Browsing by Subject "INFANCY"

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  • Greiff, Samuel; Wuestenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, March H. (2015)
    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
  • Sebert, Sylvain; Lowry, Estelle; Aumuller, Nicole; Bermudez, Mercedes G.; Bjerregaard, Lise G.; de Rooij, Susanne R.; De Silva, Maneka; El Marroun, Hanan; Hummel, Nadine; Juola, Teija; Mason, Giacomo; Much, Daniela; Oliveros, Elena; Poupakis, Stavros; Rautio, Nina; Schwarzfischer, Phillipp; Tzala, Evangelia; Uhl, Olaf; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Vehmeijer, Florianne; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Wasenius, Niko; Webster, Claire; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Miettunen, Jouko; Baker, Jennifer L.; Campoy, Cristina; Conti, Gabriella; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hummel, Sandra; Jaddoe, Vincent; Koletzko, Berthold; Lewin, Alex; Rodriguez-Palermo, Maria; Roseboom, Tessa; Rueda, Ricardo; Evans, Jayne; Felix, Janine F.; Prokopenko, Inga; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta (2019)
  • Jalkanen, Jenni; Heikkila, Jukka; Kyrklund, Kristiina; Taskinen, Seppo (2016)
    Purpose: We evaluated the age at which boys with a history of posterior urethral valves after no or minimal anticholinergic medication achieve urinary continence and the factors contributing to continence. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of all males treated for posterior urethral valves at a single institution between 1990 and 2008. Continence was considered to have been attained if no weekly wetting episodes occurred. We evaluated the influence of patient characteristics, including reduced kidney function and primary ring type ureteral stoma, on age at which continence was achieved. Results: A total of 76 patients were assessed. Achievement of daytime and nighttime urinary continence was markedly delayed in patients (mean +/- SD age 5.5 +/- 3.3 years and 5.4 +/- 3.0 years, respectively) compared to the reference population (2.3 +/- 0.5 and 2.9 +/- 1.2, p <0.001). Increased serum creatinine levels at age 5 years were associated with later daytime and nighttime continence (mean +/- SD 6.0 +/- 3.2 and 5.5 +/- 2.6 years, respectively, vs 4.1 +/- 2.3 and 3.7 +/- 1.4 years, respectively, in patients with normal serum creatinine, p Conclusions: Patients with posterior urethral valves achieve daytime and nighttime urinary continence significantly later than their healthy peers. Prenatal or neonatal diagnosis and high serum creatinine are associated with later attainment of continence.
  • the DIABIMMUNE Study Group; Mustonen, Neea; Siljander, Heli; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Hyöty, Heikki; Knip, Mikael (2019)
    Aim Infections in early childhood are common reasons to seek medical attention. This study compares the prevalence of infections, and the use of antibiotics and antipyretic-analgesics, in children from Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia. Methods Children with a genetically increased risk for type 1 diabetes (N = 797) were observed from birth up to 3 years of age. Illnesses and medications were reported by parents continuously. All reported infections, antibiotics and antipyretic-analgesics were compared between Finland and Estonia, and to a lesser extent with Russian Karelia, due to poor study compliance. Results Compared with Estonians, Finns reported more infections during the first and second years of life. During the follow-up, Finnish children had 10 infections while Estonians only had 8 (p <0.001). Finns also used more antibiotics and antipyretic-analgesics in each year during the follow-up. Russian Karelians reported the lowest frequency of infections and the most infrequent use of antibiotics and antipyretic-analgesics in the first two years of life. Conclusion Infections and the use of antibiotics and antipyretic-analgesics in early childhood were most frequent in Finland, where socio-economic conditions are the most developed and microbial encounters are sparse. This may reflect on the hygiene hypothesis, a less effective immune system that allows normally harmless microbes to attack and cause clinical infections.
  • Boss, Marti; Rottenburger, Christof; Brenner, Winfried; Blankenstein, Oliver; Prasad, Vikas; Prasad, Sonal; de Coppi, Paolo; Kuhnen, Peter; Buitinga, Mijke; Nuutila, Pirjo; Otonkoski, Timo; Hussain, Khalid; Brom, Maarten; Eek, Annemarie; Bomanji, Jamshed; Shah, Pratik; Gotthardt, Martin (2022)
    Surgery with curative intent can be offered to congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) patients, provided that the lesion is focal. Radiolabeled exendin-4 specifically binds the glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor on pancreatic beta-cells. In this study, we compared the performance of F-18-DOPA PET/CT, the current standard imaging method for CHI, and PET/CT with the new tracer Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 in the preoperative detection of focal CHI. Methods: Nineteen CHI patients underwent both F-18-DOPA PET/CT and Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT before surgery. The images were evaluated in 3 settings: a standard clinical reading, a masked expert reading, and a joint reading. The target (lesion)-to-nontarget (normal pancreas) ratio was determined using SUVmax. Image quality was rated by pediatric surgeons in a questionnaire. Results: Fourteen of 19 patients having focal lesions underwent surgery. On the basis of clinical readings, the sensitivity of Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT (100%; 95% CI, 77%-100%) was higher than that of F-18-DOPA PET/CT (71%; 95% CI, 42%-92%). Interobserver agreement between readings was higher for Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 than for F-18-DOPA PET/CT (Fleiss kappa = 0.91 vs. 0.56). Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT provided significantly (P = 0.021) higher target-to-nontarget ratios (2.02 +/- 0.65) than did F-18-DOPA PET/CT (1.40 +/- 0.40). On a 5-point scale, pediatric surgeons rated Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT as superior to F-18-DOPA PET/CT. Conclusion: For the detection of focal CHI, Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT has higher clinical sensitivity and better interobserver correlation than F-18-DOPA PET/CT. Better contrast and image quality make Ga-68-NODAGA-exendin-4 PET/CT superior to F-18-DOPA PET/CT in surgeons' intraoperative quest for lesion localization.
  • Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta de Oliveira; Kajantie, Eero; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Rounge, Trine B.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Viljakainen, Heli (2021)
    Background Antimicrobial agents (AMs) are the most prescribed drugs to children. Early and repeated exposure to AMs in infancy is associated with increased risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Aims We extended the investigation of AMs use, from birth to early adolescence, and evaluated their association with weight status. Materials & Methods A total of 10093 children from Finnish Health in Teens cohort (Fin-HIT) with register-based data on AMs purchases and measured weight status at the mean age of 11.2 y (SD 0.82) were included in the study. The key exposures were the number AM purchases at a given age or the sum of these during the entire follow-up time to describe lifetime exposure / use. Outcome was weight status in early adolescence defined with International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for the age- and sex-specific body mass index. Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Multinomial Logistic Regression. Results Of children, 73.7% were normal weight, 11.1% thin and 15.2% overweight/obese. AMs use was highest during the second year of life, when 65% of all children used AMs, but thereafter decreased with age. The highest mean purchases and prevalence at any given age along with the highest lifetime use were consistently seen among overweight children. Each episode of AMs use throughout life increased the risk of being overweight in adolescence [OR = 1.02 (1.02-1.03)]. However, there was an inverse association between AMs use and thinness [OR = 0.98 (0.97-0.99)]. Discussion Despite a high prevalence of AMs use during the early years, lifetime-use was associated with weight status in early adolescence in a dose response manner. Conclusion Future studies should address mechanisms underlying the relationship between AM use and weight.
  • Männistö, Jonna M. E.; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Otonkoski, Timo; Huopio, Hanna (2021)
    Context: The management of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) has improved. Objective: To examine the treatment and long-term outcome of Finnish patients with persistent and transient CHI (P-CHI and T-CHI). Design: A population-based retrospective study of CHI patients treated from 1972 to 2015. Patients: 106 patients with P-CHI and 132 patients with T-CHI (in total, 42 diagnosed before and 196 after year 2000) with median follow-up durations of 12.5 and 6.2 years, respectively. Main outcome measures: Recovery, diabetes, pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, neurodevelopment. Results: The overall incidence of CHI (n = 238) was 1:11 300 live births (1972-2015). From 2000 to 2015, the incidence of P-CHI (n = 69) was 1:13 500 and of T-CHI (n = 127) 1:7400 live births. In the 21st century P-CHI group, hyperinsulinemic medication was initiated and normoglycemia achieved faster relative to earlier. Of the 74 medically treated P-CHI patients, 68% had discontinued medication. Thirteen (12%) P-CHI patients had partial pancreatic resection and 19 (18%) underwent near-total pancreatectomy. Of these, 0% and 84% developed diabetes and 23% and 58% had clinical pancreatic exocrine dysfunction, respectively. Mild neurological difficulties (21% vs 16%, respectively) and intellectual disability (9% vs 5%, respectively) were as common in the P-CHI and T-CHI groups. However, the 21st century P-CHI patients had significantly more frequent normal neurodevelopment and significantly more infrequent diabetes and pancreatic exocrine dysfunction compared with those diagnosed earlier. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated improved treatment and long-term outcome in the 21st century P-CHI patients relative to earlier.
  • Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Valkama, Saara; Hauta-alus, Helena; Rosendahl, Jenni; Helve, Otto; Hytinantti, Timo; Viljakainen, Heli; Andersson, Sture; Mäkitie, Outi (2017)
    Context: Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) plays an important role in phosphate homeostasis, but its regulation is inadequately characterized. Objective: To examine FGF23 regulators, especially sex and iron status, in early childhood. Design: A cross-sectional study involving 1-year-old children. Setting and Participants: Healthy term infants with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age were recruited to an ongoing vitamin D trial at Katiloopisto Maternity Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. At 12-month follow-up visits, serum FGF23, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), phosphate, ionized calcium, parathyroid hormone, and iron status were measured. All 721 children (51% girls) with complete data were included. Main Outcome Measures: Intact and C-terminal FGF23 concentrations and iron status at 1 year of age. Results: Intact FGF23 was greater in girls than in boys [median, 44.4 pg/mL; interquartile range (IQR), 36.8 to 51.9; median, 40.9 pg/mL; IQR, 34.5 to 49.0, respectively; P <0.001]. C-terminal FGF23 was similar in boys and girls (median, 2.8 pmol/L; IQR, 2.1 to 3.7; median, 2.9 pmol/L; IQR, 2.2 to 3.7, respectively; P = 0.393). The iron concentration was positively associated with intact FGF23 and was the strongest modifier of intact FGF23 (regression coefficient, 0.498; 95% confidence interval, 0.333 to 0.663; P <0.001) with ferritin, season, ionized calcium, 25OHD, and sex as other covariates. The association between iron and C-terminal FGF23 was inversely related (regression coefficient, -0.072; 95% confidence interval, -0.092 to -0.051; P <0.001). Conclusions: At 1 year of age, FGF23 status was different in girls and boys, with intact FGF23 concentrations higher in girls. Iron modified FGF23 concentrations, with intact FGF23 higher and C-terminal lower, in those with greater iron concentrations.
  • Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Sjösten, Noora; Matthews, Karen A.; Heinonen, Kati; Martikainen, Silja; Kajantie, Eero; Tammelin, Tuija; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo; Räikkönen, Katri (2011)
  • Silventoinen, K.; Jelenkovic, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sund, R.; Sugawara, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Bogl, L. H.; Maia, J. A.; Hjelmborg, J. v. B.; Aaltonen, S.; Piirtola, M.; Latvala, A.; Calais-Ferreira, L.; Oliveira, V. C.; Ferreira, P. H.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Ordonana, J. R.; Sanchez-Romera, J. F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Burt, S. A.; Klump, K. L.; Martin, N. G.; Medland, S. E.; Montgomery, G. W.; Kandler, C.; McAdams, T. A.; Eley, T. C.; Gregory, A. M.; Saudino, K. J.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Tarnoki, A. D.; Tarnoki, D. L.; Haworth, C. M. A.; Plomin, R.; Oncel, S. Y.; Aliev, F.; Medda, E.; Nistico, L.; Toccaceli, V.; Craig, J. M.; Saffery, R.; Siribaddana, S. H.; Hotopf, M.; Sumathipala, A.; Rijsdijk, F.; Jeong, H. -U.; Spector, T.; Mangino, M.; Lachance, G.; Gatz, M.; Butler, D. A.; Gao, W.; Yu, C.; Li, L.; Bayasgalan, G.; Narandalai, D.; Harden, K. P.; Tucker-Drob, E. M.; Christensen, K.; Skytthe, A.; Kyvik, K. O.; Derom, C. A.; Vlietinck, R. F.; Loos, R. J. F.; Cozen, W.; Hwang, A. E.; Mack, T. M.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Silberg, J. L.; Maes, H. H.; Cutler, T. L.; Hopper, J. L.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Pedersen, N. L.; Dahl Aslan, A. K.; Baker, L. A.; Tuvblad, C.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Ullemar, V.; Almqvist, C.; Tan, Q.; Zhang, D.; Swan, G. E.; Krasnow, R.; Jang, K. L.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Lichtenstein, P.; Krueger, R. F.; McGue, M.; Pahlen, S.; Tynelius, P.; Rasmussen, F.; Duncan, G. E.; Buchwald, D.; Corley, R. P.; Huibregtse, B. M.; Nelson, T. L.; Whitfield, K. E.; Franz, C. E.; Kremen, W. S.; Lyons, M. J.; Ooki, S.; Brandt, I.; Nilsen, T. S.; Harris, J. R.; Sung, J.; Park, H. A.; Lee, J.; Lee, S. J.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Llewellyn, C. H.; Fisher, A.; Rebato, E.; Busjahn, A.; Tomizawa, R.; Inui, F.; Watanabe, M.; Honda, C.; Sakai, N.; Hur, Y. -M.; Sorensen, T. I. A.; Boomsma, D. I.; Kaprio, J. (2019)
    The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural-geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.