar, inequality depends on the domain. The Sobolev-Poincar, inequality given by this approach is not sharp for irregular domains, although the embedding for the modified Riesz potential is optimal. In order to obtain the results we prove a new pointwise estimate for the Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator.
  • Konyagin, Sergei; Queffelec, Herve; Saksman, Eero; Seip, Kristian (2022)
    We prove that the norm of the Riesz projection from L-infinity(T-n) to L-p(T-n) is 1 for all n >= 1 only if p 2. We then note that the dual of H-1 (T-infinity) contains, via the Bohr lift, the space of Dirichlet series in BMOA of the right half-plane. We give several conditions showing how this BMOA space relates to other spaces of Dirichlet series. Finally, relating the partial sum operator for Dirichlet series to Riesz projection on T, we compute its L-p norm when 1 < p < infinity, and we use this result to show that the L-infinity norm of the N th partial sum of a bounded Dirichlet series over d-smooth numbers is of order log log N.
  • Bradshaw, Corey; Di Minin, Enrico (2019)
    Socio-economic changes in Africa have increased pressure on the continent's ecosystems. Most research investigating environmental change has focused on the changing status of specific species or communities and protected areas, but has largely neglected the broad-scale socio-economic conditions underlying environmental degradation. We tested national-scale hypotheses regarding the socioeconomic predictors of ecosystem change and degradation across Africa, hypothesizing that human density and economic development increase the likelihood of cumulative environmental damage. Our combined environmental performance rank includes national ecological footprint, proportional species threat, recent deforestation, freshwater removal, livestock density, cropland coverage, and per capita emissions. Countries like Central African Republic, Botswana, Namibia, and Congo have the best relative environmental performance overall. Structural equation models indicate that increasing population density and overall economic activity (per capita gross domestic product corrected for purchasing-power parity) are the most strongly correlated with greater environmental degradation, while greater wealth inequality (Gini index) correlates with better environmental performance. This represents the first Africa-scale assessment of the socio-economic correlates of environmental degradation, and suggests that dedicated family planning to reduce population growth, and economic development that limits agricultural expansion (cf. intensification) are needed to support environmental sustainability.
  • Järv, Olle; Masso, Anu; Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein (2021)
    The extent to which ethnic segregation results from differences in socio-economic factors remains a seminal topic of debate. The growing literature demonstrating the multifaceted phenomenon of segregation urges more focus on individuals' spatial and social interactions. We applied an activity space approach and considered ethnic differences in individuals' activity spaces as an indicator of spatial segregation. We used mobile phone and survey datasets in Estonia. We show that place-based segregation indices derived from both datasets indicate similar levels of ethnic segregation. From an activity space perspective, the results show that the main socio-economic factor affecting the extensity of activity spaces is self-estimated social status rather than education and income. Results show that ethnic inequality in spatial behaviour is not straightforward, but rather that it is linked to how individuals position themselves in society. We argue that socio-economic factors need to be controlled to examine ethnic segregation from activity space perspective.
  • Hytonen, Tuomas; Petermichl, Stefanie; Volberg, Alexander (2019)
    We prove the matrix A(2) conjecture for the dyadic square function, that is, an estimate of the form vertical bar vertical bar S-w vertical bar vertical bar(L2cd(w)-> Lr2) less than or similar to [W](A2), where the focus is on the sharp linear dependence on the matrix A(2) constant. Moreover, we give a mixed estimate in terms of A(2) and A(infinity) constants. The key to the proof is a sparse domination of a process inspired by the integrated form of the matrix-weighted square function.