Browsing by Subject "INFANT"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-8 of 8
  • Jönsson, Emma H.; Kotilahti, Kalle; Heiskala, Juha; Backlund Wasling, Helena; Olausson, Håkan; Croy, Ilona; Mustaniemi, Hanna; Hiltunen, Petri; Tuulari, Jetro J.; Scheinin, Noora M.; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Nissilä, Ilkka (2018)
    Caressing touch is an effective way to communicate emotions and to create social bonds. It is also one of the key mediators of early parental bonding. The caresses are generally thought to represent a social form of touching and indeed, slow, gentle brushing is encoded in specialized peripheral nerve fibers, the C-tactile (CT) afferents. In adults, areas such as the posterior insula and superior temporal sulcus are activated by affective, slow stroking touch but not by fast stroking stimulation. However, whether these areas are activated in infants, after social tactile stimulation, is unknown. In this study, we compared the total hemoglobin responses measured with diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the left hemisphere following slow and fast stroking touch stimulation in 16 2-month-old infants. We compared slow stroking (optimal CT afferent stimulation) to fast stroking (non-optimal CT stimulation). Activated regions were delineated using two methods: one based on contrast between the two conditions, and the other based on voxel-based statistical significance of the difference between the two conditions. The first method showed a single activation cluster in the temporal cortex with center of gravity in the middle temporal gyrus where the total hemoglobin increased after the slow stroking relative to the fast stroking (p = 0.04 uncorrected). The second method revealed a cluster in the insula with an increase in total hemoglobin in the insular cortex in response to slow stroking relative to fast stroking (p = 0.0005 uncorrected; p = 0.04 corrected for multiple comparisons). These activation clusters encompass areas that are involved in processing of affective, slow stroking touch in the adult brain. We conclude that the infant brain shows a pronounced and adult-like response to slow stroking touch compared to fast stroking touch in the insular cortex but the expected response in the primary somatosensory cortex was not found at this age. The results imply that emotionally valent touch is encoded in the brain in adult-like manner already soon after birth and this suggests a potential for involvement of touch in bonding with the caretaker.
  • GBD 2019 Under-5 Mortality Collabo; Paulson, Katherine R.; Kamath, Aruna M.; Alam, Tahiya; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Shiri, Rahman; Wang, Yuan-Pang (2021)
    Background Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival. Methods We completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (USMR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index. Findings Global U5MR decreased from 71.2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval WI] 68.3-74-0) in 2000 to 37.1 (33.2-41.7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28.0 deaths per 1000 live births (26.8-29-5) in 2000 to 17.9 (16.3-19-8) in 2019. In 2019,136 (67%) of 204 countries had a USMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold and 133 (65%) had an NMR at or below the SDG 3.2 threshold, and the reference scenario suggests that by 2030,154 (75%) of all countries could meet the U5MR targets, and 139 (68%) could meet the NMR targets. Deaths of children younger than 5 years totalled 9.65 million (95% UI 9.05-10.30) in 2000 and 5.05 million (4.27-6.02) in 2019, with the neonatal fraction of these deaths increasing from 39% (3.76 million [95% UI 3.53-4.021) in 2000 to 48% (2.42 million; 2.06-2.86) in 2019. NMR and U5MR were generally higher in males than in females, although there was no statistically significant difference at the global level. Neonatal disorders remained the leading cause of death in children younger than 5 years in 2019, followed by lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, congenital birth defects, and malaria. The global optimum analysis suggests NMR could be reduced to as low as 0.80 (95% UI 0.71-0.86) deaths per 1000 livebirths and U5MR to 1.44 (95% UI 1-27-1.58) deaths per 1000 livebirths, and in 2019, there were as many as 1.87 million (95% UI 1-35-2.58; 37% [95% UI 32-43]) of 5.05 million more deaths of children younger than 5 years than the survival potential frontier. Interpretation Global child mortality declined by almost half between 2000 and 2019, but progress remains slower in neonates and 65 (32%) of 204 countries, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia, are not on track to meet either SDG 3.2 target by 2030. Focused improvements in perinatal and newborn care, continued and expanded delivery of essential interventions such as vaccination and infection prevention, an enhanced focus on equity, continued focus on poverty reduction and education, and investment in strengthening health systems across the development spectrum have the potential to substantially improve USMR. Given the widespread effects of COVID-19, considerable effort will be required to maintain and accelerate progress. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Toffol, Elena; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Lahti, Jari; Lipsanen, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia M.; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Objective: Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been associated with poor offspring sleep. Yet, it remains unknown whether depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are more harmful to the child than depressive symptoms only during certain time periods in pregnancy, whether associations are specific to pregnancy stage, whether maternal symptomatology after pregnancy mediates or adds to the prenatal effects, and whether any effects are specific to some child sleep characteristics. Methods: A total of 2321 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale biweekly between gestational weeks thorn days 12 + 0/13 + 6 and 38 + 0/39 + 6. At child's mean age of 3.5 (standard deviation = 0.7) years, mothers completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and answered questions on child sleep quantity and quality using the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) and sleep disorders using the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children. Results: Maternal depressive symptoms showed high stability throughout pregnancy. Children of mothers with clinically significant symptomatology throughout pregnancy had shorter mother-rated sleep duration, longer sleep latency, higher odds for waking up two or more times during the night and for total and several specific sleep disorders. These associations were robust to covariates. However, maternal depressive symptoms at the child follow-up fully mediated the associations with sleep duration and awakenings, partially mediated those with sleep latency and disorders, and added to the effects on sleep disorders. Conclusion: Maternal depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy are associated with mother-rated child sleep quantity, quality, and disorders. Maternal depressive symptoms at child follow-up mediate and add to the prenatal adverse effects on child sleep characteristics. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Aho, Leena; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lönnberg, Piia; Wolford, Elina; Lano, Aulikki (2021)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of the neonatal neurobehavioral characteristics to act as an indicator for later neurodevelopment and neurocognitive performance. Methods: Sixty-six infants born extremely preterm ( Results: An optimal auditory orientation at term age was associated with better developmental quotients (DQ) in Personal-Social, and Hearing-Language GMDS subscale at 2 years (p < 0.05). An optimal visual alertness was associated with better Total (p < 0.01), Locomotor (p < 0.001), and Eye-Hand Coordination (p < 0.01) DQs at 2 years, and with sensorimotor function (p < 0.001) and social perception (p < 0.01) tests at 6.5 years. Conclusion: The neurobehavioral characteristics of newborns might serve as a precursor of social cognition skills and the HNNE behavior subscale offers a tool to identify infants at risk for later deficits in neurodevelopment and social cognition.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2018)
    Background: This national register-based study assesses obstetric and perinatal health outcomes in women with schizophrenia and their offspring. Methods: Using the Care Register for Health Care, we identified Finnish women who were born in 19651980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia. For each case, five age-and place-of-birth-matched controls were obtained from the Central Population Register of Finland. They were followed from the day when the disorder was diagnosed in specialized health-care (the index day) until 31.12.2013. Information related to births was obtained from the Medical Birth Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations. We focused on singleton pregnancies that led to a delivery after the index day. We restricted the analysis of deliveries in controls to those that occurred after the index day of the case. Maternal age, marital status, smoking status, sex of the newborn, and parity were used as covariates in adjusted models. Results: We identified 1162 singleton births among women with schizophrenia and 4683 among controls. Schizophrenic women had a 1.4-fold increased risk of induction of labor, delivery by cesarean section, and delivery by elective cesarean section. Regarding offspring, the risk of premature birth and the risk of low Apgar score at 1 min ( Conclusions: Schizophrenia associates with some specific delivery methods, but delivery complications are rare and their prevalence does not differ from that observed among community women. Maternal schizophrenia associates with some negative perinatal health outcomes of the offspring. (c) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Products Nutr (2018)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on whey basic protein isolate as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The NF is obtained by ion exchange chromatography of skimmed cow's milk. The applicant intends to market the NF in infant and follow-on formulae and meal replacement beverages, dietary foods for special medical purposes and as food supplements. The highest estimated intake of the NF based on the proposed uses and use levels would be 24.8 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day in infants and 27.8 in toddlers. The information provided on composition, specifications, production process and stability of the NF do not raise safety concerns. Taking into account the composition of the NF and the intended use levels, the Panel considers that the consumption of the NF is not nutritionally disadvantageous. The Panel considers that there is no concern with respect to genotoxicity. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of a subchronic 13-week rat study was 2000 mg/kg bw per day. Considering the source, the production process and nature of the NF, the Panel considers the margin of exposure (MOE) of 154 to be sufficient for the adult population (on a high-estimated intake of 13 mg/kg bw). For infants and toddlers, the MOE would be at least 81 and 72, respectively. Taking into account the composition of the NF, its source, the history of consumption of the main components of the NF, the production process and that the NOAEL in a subchronic rat study was the highest dose tested the Panel considers that also the MOE for infants and toddlers are sufficient. The Panel concludes that the novel food ingredient, whey basic protein isolate, is safe under the proposed uses and use levels. (C) 2018 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Korpela, Katri; Costea, Paul; Coelho, Luis Pedro; Kandels-Lewis, Stefanie; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Segata, Nicola; Bork, Peer (2018)
    Vertical transmission of bacteria from mother to infant at birth is postulated to initiate a life-long host-microbe symbiosis, playing an important role in early infant development. However, only the tracking of strictly defined unique microbial strains can clarify where the intestinal bacteria come from, how long the initial colonizers persist, and whether colonization by other strains from the environment can replace existing ones. Using rare single nucleotide variants in fecal metagenomes of infants and their family members, we show strong evidence of selective and persistent transmission of maternal strain populations to the vaginally born infant and their occasional replacement by strains from the environment, including those from family members, in later childhood. Only strains from the classes Actinobacteria and Bacteroidia, which are essential components of the infant microbiome, are transmitted from the mother and persist for at least 1 yr. In contrast, maternal strains of Clostridia, a dominant class in the mother's gut microbiome, are not observed in the infant. Caesarean-born infants show a striking lack of maternal transmission at birth. After the first year, strain influx from the family environment occurs and continues even in adulthood. Fathers appear to be more frequently donors of novel strains to other family members than receivers. Thus, the infant gut is seeded by selected maternal bacteria, which expand to form a stable community, with a rare but stable continuing strain influx over time.
  • Rusanen, Erja; Lahikainen, AnjaRiitta; Pölkki, Pirjo; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Paavonen, E. Juulia (2018)
    Objective: The maternal representations of an unborn baby begin to develop during pregnancy. However, the factors that moderate them are not well identified. The objective of this study was to jointly explore supportive and undermining factors in the maternal representations of an unborn baby and motherhood. Methods: Cross-sectional data comprising 1646 women studied during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal expectations were measured using a 12-item self-report questionnaire, Mother's Representations about an Unborn Baby. Depression, anxiety, family atmosphere and adult attachment were measured using standardised questionnaires. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate linear regression analysis. Results: The most powerful predictors of a mother's prenatal expectations were the mother's educational status, age, closeness in adult relationships, higher levels of depressive symptoms and family atmosphere. In accordance with our hypothesis, depression was related to the mother's more negative expectations on their relationship with the unborn baby and on regularity in the baby's sleeping and eating patterns. A positive family atmosphere and the mother's ability for closeness and dependence (i.e. confidence) in adult relationships were related to more positive expectations of the mother-unborn baby relationship. On the other hand, stress, anxiety and adverse life events were not related to the mother's expectations of her unborn baby. Conclusions: The results may be helpful in identifying families who need early professional support and call for studies where the prenatal phase is explored as a proactive phase for the development of the child-parent relationship.