Browsing by Subject "INFLAMMATORY MARKERS"

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  • Aabye, Martine G.; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie; Holm, Line Lindebo; Tuuminen, Tamara; Ravn, Pernille; Ruhwald, Morten (2012)
  • Haapakoski, Rita; Mathieu, Julia; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimaki, Mika (2015)
    Cumulative meta-analyses are used to evaluate the extent to which further studies are needed to confirm or refute a hypothesis. We used this approach to assess observational evidence on systemic inflammation in individuals with major depressive disorder. We identified 58 studies of four common inflammatory markers in a literature search of PubMed, Embase and Psychlnfo databases in May 2014. Pooled data from the earliest eight studies already showed an association between interleukin-6 concentrations and major depression; 23 more recent studies confirmed this finding (d = 0.54, p <0.0001). A significant association between C-reactive protein levels and major depression was noted after 14 studies and this did not change after addition of six more studies (d = 0.47, p <0.0001). For these two inflammatory markers, there was moderate heterogeneity in study-specific estimates, subgroup differences were small, and publication bias appeared to be an unlikely explanation for the findings. Sensitivity analyses including only high-quality studies and subjects free of antidepressant medication further verified the associations. While there was a link between tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels and major depression (d = 0.40, p = 0.002), the cumulative effect remained uncertain due to the extensive heterogeneity in study-specific estimates and inconsistencies between subgroups. No evidence was found for the association between interleukin-1 beta levels and major depression (d = -0.05, p = 0.86). In conclusion, this cumulative meta-analysis confirmed higher mean levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with major depression compared to non-depressed controls. No consistent association between tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and major depression was observed. Future studies should clarify the specific immune mechanisms involved as well as continue testing anti-inflammatory therapies in patients suffering from major depression. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Mokkala, Kati; Pellonpera, Outi; Roytio, Henna; Pussinen, Pirkko; Ronnemaa, Tapani; Laitinen, Kirsi (2017)
    Background. Increased intestinal permeability with subsequent metabolic endotoxemia, i.e., elevated circulating levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS, has been introduced as a novel initiator of obesity related metabolic disturbances in non-pregnant individuals. The objective was to investigate the extent to which intestinal permeability, measured by serum zonulin concentration, is related to metabolic endotoxemia and metabolic risk markers in overweight pregnant women. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study including 100 pregnant overweight women in early pregnancy. Serum zonulin was analyzed using ELISA, and markers for metabolic endotoxemia (LPS), inflammation (high-sensitive C-reactive protein and glycoprotein acetylation GIyA), glucose metabolism (fasting glucose and insulin), and lipid metabolism were measured. Results. Higher serum zonulin concentration associated positively with LPS (P = 0.02), inflammatory markers (P <0.001), insulin (P <0.001), insulin resistance (P <0.001), and triglycerides (P = 0.001), and negatively with insulin sensitivity (P = 0.001) (ANOVA with Tukey's corrections or Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test with Bonferroni correction for zonulin quartiles). All the observed associations were confirmed (P <0.015) in a linear regression model adjusted with potential confounding factors. Both LPS and GlycA showed positive relationship with insulin resistance, serum insulin, triglycerides, total and LDL-cholesterol and negative relationship with insulin sensitivity (P Conclusions. Our findings suggest that increased serum zonulin concentration, i.e., increased intestinal permeability, contributes to metabolic endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance in overweight pregnant women. By reinforcingintestinal barrier, it may be possible to manipulate maternal metabolism during pregnancy with subsequent health benefits. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Baumert, Jens; Huang, Jie; McKnight, Barbara; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Steri, Maristella; Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Maelarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rueckerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Voezke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Tregoueet, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L. (2014)
  • Munsterhjelm, Camilla Marianne; Nordgreen, Janicke; Aae, F.; Heinonen, Mari Leena; Valros, Anna Elisabet; Janczak, A. M. (2019)
    Poor health is associated with an increased risk of tail biting outbreaks in pigs. We propose that this is because illness changes social dynamics either by changing the behaviour of the sick pig towards its penmates, the behaviour of the healthy penmates towards the sick pig, or both. We tested the effect of immune stimulation (lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection: O111:B4; 1.5 mu g kg(-1) IV) on social behaviour in gilts housed in triplets in a cross-over experiment. Each pen was subjected to the control treatment (all three pigs injected with saline) and then LPS treatment (one pig injected with LPS, two injected with saline), or vice versa. LPS injected pigs had a shift in social motivation and performed more tail- and ear- directed behaviour than saline pigs two days after injection. They seemed to fit the description of 'sick and grumpy'. This change was seen about 40 h after the signs of acute illness dissipated and was not accompanied by a similar increase in activity. We discuss possible mechanisms for this behavioural change in light of changes in neurotransmitter levels at three days after LPS injection described in a previous experiment.
  • Yolken, Robert H.; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Vapalahti, Olli; Dickerson, Faith; Suvisaari, Jaana; Chen, Ou; Sabunciyan, Sarve (2021)
    An overlooked aspect of current microbiome studies is the role of viruses in human health. Compared to bacterial studies, laboratory and analytical methods to study the entirety of viral communities in clinical samples are rudimentary and need further refinement. In order to address this need, we developed Virobiome-Seq, a sequence capture method and an accompanying bioinformatics analysis pipeline, that identifies viral reads in human samples. Virobiome-Seq is able to enrich for and detect multiple types of viruses in human samples, including novel subtypes that diverge at the sequence level. In addition, Virobiome-Seq is able to detect RNA transcripts from DNA viruses and may provide a sensitive method for detecting viral activity in vivo. Since Virobiome-Seq also yields the viral sequence, it makes it possible to investigate associations between viral genotype and psychiatric illness. In this proof of concept study, we detected HIV1, Torque Teno, Pegi, Herpes and Papilloma virus sequences in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, plasma and stool samples collected from individuals with psychiatric disorders. We also detected the presence of numerous novel circular RNA viruses but were unable to determine whether these viruses originate from the sample or represent contaminants. Despite this challenge, we demonstrate that our knowledge of viral diversity is incomplete and opportunities for novel virus discovery exist. Virobiome-Seq will enable a more sophisticated analysis of the virome and has the potential of uncovering complex interactions between viral activity and psychiatric disease. (c) 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Logan, Alan C.; Prescott, Susan L.; Haahtela, Tari; Katz, David L. (2018)
    In 1980, Jonas Salk (1914-1995) encouraged professionals in anthropology and related disciplines to consider the interconnections between "planetary health," sociocultural changes associated with technological advances, and the biology of human health. The concept of planetary health emphasizes that human health is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; experts in physiological anthropology have illuminated some of the mechanisms by which experiences in natural environments (or the built environment) can promote or detract from health. For example, shinrin-yoku and related research (which first emerged from Japan in the 1990s) helped set in motion international studies that have since examined physiological responses to time spent in natural and/or urban environments. However, in order to advance such findings into planetary health discourse, it will be necessary to further understand how these biological responses (inflammation and the collective of allostatic load) are connected to psychological constructs such as nature relatedness, and pro-social/environmental attitudes and behaviors. The exposome refers to total environmental exposures-detrimental and beneficial-that can help predict biological responses of the organism to environment over time. Advances in "omics" techniques-metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics-and systems biology are allowing researchers to gain unprecedented insight into the physiological ramifications of human behavior. Objective markers of stress physiology and microbiome research may help illuminate the personal, public, and planetary health consequences of "extinction of experience." At the same time, planetary health as an emerging multidisciplinary concept will be strengthened by input from the perspectives of physiological anthropology.
  • Munsterhjelm, C.; Nordgreen, J.; Aae, F.; Heinonen, M.; Olstad, K.; Aasmundstad, T.; Janczak, A. M.; Valros, A. (2017)
    Tail biting is detrimental to animal welfare and has negative consequences for producer economy. Poor health is one of the risk factors for tail biting. The first aim of this study was therefore to test for links between health status and behavior related to tail biting at the individual level. The second aim of this study was to test whether variation in cytokines was related to variation in social behavior. These small molecules produced upon immune activation are known to influence behavior both in the direction of withdrawal and increased aggression. This could potentially increase non-functional social behavior and thereby the risk of a tail biting outbreak. To investigate this, we collected behavioral data, health data, feeding data and blood samples from undocked boars at a test station farm in Norway. We compared groups with three different diagnoses: osteochondrosis diagnosed by computer tomography scanning (OCSAN), osteochondrosis diagnosed by clinical examination (OCCLIN) and respiratory tract disease (RESP), with healthy controls (CTR). We tested whether the diagnoses were associated with feeding and growth, social behavior and cytokine levels. We then tested whether there were correlations between cytokine levels and social behavior. We also provide raw data on cytokine levels in the extended sample (N = 305) as there are few publications on cytokine levels measured in pigs living under commercial conditions. OCCLIN pigs visited the feeder less, and fed longer compared to CTR pigs. Pigs diagnosed with RESP showed a large drop in growth the first week after filming, which corresponds to the week they were likely to have been diagnosed with illness, and a tendency to compensatory increase in the week after that. Social behavior differed between experimental groups with OCSCAN pigs receiving more social behavior (both aggressive and non aggressive) compared to CTR, and RESP pigs tending to perform more ear- and tail-biting than controls. There were no differences in absolute levels of cytokines between categories. However IL1-ra and IL-12 showed correlations with several behaviors that have been shown by others to be associated with current or future tail biting activity. To our knowledge, this is the first published study indicating a role for illness in non-functional social behavior in pigs and the first showing a correlation between cytokine levels and social behavior.