Browsing by Subject "INHIBITORY CONTROL"

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  • Nowak, Kamila; Oron, Anna; Szymaszek, Aneta; Leminen, Miika; Naatanen, Risto; Szelag, Elzbieta (2016)
    The present study investigates age-related changes in duration discrimination in millisecond time domain. We tested young (N = 20, mean age = 24.5, SD = 2.97) and elderly (N = 20, mean age = 65.2, SD = 2.94) subjects using the mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. White-noise bursts of two different durations (50 and 10 ms) were presented in two oddball blocks. In one block (Increment Condition), the repetitive sequence of 10 ms standards was interspersed by occasional 50 ms deviants. In the Decrement Condition, the roles of the two stimuli were reversed. We analyzed the P1-N1 complex, MMN and P3a and found the effect of age for all these components. Moreover, the impact of stimulus presentation condition (increment/decrement) was observed for MMN and P3a. Our results confirmed the previous evidence for deteriorated duration discrimination in elderly people. Additionally, we found that this effect may be influenced by procedural factors.
  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Haukkala, Ari Heikki (2019)
    Dual-process models integrate deliberative and impulsive mental systems and predict dietary behaviours better than deliberative processes alone. Computerised tasks such as the Go/No-Go, Stop-Signal, Approach-Avoidance, and Evaluative Conditioning have been used as interventions to directly alter implicit biases. This meta-analysis examines the effects of these tasks on dietary behaviours, explores potential moderators of effectiveness, and examines implicit bias change as a proposed mechanism. Thirty randomised controlled trials testing implicit bias interventions (47 comparisons) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis, which indicated small cumulative effects on eating-related behavioural outcomes (g = -0.17, CI95 = [-0.29; -0.05], p = .01) and implicit biases (g = -0.18, CI95 = [-0.34; -0.02], p = .02). Task type moderated these effects, with Go/No-Go tasks producing larger effects than other tasks. Effects of interventions on implicit biases were positively related to effects on eating behaviour (B = 0.42, CI95 = [0.02; 0.81], p = .03). Go/No-Go tasks seem to have most potential for altering dietary behaviours through implicit processes. While changes in implicit biases seem related to the effects of these interventions on dietary outcomes, more research should explore whether repeated exposure to implicit bias interventions may have any practical intervention value in real world settings.
  • Waltmann, Maria; Herzog, Nadine; Horstmann, Annette; Deserno, Lorenz (2021)
    Recurring episodes of excessive food intake in binge eating disorder can be understood through the lens of behavioral control systems: patients repeat maladaptive behaviors against their explicit intent. Self-report measures show enhanced impulsivity and compulsivity in binge eating (BE) but are agnostic as to the processes that might lead to impulsive and compulsive behavior in the moment. Task-based neurocognitive investigations can tap into those processes. In this systematic review, we synthesize neurocognitive research on behavioral impulsivity and compulsivity in BE in humans and animals, published between 2010-2020. Findings on impulsivity are heterogeneous. Findings on compulsivity are sparse but comparatively consistent, indicating an imbalance of goal-directed and habitual control as well as deficits in reversal learning. We urge researchers to address heterogeneity related to mood states and the temporal dynamics of symptoms, to systematically differentiate contributions of body weight and BE, and to ascertain the validity and reliability of tasks. Moreover, we propose to further scrutinize the compulsivity findings to unravel the computational mechanisms of a potential reinforcement learning deficit.
  • Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri (2018)
    Musical training has been associated with superior performance in various executive function tasks. To date, only a few neuroimaging studies have investigated the neural substrates of the supposed "musician advantage" in executive functions, precluding definite conclusions about its neural basis. Here, we provide a selective review of neuroimaging studies on plasticity and typical maturation of executive functions, with the aim of investigating how proficient performance in executive function tasks is reflected in brain activity. Specifically, we examine the evidence for the hypothesis that enhanced or mature executive functions are manifested as efficient use of neural systems supporting those functions. We also present preliminary results from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study suggesting-in line with this hypothesis-that musically trained adolescents recruit frontoparietal regions less strongly during executive functions tasks than untrained peers.
  • Aulbach, Matthias; Harjunen, Ville Johannes; Spape, Michiel; Knittle, Keegan; Haukkala, Ari; Ravaja, Niklas (2020)
    Go/No‐Go tasks, which require participants to inhibit automatic responses to images of palatable foods, have shown diagnostic value in quantifying food‐related impulses. Moreover, they have shown potential for training to control impulsive eating. To test the hypothesis that training modulates early neural markers of response inhibition, the current study investigated how the N2 event‐related brain potential to high‐ and low‐calorie food images changes along Go‐/No‐Go training and how the N2 is related to later eating behavior. 50 healthy adults, (mBMI = 23.01) first completed a food Go/No‐Go task in which high‐ and low‐calorie food images were accompanied by Go‐and No‐Go‐cues with equal frequency. Participants then completed a training block in which high‐calorie foods were predominantly paired with a No‐Go cue and the low‐calorie foods with a Go cue, followed by a block with reversed coupling (order of the training blocks counterbalanced between participants). After each training, there was a snacking opportunity during which calorie intake was measured. Against our preregistered hypotheses, the N2‐amplitudes were not significantly affected by the calorie‐content and there was no training‐related modulation in the N2. In addition , food intake was not influenced by the preceding training blocks and the N2 amplitude did not predict the food intake. Our study suggests that the link between N2 obtained in a food‐related Go/No‐Go task and impulse control is not clear‐cut and may be limited to specific task characteristics. The results are of high importance as they question the previously assumed mechanism of Go/No‐Go training in food‐related inhibitory control.
  • Jylkka, Jussi; Soveri, Anna; Wahlstrom, Jenny; Lehtonen, Minna; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti (2017)
    We examined the relationship between self-reported everyday language switching experience and the performance of early bilinguals in tasks measuring different executive functions. Our participants were Finnish-Swedish early bilinguals, aged 16-41 years (N=66, Experiment 1) and 18-69 years (N=111, Experiment 2). An earlier study using a sample from a similar population discovered a negative relationship between self-reported language switching and a mixing cost in error rates in a number-letter task. This finding was not replicated. Instead, we found that a higher rate of reported contextual language switching predicted larger switching cost reaction times in the number-letter task, and that a higher rate of reported unintended language switches predicted larger error rates in a spatial n-back task. We conclude that these results likely reflect individual differences in executive skills, and do not provide evidence for the hypothesis that language switching trains executive functions.
  • Mehl, Nora; Morys, Filip; Villringer, Arno; Horstmann, Annette (2019)
    Obesity is associated with automatically approaching problematic stimuli, such as unhealthy food. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) could beneficially impact problematic approach behavior. However, it is unclear which mechanisms are targeted by CBM in obesity. Candidate mechanisms include: (1) altering reward value of food stimuli; and (2) strengthening inhibitory abilities. Thirty-three obese adults completed either CBM or sham training during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. CBM consisted of implicit training to approach healthy and avoid unhealthy foods. At baseline, approach tendencies towards food were present in all participants. Avoiding vs. approaching food was associated with higher activity in the right angular gyrus (rAG). CBM resulted in a diminished approach bias towards unhealthy food, decreased activation in the rAG, and increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex. Relatedly, functional connectivity between the rAG and right superior frontal gyrus increased. Analysis of brain connectivity during rest revealed training-related connectivity changes of the inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyri. Taken together, CBM strengthens avoidance tendencies when faced with unhealthy foods and alters activity in brain regions underpinning behavioral inhibition.