Browsing by Subject "INF2"

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  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Mansuri, Naziha; Mogg, Jasper; Kurki, Samu; Repo, Heli; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2018)
    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. The subgroup can be identified immunohistochemically, by lack of hormone receptor expression combined with expression of basal markers such as CK5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro, several regulators of the actin cytoskeleton are essential for efficient invasion of basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Whether these proteins are expressed in vivo determines the applicability of these findings in clinical settings. The actin-regulating formin protein FHOD1 participates in invasion of the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Here, we measure the expression of FHOD1 protein in clinical triple-negative breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and further characterize the expression of another formin protein, INF2. We report that basal-like breast cancers frequently overexpress formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2. In cell studies using basal-like breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of FHOD1 or INF2 interferes with very similar processes: maintenance of cell shape, migration, invasion, and proliferation. Inhibition of EGFR, PI3K, or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity does not alter the expression of FHOD1 and INF2 in these cell lines. We conclude that the experimental studies on these formins have implications in the clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancer.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Kiviniemi, Aida; Lehtinen, Laura; Munthe, Sune; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Posti, Jussi P.; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Vuorinen, Ville; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2020)
    BackgroundThe prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, related to its diffuse spread within the brain. There is an ongoing search for molecular regulators of this particularly invasive behavior. One approach is to look for actin regulating proteins that might be targeted by future anti-cancer therapy. The formin family of proteins orchestrates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cellular processes. Recently, the formin proteins mDia1 and mDia2 were shown to be expressed in glioblastoma in vitro, and their function could be modified by small molecule agonists. This finding implies that the formins could be future therapeutic targets in glioblastoma.MethodsIn cell studies, we investigated the changes in expression of the 15 human formins in primary glioblastoma cells and commercially available glioblastoma cell lines during differentiation from spheroids to migrating cells using transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR. siRNA mediated knockdown of selected formins was performed to investigate whether their expression affects glioblastoma migration.Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of two formins, FHOD1 and INF2, in tissue samples from 93 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Associated clinicopathological parameters and follow-up data were utilized to test whether formin expression correlates with survival or has prognostic value.ResultsWe found that multiple formins were upregulated during migration. Knockdown of individual formins mDia1, mDia2, FHOD1 and INF2 significantly reduced migration in most studied cell lines. Among the studied formins, knockdown of INF2 generated the greatest reduction in motility in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2 in glioblastoma tissues. Importantly, we found that moderate/high expression of INF2 was associated with significantly impaired prognosis.ConclusionsFormins FHOD1 and INF2 participate in glioblastoma cell migration. Moderate/high expression of INF2 in glioblastoma tissue is associated with worse outcome. Taken together, our in vitro and tissue studies suggest a pivotal role for INF2 in glioblastoma. When specific inhibiting compounds become available, INF2 could be a target in the search for novel glioblastoma therapies.
  • A, Mu; Fung, Tak Shun; Francomacaro, Lisa M.; Huynh, Thao; Kotila, Tommi; Svindrych, Zdenek; Higgs, Henry N. (2020)
    INF2 is a formin protein that accelerates actin polymerization. A common mechanism for formin regulation is autoinhibition, through interaction between the N-terminal diaphanous inhibitory domain (DID) and C-terminal diaphanous autoregulatory domain (DAD). We recently showed that INF2 uses a variant of this mechanism that we term "facilitated autoinhibition," whereby a complex consisting of cyclase-associated protein (CAP) bound to lysine-acetylated actin (KAc-actin) is required for INF2 inhibition, in a manner requiring INF2-DID. Deacetylation of actin in the CAP/KAc-actin complex activates INF2. Here we use lysine-to-glutamine mutations as acetylmimetics to map the relevant lysines on actin for INF2 regulation, focusing on K50, K61, and K328. Biochemically, K50Q- and K61Q-actin, when bound to CAP2, inhibit full-length INF2 but not INF2 lacking DID. When not bound to CAP, these mutant actins polymerize similarly to WT-actin in the presence or absence of INF2, suggesting that the effect of the mutation is directly on INF2 regulation. In U2OS cells, K50Q- and K61Q-actin inhibit INF2-mediated actin polymerization when expressed at low levels. Direct-binding studies show that the CAP WH2 domain binds INF2-DID with submicromolar affinity but has weak affinity for actin monomers, while INF2-DAD binds CAP/K50Q-actin 5-fold better than CAP/WT-actin. Actin in complex with full-length CAP2 is predominately ATP-bound. These interactions suggest an inhibition model whereby CAP/KAc-actin serves as a bridge between INF2 DID and DAD. In U2OS cells, INF2 is 90-fold and 5-fold less abundant than CAP1 and CAP2, respectively, suggesting that there is sufficient CAP for full INF2 inhibition.