Browsing by Subject "INFECTIONS"

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  • Shaqour, Bahaa; Reigada, Ines; Gorecka, Zaneta; Choinska, Emilia; Verleije, Bart; Beyers, Koen; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Fallarero, Adyary; Cos, Paul (2020)
    Additive manufacturing technologies have been widely used in the medical field. More specifically, fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D-printing technology has been thoroughly investigated to produce drug delivery systems. Recently, few researchers have explored the possibility of directly 3D printing such systems without the need for producing a filament which is usually the feedstock material for the printer. This was possible via direct feeding of a mixture consisting of the carrier polymer and the required drug. However, as this direct feeding approach shows limited homogenizing abilities, it is vital to investigate the effect of the pre-mixing step on the quality of the 3D printed products. Our study investigates the two commonly used mixing approaches-solvent casting and powder mixing. For this purpose, polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as the main polymer under investigation and gentamicin sulfate (GS) was selected as a reference. The produced systems' efficacy was investigated for bacterial and biofilm prevention. Our data show that the solvent casting approach offers improved drug distribution within the polymeric matrix, as was observed from micro-computed topography and scanning electron microscopy visualization. Moreover, this approach shows a higher drug release rate and thus improved antibacterial efficacy. However, there were no differences among the tested approaches in terms of thermal and mechanical properties.
  • Hayes, A.; Nguyen, D.; Andersson, M.; Anton, A.; Bailly, J-L; Beard, S.; Benschop, K. S. M.; Berginc, N.; Blomqvist, S.; Cunningham, E.; Davis, D.; Dembinski, J. L.; Diedrich, S.; Dudman, S. G.; Dyrdak, R.; Eltringham, G. J. A.; Gonzales-Goggia, S.; Gunson, R.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Jääskeläinen, A. J.; Lopez-Labrador, F. X.; Maier, M.; Majumdar, M.; Midgley, S.; Mirand, A.; Morley, U.; Nordbo, S. A.; Oikarinen, S.; Osman, H.; Papa, A.; Pellegrinelli, L.; Piralla, A.; Rabella, N.; Richter, J.; Smith, M.; Strand, A. Söderlund; Templeton, K.; Vipond, B.; Vuorinen, T.; Williams, C.; Wollants, E.; Zakikhany, K.; Fischer, T. K.; Harvala, H.; Simmonds, P. (2020)
    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection has become the gold standard for diagnosis and typing of enterovirus (EV) and human parechovirus (HPeV) infections. Its effectiveness depends critically on using the appropriate sample types and high assay sensitivity as viral loads in cerebrospinal fluid samples from meningitis and sepsis clinical presentation can be extremely low. This study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of currently used commercial and in-house diagnostic and typing assays. Accurately quantified RNA transcript controls were distributed to 27 diagnostic and 12 reference laboratories in 17 European countries for blinded testing. Transcripts represented the four human EV species (EV-A71, echovirus 30, coxsackie A virus 21, and EV-D68), HPeV3, and specificity controls. Reported results from 48 in-house and 15 commercial assays showed 98% detection frequencies of high copy (1000 RNA copies/5 mu L) transcripts. In-house assays showed significantly greater detection frequencies of the low copy (10 copies/5 mu L) EV and HPeV transcripts (81% and 86%, respectively) compared with commercial assays (56%, 50%; P = 7 x 10(-5)). EV-specific PCRs showed low cross-reactivity with human rhinovirus C (3 of 42 tests) and infrequent positivity in the negative control (2 of 63 tests). Most or all high copy EV and HPeV controls were successfully typed (88%, 100%) by reference laboratories, but showed reduced effectiveness for low copy controls (41%, 67%). Stabilized RNA transcripts provide an effective, logistically simple and inexpensive reagent for evaluation of diagnostic assay performance. The study provides reassurance of the performance of the many in-house assay formats used across Europe. However, it identified often substantially reduced sensitivities of commercial assays often used as point-of-care tests.
  • Li, Sai; Rissanen, Ilona; Zeltina, Antra; Hepojoki, Jussi; Raghwani, Jayna; Harlos, Karl; Pybus, Oliver G.; Huiskonen, Juha T.; Bowden, Thomas A. (2016)
    Hantaviruses, a geographically diverse group of zoonotic pathogens, initiate cell infection through the concerted action of Gn and Gc viral surface glycoproteins. Here, we describe the high-resolution crystal structure of the antigenic ectodomain of Gn from Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), a causative agent of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Fitting of PUUV Gn into an electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of intact Gn-Gc spike complexes from the closely related but non-pathogenic Tula hantavirus localized Gn tetramers to the membrane-distal surface of the virion. The accuracy of the fitting was corroborated by epitope mapping and genetic analysis of available PUUV sequences. Interestingly, Gn exhibits greater non-synonymous sequence diversity than the less accessible Gc, supporting a role of the host humoral immune response in exerting selective pressure on the virus surface. The fold of PUUV Gn is likely to be widely conserved across hantaviruses.
  • Äyräväinen, Leena; Heikkinen, Anna Maria; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Peltola, Jaakko; Suomalainen, Anni; Moilanen, Eeva; Hämäläinen, Mari; Laasonen, Leena; Meurman, Jukka H.; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta (2018)
    To study oral health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with emphasis on disease activity and treatment of RA. In this prospective cohort study 81 RA patients [53 early untreated RA (EURA) and 28 chronic RA (CRA) patients with inadequate response to synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)], underwent rheumatological [Disease Activity Score (28-joint) DAS28] and dental examinations [Total Dental Index (TDI), Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) and Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces (DMFS)]. For controls, 43 volunteers were examined. After the examinations, EURA patients started treatment with synthetic DMARDs, oral and intra-articular glucocorticoids. CRA patients were candidates for biological DMARDs. The patients were re-examined mean 16 months later. Results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. TDI was higher in both RA groups at baseline compared to controls [EURA: 2 (2-3); CRA: 2 (1-3); controls 1 (1-3), p = 0.045]. DMFT [r(s) 0.561 (p = 0.002)] and DMFS [r(s) 0.581 (p = 0.001)] associated with DAS28 at baseline in CRA patients. After follow-up, DAS28 associated positively with DMFT [r(s) 0.384 (p = 0.016)] and DMFS [r(s) 0.334 (p = 0.038)] in EURA patients; as well as in CRA patients DMFT [r (s) 0.672 (p = 0.001)], DMFS [r(s) 0.650 (p = 0.001)]. RA patients already in the early phase of the disease had poorer oral health compared to controls. The caries indices associated with the activity of RA in both patient groups. Oral status may thus contribute to the development and further relate to the activity of RA.
  • Wuokko-Landen, Annina; Blomgren, Karin; Välimaa, Hannamari (2019)
    Background: Odontogenic sinusitis (OS) is a common but underdiagnosed form of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS). OS carries no specific characteristics, but unilateral symptoms and certain microbiological as well as radiological findings indicate odontogenic origin. Aims/objectives: We studied the proportion of OS in ARS patients, the presence and associations of unilateral symptoms, and possible OS microbial and radiological findings. In addition, we investigated how this condition is recognised among ear, nose and throat specialists and radiologists. Materials and methods: All 676 ARS patients treated in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Helsinki University Hospital in 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. The data were collected from patients' hospital medical records, the laboratory database and radiological reports. Results: Odontogenic origin of ARS was suspected in 59 (15.3%) patients. Altogether (29.9%) 115 patients complained of unilateral symptoms and these were found to associate with probable oral microbial findings (p <.001). These findings covered 20.2% of isolates. Teeth were mentioned in 89.6% of the radiological reports.
  • Nyrhinen, Kirsi-Maaria; Bister, Ville; Helkamaa, Teemu; Schlenzka, Arne; Sandelin, Henrik; Sandelin, Jerker; Harilainen, Arsi (2019)
    Background and purpose ? Treatment outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are generally good, but complications after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) can result in long-lasting problems. Patient injury claims usually fall on the more severe end of the complication spectrum. They are important to investigate because they may reveal the root causes of adverse events, which are often similar regardless of the complication?s severity. Therefore, we analyzed ACL-related patient injuries in Finland, the reasons for these claims, causes of complications, and grounds for compensation. Patients and methods ? We analyzed all claims filed at the Patient Insurance Centre (PIC) between 2005 and 2013 in which the suspected patient injury occurred between 2005 and 2010. This study also reviewed all original patient records and available imaging studies. General background data were obtained from the National Care Register for Social Welfare and Health Care (HILMO). Results ? There were 248 patient injury claims, and 100 of these were compensated. Compensated claims were divided into 4 main categories: skill-based errors (n = 46), infections (n = 34), knowledge-based errors (n = 6), and others (n = 14). Of the compensated skill-based errors, 34 involved graft malposition, 26 of them involved the femoral-side tunnel. All compensated infections were deep surgical site infections (DSSI). Interpretation ? This is the first nationwide study of patient injuries concerning ACLRs in Finland. The most common reasons for compensation were DSSI and malposition of the drill tunnel. Therefore, it would be possible to decrease the number of serious complications by concentrating on infection prevention and optimal surgical technique.
  • Lassen, Brian; Geldhof, Peter; Hälli, Outi; Vlaminck, Johnny; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Heinonen, Mari (2019)
    During their migration through the pig's body, Ascaris suum larvae cause significant damage to the lungs. Little is known about the actual impact of this tissue damage on the occurrence and severity of respiratory problems in industrial pig fattening farms. In this study, we evaluated the link between the serological response to two different A. suum antigen preparations and respiratory or meat inspection outcomes. Two different serological tests were used that measure antibodies against either the A. suum haemoglobin molecule or complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larva that migrate through the lungs. Firstly, serum samples were analysed that were collected from 19 herds in which the cause of acute clinical respiratory symptoms was either Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, A. suum, or a miscellaneous cause. This was done to test whether serological results could confirm pathological findings. Secondly, serum samples from 60 herds of finishing pigs with a history of high or low frequency of pleuritis at meat inspection (MI), but without acute respiratory symptoms at the time of sampling, were also submitted for serological evaluation using both tests. Regression models were used to search for potential associations between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive with MI results, in particular pathological changes related to the lungs. The results of both ELISAs were strongly associated (P <0.001) with pigs belonging to a herd where the respiratory problems could be attributed to A. swim by histology, indicating that both tests can be used to diagnose clinical respiratory outbreaks due to A. suum. In the herds without acute clinical respiratory symptoms, a positive association was found between the proportion of pigs testing seropositive and the percentage of livers rejected due to milk spots and with whole carcass condemnations. No association was found between Ascaris serology and lung pathology (pneumonia and pleuritis) registered at MI, however, challenging the likely involvement of Ascaris in the development of these lesions.
  • Mgbeahuruike, Eunice Ego; Stålnacke, Milla; Vuorela, Heikki; Holm, Yvonne (2019)
    Microbial resistance to currently available antibiotics is a public health problem in the fight against infectious diseases. Most antibiotics are characterized by numerous side effects that may be harmful to normal body cells. To improve the efficacy of these antibiotics and to find an alternative way to minimize the adverse effects associated with most conventional antibiotics, piperine and piperlongumine were screened in combination with conventional rifampicin, tetracycline, and itraconazole to evaluate their synergistic, additive, or antagonistic interactions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. The fractional inhibitory concentration index was used to estimate the synergistic effects of various combination ratios of the piperamides and antibiotics against the bacterial and fungal strains. Both piperine and piperlongumine showed synergistic effects against S. aureus when combined at various ratios with rifampicin. Synergistic interaction was also observed with piperine in combination with tetracycline against S. aureus, while antagonistic interaction was recorded for piperlongumine and tetracycline against S. aureus. All the piperamide/antibacterial combinations tested against P. aeruginosa showed antagonistic effects, with the exception of piperine and rifampicin, which recorded synergistic interaction at a ratio of 9:1 rifampicin/piperine. No synergistic interaction was observed when the commercial compounds were combined with itraconazole and tested against C. albicans. The results showed that piperine and piperlongumine are capable of improving the effectiveness of rifampicin and tetracycline. Dosage combinations of these bioactive compounds with the antibiotics used may be a better option for the treatment of bacterial infections that aims to minimize the adverse effects associated with the use of these conventional antibacterial drugs.
  • PASTURE EFRAIM Study Grp; Metzler, Stefanie; Frei, Remo; Schmausser-Hechfellner, Elisabeth; Pekkanen, Juha; Karvonen, Anne M.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka V.; Roduit, Caroline (2019)
    Background: Allergies are a serious public health issue, and prevalences are rising worldwide. The role of antibiotics in the development of allergies has repeatedly been discussed, as results remain inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pre-and post-natal antibiotic exposure and subsequent development of allergies (atopic dermatitis, food allergy, asthma, atopic sensitization and allergic rhinitis). Methods: A total of 1080 children who participated in a European birth cohort study (PASTURE) were included in this analysis. Data on antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and/or first year of life and allergic diseases were collected by questionnaires from pregnancy up to 6 years of age and analysed by performing logistic regressions. To take into account reverse causation, we included models, where children with diagnosis or symptoms of the respective disease in the first year of life were excluded. Results: Antibiotic exposure in utero was significantly and positively associated with atopic dermatitis and food allergy. The strongest effect was on diseases with onset within the first year of life (for atopic dermatitis: aOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.11-2.48 and for food allergy: aOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.22-7.47). Antibiotics in the first year of life were positively associated with atopic dermatitis up to 4 years (aOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.66-4.49) and also suggested a dose-response relationship. A tendency was observed with asthma between 3 and 6 years (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 0.95-2.86). Conclusions: Our findings show positive associations between exposure to antibiotics and allergies, mainly atopic dermatitis and food allergy within the first year of life, after prenatal exposure, and atopic dermatitis and asthma after post-natal exposure to antibiotics in children born in rural settings.
  • Perez-Tanoira, Ramon; Aarnisalo, Antti; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Saarinen, Riitta; Kuusela, Pentti; Kinnari, Teemu J. (2019)
    PurposeTo assess the susceptibility of salivary stones to bacterial biofilm formation, which may be involved in the development of salivary gland infection, and to investigate a relation between microbiological aspects and patient characteristics.MethodsThis prospective study comprises of 54 patients with sialolithiasis attended in Helsinki University Hospital during 2014-2016. A total of 55 salivary stones were removed, and studied for biofilm formation using fluorescence microscopy and sonication. The isolated organisms were quantified and identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.ResultsBiofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of 39 (70.9%) stones. A total of 96 microorganisms were isolated from 45 salivary stones (81.8%). Two or more organisms were isolated in 33 (73.3%) cases. The main isolates were Streptococcus mitis/oralis (n=27; 28.1%), followed by Streptococcusanginosus (n=10; 9.6%), Rothia spp. (n=8; 8.3%), Streptococcusconstellatus (n=7; 7.3%), and Streptococcusgordonii (n=6; 6.2%). In all patients showing pre-operative (12 cases) or peri-operative (three cases) drainage of pus, the presence of biofilm was detected in microscopy (p=0.004). Four patients showed post-operative infection, and in three of them (75.0%), the presence of biofilm was detected. Increased number of pus drainage was found among patients with reflux symptoms or use of proton-pump inhibitors.ConclusionsSalivary stones are susceptible to bacterial biofilm formation, which could be related with the development and severity of the inflammation and the refractory nature of the disease. Sonication of salivary gland stones could be a useful method for finding the etiology of the chronic infection.
  • Nonnemann, Bettina; Lyhs, Ulrike; Svennesen, Line; Kristensen, Katja Ann; Klaas, Ilka C.; Pedersen, Karl (2019)
    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization timeof-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a fast and reliable method to identify the most common pathogenic bacteria in humans and animals. The goals of this study were to amend a commercial database with additional species, evaluate the amended database for identification of bacterial genera and species causing bovine mastitis, and describe the plethora of species involved. In total, 500 udder pathogenic isolates were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS using bacterial or fungal colony material; 93.5% could be identified to the species level, and 6.5% were identified only to the genus level. Isolates identified to the genus level required further identification to the species level by conventional methods or 16S rDNA sequencing. Mass spectra from verified species were used to expand the MALDI-TOF MS database to improve future identification ability. A total of 24 genera and 61 species were identified in this study. Identified isolates were mainly staphylococci, streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, and coryneforme bacteria. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful, rapid, and reliable technique to identify the most common microorganisms causing bovine mastitis, and the database can be continuously expanded and improved with additional species.
  • Rasinkangas, Pia; Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; Ritari, Jarmo; Reunanen, Justus; Salminen, Seppo; Palva, Airi; Douillard, Francois P.; de Vos, Willem M. (2020)
    Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosusGG is one of the best studied lactic acid bacteria in the context of probiotic effects.L. rhamnosusGG has been shown to prevent diarrhea in children and adults and has been implicated to have mitigating or preventive effects in several disorders connected to microbiota dysbiosis. The probiotic effects are largely attributed to its adhesive heterotrimeric sortase-dependent pili, encoded by thespaCBA-srtC1gene cluster. Indeed, the strain-specific SpaCBA pili have been shown to contribute to adherence, biofilm formation and host signaling. In this work we set out to generate non-GMO derivatives ofL. rhamnosusGG that adhere stronger to mucus compared to the wild-type strain using chemical mutagenesis. We selected 13 derivatives that showed an increased mucus-adherent phenotype. Deep shotgun resequencing of the strains enabled division of the strains into three classes, two of which revealed SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in thespaAandspaCgenes encoding the shaft and tip adhesive pilins, respectively. Strikingly, the other class derivatives demonstrated less clear genotype - phenotype relationships, illustrating that pili biogenesis and structure is also affected by other processes. Further characterization of the different classes of derivatives was performed by PacBio SMRT sequencing and RNAseq analysis, which resulted in the identification of molecular candidates driving pilin biosynthesis and functionality. In conclusion, we report on the generation and characterization of three classes of strongly adherentL. rhamnosusGG derivatives that show an increase in adhesion to mucus. These are of special interest as they provide a window on processes and genes driving piliation and its control inL. rhamnosusGG and offer a variety of non-GMO derivatives of this key probiotic strain that are applicable in food products.
  • Hokynar, Kati; Salava, Alexander; Vesterinen, Eero; Lauerma, Antti; Ranki, Annamari; Puolakkainen, Mirja (2018)
  • Martelius, Timi; Lappalainen, Maija; Palomaki, Maarit; Anttila, Veli-Jukka (2011)
  • Helanterä, I.; Janes, R.; Anttila, V-J (2018)
    Background: Influenza A(H1N1) causes serious complications in immunocompromised patients. The efficacy of seasonal vaccination in these patients has been questioned. Aim: To describe two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) in immunocompromised patients. Methods: Two outbreaks of influenza A(H1N1) occurred in our institution: on the kidney transplant ward in 2014 including patients early after kidney or simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation, and on the oncology ward in 2016 including patients receiving chemotherapy for malignant tumours. Factors leading to these outbreaks and the clinical efficacy of seasonal influenza vaccination were analysed. Findings: Altogether 86 patients were exposed to influenza A(H1N1) during the outbreaks, among whom the seasonal influenza vaccination status was unknown in 10. Only three out of 38 vaccinated patients were infected with influenza A(H1N1), compared with 20 out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.02). The death of one out of 38 vaccinated patients was associated with influenza, compared with seven out of 38 unvaccinated patients (P = 0.06). Shared factors behind the two outbreaks included outdated facilities not designed for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients. Vaccination coverage among patients was low, between 40% and 70% despite vaccination being offered to all patients free of charge. Vaccination coverage of healthcare workers on the transplant ward was low (46%), but, despite high coverage on the oncology ward (92%), the outbreak occurred. Conclusion: Seasonal influenza vaccination was clinically effective with both a reduced risk of influenza infection and a trend towards reduced mortality in these immunocompromised patients. Several possible causes were identified behind these two outbreaks, requiring continuous awareness in healthcare professionals to prevent further outbreaks. (C) 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ala-Houhala, M.; Koukila-Kahkola, P.; Antikainen, Jenni; Valve, J.; Kirveskari, J.; Anttila, V. -J. (2018)
    Objectives: To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. Methods: We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. Results: There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Conclusions: Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. M. Ala-Houhala, Clin Microbiol Infect 2018;24:301 (C) 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rodriguez, C.; Taminiau, B.; Bouchafa, L.; Romijn, S.; Rajamaki, M. M.; Van Broeck, J.; Delmee, M.; Clercx, C.; Daube, G. (2019)
    Zoonotic transmission of Clostridium difficile has been largely hypothesised to occur after direct or indirect contact with contaminated animal faeces. Recent studies have reported the presence of the bacterium in the natural environment, including in soils and rivers. If C. difficile spores are scattered in the environment, they can easily enter the respiratory tract of dogs, and therefore, dog nasal discharge could be a direct route of transmission not previously investigated. This study reports for the first time the presence of C. difficile in the respiratory tracts of dogs. The bacterium was isolated from 6 (17.1%) out of 35 nasal samples, with a total of 4 positive dogs (19%). C. difficile was recovered from both proximal and distal nasal cavities. All isolates were toxigenic and belonged to PCR- ribotype 014, which is one of the most predominant types in animals and in community- acquired C. difficile infections in recent years. The findings of this study demonstrate that the nasal cavity of dogs is contaminated with toxigenic C. difficile, and therefore, its secretions could be considered as a new route by which bacteria are spread and transmitted.
  • Chen, Zhi-Hai; Qin, Xin-Cheng; Song, Rui; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zhao, Yong-Xiang; Zhang, Jing-Shan; He, Jin-Rong; Li, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Xue-Hua; Liu, De-Wei; Fu, Xiao-Kang; Tian, Di; Li, Xing-Wang; Xu, Jianguo; Plyusnin, Alexander; Holmes, Edward C.; Zhang, Yong-Zhen (2014)
  • Reigada, Inés; Guarch-Pérez, Clara M.; Patel, Jayendra; Riool, Martijn; Savijoki, Kirsi; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Fallarero, Adyary (2020)
    Nosocomial diseases represent a huge health and economic burden. A significant portion is associated with the use of medical devices, with 80% of these infections being caused by a bacterial biofilm. The insertion of a foreign material usually elicits inflammation, which can result in hampered antimicrobial capacity of the host immunity due to the effort of immune cells being directed to degrade the material. The ineffective clearance by immune cells is a perfect opportunity for bacteria to attach and form a biofilm. In this study, we analyzed the antibiofilm capacity of three naturally derived biofilm inhibitors when combined with immune cells in order to assess their applicability in implantable titanium devices and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) endotracheal tubes. To this end, we used a system based on the coculture of HL-60 cells differentiated into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and Staphylococcus aureus (laboratory and clinical strains) on titanium, as well as LDPE surfaces. Out of the three inhibitors, the one coded DHA1 showed the highest potential to be incorporated into implantable devices, as it displayed a combined activity with the immune cells, preventing bacterial attachment on the titanium and LDPE. The other two inhibitors seemed to also be good candidates for incorporation into LDPE endotracheal tubes.
  • Haapala, V.; Herva, T.; Härtel, H.; Pitkänen, E.; Mattila, J.; Rautjoki, P.; Pelkonen, S.; Soveri, T.; Simojoki, H. (2019)
    Detecting Mycoplasma bovis on cattle farms represents a challenge in the absence of an outbreak or cases of M. bovis mastitis, yet identification of an infection is essential to control the spread of the disease successfully. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determine whether meat inspection records can aid identification of cattle farms supporting M. bovis infection, and (2) to compare the average daily weight gain estimated from carcass weight for cattle originating from farms differing in M. bovis test-status. Meat inspection records were collected from two abattoirs in 2015; 80 677 animals in total. All the dairy and mixed breed cows and bulls used for meat production were categorized according to known M. bovis infection status of the farms from which the cattle were derived; positive, contact or control farms. The associations between animals from different M. bovis categories and lung lesions of bulls and cows (pneumonia and pleuritis), identified during meat inspection, and estimated average daily gain (ADG) of bulls, were investigated. The odds ratios for lung lesions, especially pleuritis, were higher in M. bovis test-positive or contact farms compared with control farms. Additionally, odds ratios for pleuritis were higher among animals from M. bovis test-positive farms and animals from contact slaughtering farms originating from M. bovis-free rearing farms. Bulls originating from M. bovis test-positive farms had higher estimated average daily gain than cattle from control farms. Meat inspection records can be used alongside other methods to detect M. bovis-positive farms where M. bovis causes lung lesions. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.