Browsing by Subject "INITIAL CONDITIONS"

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  • Väliviita, Jussi; Savelainen, Matti; Talvitie, Marianne; Kurki-Suonio, Hannu; Rusak, Stanislav (2012)
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Nurmi, Sami; Rasanen, Syksy; Tomberg, Eemeli (2021)
    We study Higgs inflation in the Palatini formulation with the renormalisation group improved potential in the case when loop corrections generate a feature similar to an inflection point. Assuming that there is a threshold correction for the Higgs quartic coupling lambda and the top Yukawa coupling y(t), we scan the three-dimensional parameter space formed by the two jumps and the non-minimal coupling xi .The spectral index n(s) can take any value in the observationally allowed range. The lower limit for the running is alpha (s)> -3.5 x 10(-3), and alpha (s) can be as large as the observational upper limit. Running of the running is small. The tensor-to-scalar ratio is 2.2x10(-17)< r < 2 x 10(-5). We find that slow-roll can be violated near the feature, and a possible period of ultra-slow-roll contributes to the widening of the range of CMB predictions. Nevertheless, for the simplest tree-level action, the Palatini formulation remains distinguishable from the metric formulation even when quantum corrections are taken into account, because of the small tensor-to-scalar ratio.
  • Juvela, Mika; Neha, Sharma; Mannfors, Emma; Saajasto, Mika; Ysard, Nathalie; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti (2020)
    Context. LDN 1642 is a rare example of a star-forming, high-latitude molecular cloud. The dust emission of LDN 1642 has already been studied extensively in the past, but its location also makes it a good target for studies of light scattering.Aims. We wish to study the near-infrared (NIR) light scattering in LDN 1642, its correlation with the cloud structure, and the ability of dust models to simultaneously explain observations of sub-millimetre dust emission, NIR extinction, and NIR scattering.Methods. We used observations made with the HAWK-I instrument to measure the NIR surface brightness and extinction in LDN 1642. These data were compared with Herschel observations of dust emission and, with the help of radiative transfer modelling, with the predictions calculated for different dust models.Results. We find, for LDN 1642, an optical depth ratio tau (250 mu m)/tau (J) approximate to 10(-3), confirming earlier findings of enhanced sub-millimetre emissivity. The relationships between the column density derived from dust emission and the NIR colour excesses are linear and consistent with the shape of the standard NIR extinction curve. The extinction peaks at A(J) = 2.6 mag, and the NIR surface brightness remains correlated with N(H-2) without saturation. Radiative transfer models are able to fit the sub-millimetre data with any of the tested dust models. However, these predict an NIR extinction that is higher and an NIR surface brightness that is lower than based on NIR observations. If the dust sub-millimetre emissivity is rescaled to the observed value of tau (250 mu m)/tau (J), dust models with high NIR albedo can reach the observed level of NIR surface brightness. The NIR extinction of the models tends to be higher than in the direct extinction measurements, which is also reflected in the shape of the NIR surface brightness spectra.Conclusions. The combination of emission, extinction, and scattering measurements provides strong constraints on dust models. The observations of LDN 1642 indicate clear dust evolution, including a strong increase in the sub-millimetre emissivity, which has not been fully explained by the current dust models yet.
  • Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Pineda, J. E.; Caselli, P.; Bizzocchi, L.; Gutermuth, R. A.; Mason, B. S.; Gomez-Ruiz, A.; Harju, J.; Devlin, M.; Dicker, S. R.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C. E.; Sievers, J.; Stanchfield, S.; Offner, S.; Sanchez-Argueelles, D. (2019)
    Context. The study of dust emission at millimeter wavelengths is important to shed light on the dust properties and physical structure of pre-stellar cores, the initial conditions in the process of star and planet formation. Aims. Using two new continuum facilities, AzTEC at the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano and MUSTANG-2 at the Green Bank Observatory, we aim to detect changes in the optical properties of dust grains as a function of radius for the well-known pre-stellar core L1544. Methods. We determined the emission profiles at 1.1 and 3.3 mm and examine whether they can be reproduced in terms of the current best physical models for L1544. We also made use of various tools to determine the radial distributions of the density, temperature, and dust opacity in a self-consistent manner. Results. We find that our observations cannot be reproduced without invoking opacity variations. New temperature and density profiles, as well as opacity variations across the core, have been derived with the new data. The opacity changes are consistent with the expected variations between uncoagulated bare grains, toward the outer regions of the core, and grains with thick ice mantles, toward the core center. A simple analytical grain growth model predicts the presence of grains of similar to 3-4 mu m within the central 2000 au for the new density profile.
  • Soam, Archana; Lee, Chang Won; Andersson, B-G; Maheswar, G.; Juvela, Mika; Liu, Tie; Kim, Gwanjeong; Rao, Ramprasad; Chung, Eun Jung; Kwon, Woojin; Ekta, S. (2019)
    L1521F is found to be forming multiple cores and it is cited as an example of the densest core with an embedded VeLLO in a highly dynamical environment. We present the core-scale magnetic fields (B-fields) in the near vicinity of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS using submillimeter polarization measurements at 850 mu m using JCMT POL-2. This is the first attempt to use high-sensitivity observations to map the sub-parsec-scale B-fields in a core with a VeLLO. The B-fields are ordered and very well connected to the parsec-scale field geometry seen in our earlier optical polarization observations and the large-scale structure seen in Planck dust polarization. The core-scale B-field strength estimated using the Davis-Chandrasekhar-Fermi relation is 330 +/- 100 mu G, which is more than 10 times the value we obtained in the envelope (the envelope in this paper is the "core envelope"). This indicates that B-fields are getting stronger on smaller scales. The magnetic energies are found to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than nonthermal kinetic energies in the envelope and core. This suggests that magnetic fields are more important than turbulence in the energy budget of L1521F. The mass-to-flux ratio of 2.3 +/- 0.7 suggests that the core is magnetically supercritical. The degree of polarization is steadily decreasing toward the denser part of the core with a power-law slope of -0.86.
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Enqvist, Kari; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Lumi-Pyry (2020)
    We consider Higgs inflation with an α R2 term. It adds a new scalar degree of freedom, which leads to a two-field model of inflation. We do a complete slow-roll analysis of the three-dimensional parameter space of the R2 coefficient α, the non-minimal coupling ξ and the Higgs self-coupling λ. We find three classes of inflationary solutions, but only pure R2 and attractor solutions fit observations. We find that pure Higgs inflation is impossible when the R2 term is present regardless of how small α is. However, we can have Higgs-like inflation, where the amplitude of the perturbations does not depend on α and the predictions as a function of e-folds are the same as in Higgs inflation, although the inflationary trajectory is curved in field space. The spectral index is 0.939 < nR < 0.967, and constraining it to the observed range, the tensor-to-scalar ratio varies from 3.8×10−3 to the maximum allowed by observations, 0.079. Observational constraints on isocurvature perturbations contribute to these limits, whereas non-Gaussianity is automatically in the range allowed by observations.
  • Enckell, Vera-Maria; Enqvist, Kari; Räsänen, Syksy; Wahlman, Lumi-Pyry (2019)
    We study scalar field inflation in F(R) gravity in the Palatini formulation of general relativity. Unlike in the metric formulation, in the Palatini formulation F(R) gravity does not introduce new degrees of freedom. However, it changes the relations between existing degrees of freedom, including the inflaton and spacetime curvature. Considering the case F(R) = R + alpha R-2, we find that the R-2 term decreases the height of the effective inflaton potential. By adjusting the value of a, this mechanism can be used to suppress the tensor-to-scalar ratio r without limit in any scalar field model of inflation without affecting the spectrum of scalar perturbations.
  • Kim, Gwanjeong; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Tie; Yi, Hee-Weon; He, Jinhua; Hirano, Naomi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Choi, Minho; Sanhueza, Patricio; Toth, L. Viktor; Evans, Neal J.; Feng, Siyi; Juvela, Mika; Kim, Kee-Tae; Vastel, Charlotte; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lu'o'ng, Quang Nguyen; Kang, Miju; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Feher, Orsolya; Wu, Yuefang; Ohashi, Satoshi; Wang, Ke; Kandori, Ryo; Hirota, Tomoya; Sakai, Takeshi; Lu, Xing; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary A.; Li, Di; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Kim, Jungha (2020)
    We present the results of a single-pointing survey of 207 dense cores embedded in Planck Galactic Cold Clumps distributed in five different environments (lambda Orionis, Orion A, Orion B, the Galactic plane, and high latitudes) to identify dense cores on the verge of star formation for the study of the initial conditions of star formation. We observed these cores in eight molecular lines at 76-94 GHz using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We find that early-type molecules (e.g., CCS) have low detection rates and that late-type molecules (e.g., N(2)H(+)and c-C3H2) and deuterated molecules (e.g., N(2)D(+)and DNC) have high detection rates, suggesting that most of the cores are chemically evolved. The deuterium fraction (D/H) is found to decrease with increasing distance, indicating that it suffers from differential beam dilution between the D/H pair of lines for distant cores (>1 kpc). For lambda Orionis, Orion A, and Orion B located at similar distances, D/H is not significantly different, suggesting that there is no systematic difference in the observed chemical properties among these three regions. We identify at least eight high-D/H cores in the Orion region and two at high latitudes, which are most likely to be close to the onset of star formation. There is no clear evidence of the evolutionary change in turbulence during the starless phase, suggesting that the dissipation of turbulence is not a major mechanism for the beginning of star formation as judged from observations with a beam size of 0.04 pc.
  • Lattanzi, Valerio; Bizzocchi, Luca; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Harju, Jorma; Giuliano, Barbara M.; Vastel, Charlotte; Caselli, Paola (2020)
    Context. Pre-stellar cores (PSCs) are units of star formation. Besides representing early stages of the dynamical evolution leading to the formation of stars and planets, PSCs also provide a substrate for incipient chemical complexity in the interstellar space. Aims. Our aim is to understand the influence of external conditions on the chemical composition of PSCs. For this purpose, we compared molecular column densities in two typical PSCs, L183 and L1544, which are embedded in different environments. Methods. A single-pointing survey of L183 at lambda = 3 mm was conducted using the IRAM 30-m single-dish antenna. This led to the detection of more than 100 emission lines from 46 molecular species. The molecular column densities and excitation temperatures derived from these lines were compared to the corresponding parameters in L1544. The data for L1544 were obtained from literature or publicly available surveys, and they were analysed using the same procedure as adopted for L183. An astrochemical model, previously developed for the interpretation of organic molecule emissions towards the methanol peak of L1544, was used to interpret the combined data. Results. Our analysis reveals clear chemical differences between the two PSCs. While L1544 is richer in carbon-bearing species, in particular carbon chains, oxygen-containing species are generally more abundant in L183. The results are well-reproduced by our chemical model. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two PSCs is caused by the different environmental conditions: the core of L183 is deeply buried in the surrounding cloud, whereas L1544 lies close to the edge of the Taurus Molecular Cloud. The obscuration of L183 from the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) allows the carbon atoms to be locked in carbon monoxide, which ultimately leads to a large abundance of O-bearing species. In contrast, L1544, being more affected by the ISRF, can keep a fraction of carbon in atomic form, which is needed for the production of carbon chains.
  • Räsänen, Syksy; Tomberg, Eemeli (2019)
    We study the production of primordial black hole (PBH) dark matter in the case when the Standard Model Higgs coupled non-minimally to gravity is the inflaton. PBHs can be produced if the Higgs potential has a near-critical point due to quantum corrections. In this case the slow-roll approximation may be broken, so we calculate the power spectrum numerically. We consider both the metric and the Palatini formulation of general relativity. Combining observational constraints on PBHs and on the CMB spectrum we find that PBHs can constitute all of the dark matter only if they evaporate early and leave behind Planck mass relics. This requires the potential to have a shallow local minimum, not just a critical point. The initial PBH mass is then below 10(6) g, and predictions for the CMB observables are the same as in tree-level Higgs inflation, n(s) = 0.96 and r = 5 x 10(-3) (metric) or r = 4 x 10(-8) ... 2 x 10(-7) (Palatini).
  • Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Crain, Robert A.; Furlong, Michelle; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Jenkins, Adrian (2016)
    We use a large sample of isolated dark matter halo pairs drawn from cosmological N-body simulations to identify candidate systems whose kinematics match that of the Local Group (LG) of galaxies. We find, in agreement with the 'timing argument' and earlier work, that the separation and approach velocity of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) galaxies favour a total mass for the pair of similar to 5 x 10(12) M-circle dot. A mass this large, however, is difficult to reconcile with the small relative tangential velocity of the pair, as well as with the small deceleration from the Hubble flow observed for the most distant LG members. Halo pairs that match these three criteria have average masses a factor of similar to 2 times smaller than suggested by the timing argument, but with large dispersion. Guided by these results, we have selected 12 halo pairs with total mass in the range 1.6-3.6 x 10(12) M-circle dot for the APOSTLE project (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of hydrodynamical resimulations at various numerical resolution levels (reaching up to similar to 10(4) M-circle dot per gas particle) that use the subgrid physics developed for the EAGLE project. These simulations reproduce, by construction, the main kinematics of the MW-M31 pair, and produce satellite populations whose overall number, luminosities, and kinematics are in good agreement with observations of the MW and M31 companions. The APOSTLE candidate systems thus provide an excellent testbed to confront directly many of the predictions of the Lambda cold dark matter cosmology with observations of our local Universe.
  • Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Furlong, Michelle; Helly, John. C.; Jenkins, Adrian; Oman, Kyle A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James; White, Simon D. M. (2016)
    The Local Group galaxies offer some of the most discriminating tests of models of cosmic structure formation. For example, observations of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda satellite populations appear to be in disagreement with N-body simulations of the 'lambda cold dark matter' (I > CDM) model: there are far fewer satellite galaxies than substructures in CDM haloes (the 'missing satellites' problem); dwarf galaxies seem to avoid the most massive substructures (the 'too-big-to-fail' problem); and the brightest satellites appear to orbit their host galaxies on a thin plane (the 'planes of satellites' problem). Here we present results from apostle (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of 12 volumes selected to match the kinematics of the Local Group (LG) members. Applying the eagle code to the LG environment, we find that our simulations match the observed abundance of LG galaxies, including the satellite galaxies of the MW and Andromeda. Due to changes to the structure of haloes and the evolution in the LG environment, the simulations reproduce the observed relation between stellar mass and velocity dispersion of individual dwarf spheroidal galaxies without necessitating the formation of cores in their dark matter profiles. Satellite systems form with a range of spatial anisotropies, including one similar to the MWs, confirming that such a configuration is not unexpected in I > CDM. Finally, based on the observed velocity dispersion, size, and stellar mass, we provide estimates of the maximum circular velocity for the haloes of nine MW dwarf spheroidals.
  • Padoan, Paolo; Pan, Liubin; Juvela, Mika; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke (2020)
    We address the problem of the origin of massive stars, namely the origin, path, and timescale of the mass flows that create them. Based on extensive numerical simulations, we propose a scenario where massive stars are assembled by large-scale, converging, inertial flows that naturally occur in supersonic turbulence. We refer to this scenario of massive-star formation as the inertial-inflow model. This model stems directly from the idea that the mass distribution of stars is primarily the result of turbulent fragmentation. Under this hypothesis, the statistical properties of turbulence determine the formation timescale and mass of prestellar cores, posing definite constraints on the formation mechanism of massive stars. We quantify such constraints by analyzing a simulation of supernova-driven turbulence in a 250 pc region of the interstellar medium, describing the formation of hundreds of massive stars over a time of approximately 30 Myr. Due to the large size of our statistical sample, we can say with full confidence that massive stars in general do not form from the collapse of massive cores nor from competitive accretion, as both models are incompatible with the numerical results. We also compute synthetic continuum observables in the Herschel and ALMA bands. We find that, depending on the distance of the observed regions, estimates of core mass based on commonly used methods may exceed the actual core masses by up to two orders of magnitude and that there is essentially no correlation between estimated and real core masses.
  • Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Liu, Tie; Yuan, Jinghua; Sanhueza, Patricio; Traficante, Alessio; Li, Guang-Xing; Li, Di; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Lee, Chang Won; Samal, Manash R.; Eden, David; Marston, Anthony; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zhou, Jian-Jun; Li, Pak Shing; Koch, Patrick M.; Xu, Jin-Long; Wu, Yuefang; Juvela, Mika; Zhang, Tianwei; Alina, Dana; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Toth, L.; Wang, Jun-Jie; Kim, Kee-Tae (2018)
    In order to understand the initial conditions and early evolution of star formation in a wide range of Galactic environments, we carried out an investigation of 64 Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the second quadrant of the Milky Way. Using the (CO)-C-13 and (CO)-O-18 J = 1-0 lines and 850 mu m continuum observations, we investigated cloud fragmentation and evolution associated with star formation. We extracted 468 clumps and 117 cores from the (CO)-C-13 line and 850 mu m continuum maps, respectively. We made use of the Bayesian distance calculator and derived the distances of all 64 PGCCs. We found that in general, the mass-size plane follows a relation of m similar to r(1.67). At a given scale, the masses of our objects are around 1/10 of that of typical Galactic massive star-forming regions. Analysis of the clump and core masses, virial parameters, densities, and mass-size relation suggests that the PGCCs in our sample have a low core formation efficiency (similar to 3.0%), and most PGCCs are likely low-mass star-forming candidates. Statistical study indicates that the 850 mu m cores are more turbulent, more optically thick, and denser than the (CO)-C-13 clumps for star formation candidates, suggesting that the 850 mu m cores are likely more appropriate future star formation candidates than the (CO)-C-13 clumps.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, Mika; Wang, Ke; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wu, Yuefang; Thompson, Mark; Fuller, Gary; Eden, David; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Lin, Yuxin; Johnstone, D.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Q.; Hirano, N.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Evans, Neal J.; White, Glenn J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, Steve; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, Mengyao; Soam, Archana; Peretto, N.; Samal, Manash R.; Fich, Michel; Parsons, Harriet; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Malinen, Johanna; Bendo, George J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, Hong-Li; Wouterloot, Jan; Li, Pak Shing; Qian, Lei; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Feng, Siyi; Aikawa, Yuri; Akhter, S.; Alina, Dana; Bell, Graham; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, Andrew; Bogner, Rebeka; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, M.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Cosentino, Giuliana; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Doi, Yasuo; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, Edith; Feher, O.; Fraser, Helen; Friberg, Per; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, Jane; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, J.; He, Yuxin; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, Tae-Geun; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kang, Miju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Shinyoung; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Lo, N.; Lopez, John A. P.; Lu, Xing; Lyo, A-Ran; Mardones, D.; Marston, A.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, Julien; Moore, T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, Soojong; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pattle, Kate M.; Pech, Gerardo; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Richer, John; Saito, M.; Sakai, Takeshi; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, Alessio; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, S.; Walsh, Andrew; Wang, Bingru; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Junzhi; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, Anthony; Xu, Ye; Yang, J.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Yuan, Lixia; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, Chenlin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; Zuo, Pei; Zhang, Chao (2018)
    The low dust temperatures (<14 K) of Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) make them ideal targets to probe the initial conditions and very early phase of star formation. "TOP-SCOPE" is a joint survey program targeting similar to 2000 PGCCs in J = 1-0 transitions of CO isotopologues and similar to 1000 PGCCs in 850 mu m continuum emission. The objective of the "TOP-SCOPE" survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are similar to 6200 M-circle dot, similar to 12 pc, and similar to 500 M-circle dot pc(-1), respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (beta) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.