Browsing by Subject "INFRARED FLUORESCENT PROTEINS"

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  • Liu, Wei; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Kurupassery, Neel; Li, Yang; Zhou, Qifa; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Yao, Junjie (2018)
    A conventional photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) system typically has to make tradeoffs between its spatial resolution and penetration depth, by choosing a fixed configuration of optical excitation and acoustic detection. The single-scale imaging capability of PAM may limit its applications in biomedical studies. Here, we report a quad-mode photoacoustic microscopy (QM-PAM) system with four complementary spatial resolutions and maximum penetration depths. For this we first developed a ring-shaped focused ultrasound transducer that has two independent elements with respective central frequencies at 20 MHz and 40 MHz, providing complementary acoustically-determined spatial resolutions and penetration depths. To accommodate the dual-element ultrasound transducer, we implemented two optical excitation modes to provide tightly-and weakly-focused light illumination. The dual-element acoustic detection combined with the two optical focusing modes can thus provide four imaging scales in a single imaging device, with consistent contrast mechanisms and co-registered field of views. We have demonstrated the multiscale morphological, functional, and molecular imaging capability of QM-PAM in the mouse head, leg and ear in vivo. We expect the high scale flexibility of QM-PAM will enable broad applications in preclinical studies.
  • Hontani, Yusaku; Baloban, Mikhail; Escobar, Francisco Velazquez; Jansen, Swetta A.; Shcherbakova, Daria M.; Weissenborn, Jorn; Kloz, Miroslav; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.; Kennis, John T. M. (2021)
    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes are widely used for structural and functional deep-tissue imaging in vivo. To fluoresce, NIR FPs covalently bind a chromophore, such as biliverdin IXa tetrapyrrole. The efficiency of biliverdin binding directly affects the fluorescence properties, rendering understanding of its molecular mechanism of major importance. miRFP proteins constitute a family of bright monomeric NIR FPs that comprise a Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) and cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases - Adenylyl cyclases - FhlA (GAF) domain. Here, we structurally analyze biliverdin binding to miRFPs in real time using time-resolved stimulated Raman spectroscopy and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. Biliverdin undergoes isomerization, localization to its binding pocket, and pyrrolenine nitrogen protonation in
  • Takala, Heikki; Edlund, Petra; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Westenhoff, Sebastian (2020)
    Phytochromes are ubiquitous photosensor proteins, which control the growth, reproduction and movement in plants, fungi and bacteria. Phytochromes switch between two photophysical states depending on the light conditions. In analogy to molecular machines, light absorption induces a series of structural changes that are transduced from the bilin chromophore, through the protein, and to the output domains. Recent progress towards understanding this structural mechanism of signal transduction has been manifold. We describe this progress with a focus on bacteriophytochromes. We describe the mechanism along three structural tiers, which are the chromophore-binding pocket, the photosensory module, and the output domains. We discuss possible interconnections between the tiers and conclude by presenting future directions and open questions. We hope that this review may serve as a compendium to guide future structural and spectroscopic studies designed to understand structural signaling in phytochromes.