Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-15 of 15
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Oja, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Parmar, Amarjit; Saavalainen, Päivi Marjaana; Nikkilä, Janne Tapio; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Käkelä, Reijo; Laitinen, Saara (2013)
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Niemelä, Mika; Hänggi, Daniel (2021)
    Ischemic stroke is still among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite intensive advancements in medical sciences, the clinical options to treat ischemic stroke are limited to thrombectomy and thrombolysis using tissue plasminogen activator within a narrow time window after stroke. Current state of the art knowledge reveals the critical role of local and systemic inflammation after stroke that can be triggered by interactions taking place at the brain and immune system interface. Here, we discuss different cellular and molecular mechanisms through which brain-immune interactions can take place. Moreover, we discuss the evidence how the brain influence immune system through the release of brain derived antigens, damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, chemokines, upregulated adhesion molecules, through infiltration, activation and polarization of immune cells in the CNS. Furthermore, the emerging concept of stemness-induced cellular immunity in the context of neurodevelopment and brain disease, focusing on ischemic implications, is discussed. Finally, we discuss current evidence on brain-immune system interaction through the autonomic nervous system after ischemic stroke. All of these mechanisms represent potential pharmacological targets and promising future research directions for clinically relevant discoveries.
  • Brakenhielm, Ebba; Alitalo, Kari (2019)
    The lymphatic vasculature, which accompanies the blood vasculature in most organs, is indispensable in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and nutritional lipid uptake and transport, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport. In this Review, we discuss the physiological role of the lymphatic system in the heart in the maintenance of cardiac health and describe alterations in lymphatic structure and function that occur in cardiovascular pathology, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. We also briefly discuss the role that immune cells might have in the regulation of lymphatic growth (lymphangiogenesis) and function. Finally, we provide examples of how the cardiac lymphatics can be targeted therapeutically to restore lymphatic drainage in the heart to limit myocardial oedema and chronic inflammation.
  • Nieminen, Anne; Maksimow, Mikael; Mentula, Panu; Kyhala, Lea; Kylänpää, Leena; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kemppainen, Esko; Repo, Heikki; Salmi, Marko (2014)
  • Blasiak, Janusz; Watala, Cezary; Tuuminen, Raimo; Kivinen, Niko; Koskela, Ali; Uusitalo-Jarvinen, Hannele; Tuulonen, Anja; Winiarczyk, Mateusz; Mackiewicz, Jerzy; Zmorzynski, Szymon; Filip, Agata; Kaarniranta, Kai (2019)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression; many of them act in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), and RPE degeneration is known to be a critical factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Repeated injections with anti-VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) are the only effective therapy in wet AMD. We investigated the correlation between the expression of 18 miRNAs involved in the regulation of the VEGFA gene in serum of 76 wet AMD patients and 70 controls. Efficacy of anti-VEGFA treatment was evaluated by counting the number of injections delivered up to 12 years. In addition, we compared the relative numbers of deaths in patient with AMD and control groups. We observed a decreased expression of miR-34-5p, miR-126-3p, miR-145-5p and miR-205-5p in wet AMD patients as compared with controls. These miRNAs are involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, cytoprotection and protein clearance. No miRNA was significantly correlated with the treatment outcome. Wet AMD patients had greater mortality than controls, and their survival was inversely associated with the number of anti-VEGFA injections per year. No association was observed between miRNA expression and mortality. Our study emphasizes the need to clarify the role of miRNA regulation in AMD pathogenesis.
  • Mantula, Paula S.; Outinen, Tuula K.; Jaatinen, Pia; Hämäläinen, Mari; Huhtala, Heini; Pörsti, Ilkka H.; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka T.; Mäkelä, Satu M. (2018)
    Background Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infected patients typically suffer from acute kidney injury (AKI). Adipokines have inflammation modulating functions in acute diseases including AKI. We examined plasma levels of three adipokines (resistin, leptin, and adiponectin) in acute PUUV infection and their associations with disease severity. Methods This study included 79 patients hospitalized due to acute PUUV infection. Plasma resistin, leptin, adiponectin, as well as IL-6 and CRP, were measured at the acute phase, recovery phase and one year after hospitalization. Results Plasma resistin levels were significantly higher in the acute phase compared to the recovery phase and one year after (median resistin 28 pg/mL (11-107) vs. 17 pg/mL (7-36) vs. 14 pg/mL (7-31), p= 353.6 mu mol/L) (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14). Neither plasma leptin nor adiponectin level had any correlation with creatinine concentration or the amount of albuminuria. Conclusions Plasma resistin independently associates with the severity of AKI in acute PUUV infection. The association of resistin with the amount of albuminuria suggests that the level of plasma resistin is not only influenced by renal clearance but could have some role in the pathogenesis of AKI during PUUV infection.
  • Keski-Nisula, Juho; Pesonen, Eero; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Ahlroth, Terri; Puntila, Juha; Andersson, Sture; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Suominen, Pertti K. (2016)
    Background. The optimal dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart surgical procedures is unknown. This study compared the antiinflammatory and cardioprotective effects of high and lower doses of methylprednisolone in children undergoing cardiac operations. Methods. Thirty children, between 1 and 18 months old and undergoing total correction of tetralogy of Fallot, were randomized in double-blind fashion to receive either 5 or 30 mg/kg of intravenous methylprednisolone after anesthesia induction. Plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-10, troponin T, and glucose were measured at anesthesia induction before administration of the study drug, at 30 minutes on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), just after weaning from CPB, and at 6 hours after CPB. Troponin T and blood glucose were also measured on the first postoperative morning. Results. Significantly higher methylprednisolone concentrations were measured in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 30 minutes on CBP, after weaning from CPB and at 6 hours after CPB (p <0.001). No differences were detected in IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, or troponin concentrations at any time point. Blood glucose levels were significantly higher in patients receiving 30 mg/kg of methylprednisolone at 6 hours after CPB (p = 0.04) and on the first postoperative morning (p = 0.02). Conclusions. Based on the measured concentrations of interleukins or troponin T, a 30 mg/kg dose of methylprednisolone during pediatric open heart operations does not offer any additional antiinflammatory or cardioprotective benefit over a 5 mg/kg dose. Higher dose of methylprednisolone exposes patients more frequently to hyperglycemia. (C) 2016 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons
  • Kokki, Hannu; Maaroos, Martin; Ellam, Sten; Halonen, Jari; Ojanpera, Ilkka; Ranta, Merja; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Tolonen, Aleksandra; Lindberg, Oscar; Viitala, Matias; Hartikainen, Juha (2018)
    Purpose Cardiac surgery and conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC) impair the bioavailability of drugs administered by mouth. It is not known whether miniaturized ECC (MECC) or off-pump surgery (OPCAB) affect the bioavailability in similar manner. We evaluated the metoprolol bioavailability in patients undergoing CABG surgery with CECC, MECC, or having OPCAB. Methods Thirty patients, ten in each group, aged 44-79 years, scheduled for CABG surgery were administered 50 mg metoprolol by mouth on the preoperative day at 8-10 a.m. and 8 p.m., 2 h before surgery, and thereafter daily at 8 a.m. and 8 p.m. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h after the morning dose on the preoperative day and on first and third postoperative days. Metoprolol concentration in plasma was analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results The absorption of metoprolol was markedly reduced on the first postoperative day in all three groups, but recovered to the preoperative level on the third postoperative day. The geometric means (90% confidence interval) of AUC(0-12) on the first and third postoperative days versus the preoperative day were 44 (26-74)% and 109 (86-139)% in the CECC-group, 28 (16-50)% and 79 (59-105)% in the MECC-group, and 26 (12-56)% and 96 (77-119)% in the OPCAB-group, respectively. Two patients in the CECC-group and two in the MECC-group developed atrial fibrillation (AF). The bioavailability and the drug concentrations of metoprolol in patients developing AF did not differ from those who remained in sinus rhythm. Conclusion The bioavailability of metoprolol by mouth was markedly reduced in the early phase after CABG with no difference between the CECC-, MECC-, and OPCAB-groups.
  • Kaskinen, Anu K.; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Martelius, Laura; Moilanen, Eeva; Hämäläinen, Mari; Rautiainen, Paula; Andersson, Sture; Pitkänen-Argillander, Olli M. (2021)
    Objectives: The present study was performed to determine whether lung injury manifests as lung edema in neonates after congenital cardiac surgery and whether a stress-dose corticosteroid (SDC) regimen attenuates postoperative lung injury in neonates after congenital cardiac surgery. Design: A supplementary report of a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: A pediatric tertiary university hospital. Participants: Forty neonates (age Measurements and Main Results: The chest radiography lung edema score was lower in the SDC than in the placebo group on the first postoperative day (POD one) (p = 0.03) and on PODs two and three (p = 0.03). Furthermore, a modest increase in the edema score of 0.9 was noted in the placebo group, whereas the edema score remained at the preoperative level in the SDC group. Postoperative dynamic respiratory system compliance was higher in the SDC group until POD three (p < 0.01). However, postoperative oxygenation; length of mechanical ventilation; and tracheal aspirate biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress, namely interleukin-6, interleukin-8, resistin, and 8-isoprostane, showed no differences between the groups. Conclusions: The SDC regimen reduced the development of mild and likely clinically insignificant radiographic lung edema and improved postoperative dynamic respiratory system compliance without adverse events, but it failed to improve postoperative oxygenation and length of mechanical ventilation. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Houssari, Mahmoud; Dumesnil, Anais; Tardif, Virginie; Kivela, Riikka; Pizzinat, Nathalie; Boukhalfa, Ines; Godefroy, David; Schapman, Damien; Hemanthakumar, Karthik A.; Bizou, Mathilde; Henry, Jean-Paul; Renet, Sylvanie; Riou, Gaetan; Rondeaux, Julie; Anouar, Youssef; Adriouch, Sahil; Fraineau, Sylvain; Alitalo, Kari; Richard, Vincent; Mulder, Paul; Brakenhielm, Ebba (2020)
    Objective: Lymphatics play an essential pathophysiological role in promoting fluid and immune cell tissue clearance. Conversely, immune cells may influence lymphatic function and remodeling. Recently, cardiac lymphangiogenesis has been proposed as a therapeutic target to prevent heart failure after myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated the effects of gene therapy to modulate cardiac lymphangiogenesis post-MI in rodents. Second, we determined the impact of cardiac-infiltrating T cells on lymphatic remodeling in the heart. Approach and Results: Comparing adenoviral versus adeno-associated viral gene delivery in mice, we found that only sustained VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor)-C(C156S)therapy, achieved by adeno-associated viral vectors, increased cardiac lymphangiogenesis, and led to reduced cardiac inflammation and dysfunction by 3 weeks post-MI. Conversely, inhibition of VEGF-C/-D signaling, through adeno-associated viral delivery of soluble VEGFR3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3), limited infarct lymphangiogenesis. Unexpectedly, this treatment improved cardiac function post-MI in both mice and rats, linked to reduced infarct thinning due to acute suppression of T-cell infiltration. Finally, using pharmacological, genetic, and antibody-mediated prevention of cardiac T-cell recruitment in mice, we discovered that both CD4(+)and CD8(+)T cells potently suppress, in part through interferon-gamma, cardiac lymphangiogenesis post-MI. Conclusions: We show that resolution of cardiac inflammation after MI may be accelerated by therapeutic lymphangiogenesis based on adeno-associated viral gene delivery of VEGF-C-C156S. Conversely, our work uncovers a major negative role of cardiac-recruited T cells on lymphatic remodeling. Our results give new insight into the interconnection between immune cells and lymphatics in orchestration of cardiac repair after injury.
  • Kolosowska, Natalia; Keuters, Meike H.; Wojciechowski, Sara; Keksa-Goldsteine, Velta; Laine, Mika; Malm, Tarja; Goldsteins, Gundars; Koistinaho, Jari; Dhungana, Hiramani (2019)
    Neuroinflammation is strongly induced by cerebral ischemia. The early phase after the onset of ischemic stroke is characterized by acute neuronal injury, microglial activation, and subsequent infiltration of blood-derived inflammatory cells, including macrophages. Therefore, modulation of the microglial/macrophage responses has increasingly gained interest as a potential therapeutic approach for the ischemic stroke. In our study, we investigated the effects of peripherally administered interleukin 13 (IL-13) in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo). Systemic administration of IL-13 immediately after the ischemic insult significantly reduced the lesion volume, alleviated the infiltration of CD45(+) leukocytes, and promoted the microglia/macrophage alternative activation within the ischemic region, as determined by arginase 1 (Arg1) immunoreactivity at 3 days post-ischemia (dpi). Moreover, IL-13 enhanced the expression of M2a alternative activation markers Arg1 and Ym1 in the peri-ischemic (PI) area, as well as increased plasma IL-6 and IL-10 levels at 3 dpi. Furthermore, IL-13 treatment ameliorated gait disturbances at day 7 and 14 and sensorimotor deficits at day 14 post-ischemia, as analyzed by the CatWalk gait analysis system and adhesive removal test, respectively. Finally, IL-13 treatment decreased neuronal cell death in a coculture model of neuroinflammation with RAW 264.7 macrophages. Taken together, delivery of IL-13 enhances microglial/macrophage anti-inflammatory responses in vivo and in vitro, decreases ischemia-induced brain cell death, and improves sensory and motor functions in the pMCAo mouse model of cerebral ischemia.
  • Paukku, Kirsi; Backlund, Michael; De Boer, Rudolf A.; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Lehtonen, Jukka Y. A. (2012)
  • Hallikainen, Joona; Keränen, Sara; Savolainen, Jarno; Närhi, Matti; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Kellokoski, Jari; Pyysalo, Mikko; Pussinen, Pirkko; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Frösen, Juhana (2021)
    Degeneration of intracranial aneurysm wall is under active research and recent studies indicate an increased risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysm among patients with periodontal diseases. In addition, oral bacterial DNA has been identified from wall samples of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. These novel findings led us to evaluate if oral diseases could predispose to pathological changes seen on intracranial aneurysm walls eventually leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this review is to consider mechanisms on the relationship between periodontitis and aneurysm rupture, focusing on recent evidence.
  • Liukkonen, Joonas; Gursoy, Ulvi K.; Könönen, Eija; Gürsoy, Mervi; Metso, Jari; Salminen, Aino; Kopra, Elisa; Jauhiainen, Matti; Mäntylä, Päivi; Buhlin, Kåre; Paju, Susanna; Sorsa, Timo; Nieminen, Markku S.; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Sinisalo, Juha; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2018)
    Genetic factors play a role in periodontitis. Here we examined whether the risk haplotype of MHC class III region BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA and lymphotoxin- polymorphisms associate with salivary biomarkers of periodontal disease. A total of 455 individuals with detailed clinical and radiographic periodontal health data were included in the study. A 610K genotyping chip and a Sequenom platform were used in genotyping analyses. Phospholipid transfer protein activity, concentrations of lymphotoxin-, IL-8 and myeloperoxidase, and a cumulative risk score (combining Porphyromonas gingivalis, IL-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-8) were examined in saliva samples. Elevated IL-8 and myeloperoxidase concentrations and cumulative risk scores associated with advanced tooth loss, deepened periodontal pockets and signs of periodontal inflammation. In multiple logistic regression models adjusted for periodontal parameters and risk factors, myeloperoxidase concentration (odds ratio (OR); 1.37, P=0.007) associated with increased odds for having the risk haplotype and lymphotoxin- concentration with its genetic variants rs2857708, rs2009658 and rs2844482. In conclusion, salivary levels of IL-8, myeloperoxidase and cumulative risk scores associate with periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction, while those of myeloperoxidase and lymphotoxin- associate with genetic factors as well.
  • Puolakkainen, Tero; Rummukainen, Petri; Lehto, Jemina; Ritvos, Olli; Hiltunen, Ari; Saamanen, Anna-Marja; Kiviranta, Riku (2017)
    Fractures still present a significant burden to patients due to pain and periods of unproductivity. Numerous growth factors have been identified to regulate bone remodeling. However, to date, only the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are used to enhance fracture healing in clinical settings. Activins are pleiotropic growth factors belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. We and others have recently shown that treatment with recombinant fusion proteins of activin receptors greatly increases bone mass in different animal models by trapping activins and other ligands thus inhibiting their signaling pathways. However, their effects on fracture healing are less known. Twelve-week old male C57Bl mice were subjected to a standardized, closed tibial fracture model. Animals were divided into control and treatment groups and were administered either PBS control or a soluble activin type IIB receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) intraperitoneally once a week for a duration of two or four weeks. There were no significant differences between the groups at two weeks but we observed a significant increase in callus mineralization in ActRIIB-Fc-treated animals by microcomputed tomography imaging at four weeks. Bone volume per tissue volume was 60%, trabecular number 55% and bone mineral density 60% higher in the 4-week calluses of the ActRIIB-Fc-treated mice (p<0.05 in all). Biomechanical strength of 4-week calluses was also significantly improved by ActRIIBFc treatment as stiffness increased by 64% and maximum force by 45% (p<0.05) compared to the PBS-injected controls. These results demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc treatment significantly improves healing of closed long bone fractures. Our findings support the previous reports of activin receptors increasing bone mass but also demonstrate a novel approach for using ActRIIB-Fc to enhance fracture healing.