Browsing by Subject "INNERVATION"

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  • Partanen, Juhani V.; Vanhanen, Jukka; Liljander, Sara K. (2022)
    In needle electromyography, there are two spontaneous waveforms, miniature end plate potentials and "end plate spikes", appearing usually together. Miniature end plate potentials are local, non-propagating postsynaptic waves, caused by spontaneous exocytosis of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction. The prevailing hypothesis states that "end plate spikes" are propagated postsynaptic action potentials of muscle fibers, caused by presynaptic irritation of the motor nerve or nerve terminal. Using several small concentric needle electrodes in parallel with the muscle fibers, most "end plate spikes" are strictly local or propagating for 2-4 mm. At the end plate zone, there are miniature end plate potentials without "end plate spikes". Local "end plate spikes" are junctional potentials of intrafusal gamma neuromuscular junctions of the nuclear bag fibers, and propagated "end plate spikes" are potentials of nuclear chain muscle fibers of muscle spindles. Miniature end plate potentials without "end plate spikes" at the end plate zone derive from alpha neuromuscular junctions. These findings contrast with the prevailing hypothesis. The history of observations and different hypotheses of the origin of end plate spikes are described.
  • Tommola, Paivi; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Paetau, Anders; Meri, Seppo; Kalso, Eija; Paavonen, Jorma (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Provoked vestibulodynia manifests as allodynia of the vulvar vestibular mucosa. The exact mechanisms that result in altered pain sensation are unknown. Recently, we demonstrated the presence of secondary lymphoid tissue, which is the vestibule-associated lymphoid tissue in the vestibular mucosa, and showed that this tissue becomes activated in provoked vestibulodynia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether expression of intraepithelial nerve fibers and nerve growth factor are related to immune activation in provoked vestibulodynia. STUDY DESIGN: Vestibular mucosal specimens were obtained from 27 patients with severe provoked vestibulodynia that was treated by vestibulectomy and from 15 control subjects. We used antibodies against the protein gene product 9.5, the neuron specific neurofilament, and nerve growth factor for immunohistochemistry to detect intraepithelial nerve fibers and nerve growth factor expressing immune cells in the vestibular mucosa. For intraepithelial nerve fibers, we determined their linear density (fiber counts per millimeter of the outer epithelial surface, protein gene product 9.5) or presence (neuron specific neurofilament). Nerve growth factor was analyzed by counting the staining-positive immune cells. Antibodies against CD20 (B lymphocytes) and CD3 (T lymphocytes) were used to identify and locate mucosal areas with increased density of lymphocytes and the presence of germinal centers (ie, signs of immune activation). B-cell activation index was used to describe the overall intensity of B-cell infiltration. RESULTS: We found more protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepithelial fibers in vestibulodynia than in the control samples (6.3/mm [range, 0.0-15.8] vs 2.0/mm [range, 0.0-12.0]; P = .006). Neuron specific neurofilament -positive intraepithelial fibers were found in 17 of 27 vestibulodynia cases (63.0%) and in none of the control cases. Protein gene product 9.5-positive intraepithelial fibers were more common in samples with more pronounced immune activation. The density of these fibers was higher in samples with than without germinal centers (6.1/mm [range, 4.3-15.8] vs 3.0/mm [range, 0.0-13.4]; P = .020). A positive correlation between the fiber density and B-cell activation index score of the sample was found (Spearman's Rho, 0.400; P = .004; R-2 = 0.128). No significant difference, however, was found in the density or presence of nerve fibers between samples with high and low T-cell densities. We identified areas of minor and major vestibular glands in 16 of the patient samples and in 1 control sample. Protein gene product 9.5-positive nerve fibers were found more often in glandular epithelium surrounded by B-cell infiltration than in glands without B cells (P = .013). Also, the presence of neuron specific neurofilament-positive fibers in glandular epithelium was associated with B-cell infiltrates (P = .053). Nerve growth factor-positive immune cells were more common in mucosal areas with than without B-cell infiltration and intraepithelial nerve fibers. CONCLUSION: Excessive epithelial nerve growth in provoked vestibulodynia is associated with increased B-cell infiltration and the presence of germinal centers. This supports the fundamental role of immune activation in provoked vestibulodynia.
  • Bleck, Dennis; Ma, Li; Erdene-Bymbadoo, Lkham; Brinks, Ralph; Schneider, Matthias; Tian, Li; Pongratz, Georg (2019)
    In recent years, the role of sympathetic nervous fibers in chronic inflammation has become increasingly evident. At the onset of inflammation, sympathetic activity is increased in the affected tissue. However, sympathetic fibers are largely absent from chronically inflamed tissue. Apparently, there is a very dynamic relationship between sympathetic innervation and the immune system in areas of inflammation, and hence a rapid and easy method for quantification of nerve fiber density of target organs is of great value to answer potential research questions. Currently, nervous fiber densities are either determined by tedious manual counting, which is not suitable for high throughput approaches, or by expensive automated processes relying on specialized software and high-end microscopy equipment. Usually, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is used as the marker for sympathetic fibers. In order to overcome the current quantification bottleneck with a cost-efficient alternative, an automated process was established and compared to the classic manual approach of counting TH-positive sympathetic fibers. Since TH is not exclusively expressed on sympathetic fibers, but also in a number of catecholamine-producing cells, a prerequisite for automated determination of fiber densities is to reliably distinct between cells and fibers. Therefore, an additional staining using peripherin exclusively expressed in nervous fibers as a secondary marker was established. Using this novel approach, we studied the spleens from a syndecan-3 knockout (SDC3KO) mouse line, and demonstrated equal results on SNS fiber density for both manual and automated counts (Manual counts: wildtype: 22.57 +/- 11.72 fibers per mm2; ko: 31.95 +/- 18.85 fibers per mm2; p = 0.05; Automated counts: wildtype: 31.6 +/- 18.98 fibers per mm2; ko: 45.49 +/- 19.65 fibers per mm2; p = 0.02). In conclusion, this new and simple method can be used as a high-throughput approach to reliably and quickly estimate SNS nerve fiber density in target tissues.
  • Totah, Nelson K.; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Eschenko, Oxana (2021)
    The brainstem noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) is reciprocally connected with the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Coupling between LC spiking and the depolarizing phase of slow (1?2 Hz) waves in PFC field potentials during sleep and anesthesia suggests that LC drives cortical state transition. Reciprocal LC-PFC connectivity should also allow interactions in the opposing (top-down) direction, but prior work has only studied prefrontal control over LC activity using electrical or optogenetic stimulation. Here, we describe the physiological characteristics of spontaneously occurring top-down LC-PFC interactions. We recorded LC multiunit activity (MUA) simultaneously with PFC single-unit and local field potential (LFP) activity in urethane-anesthetized rats. We observed cross-regional coupling between the phase of 5-Hz oscillations in LC-MUA and the power of PFC LFP 60?200 Hz high y (hy). Transient increases in PFC hy power preceded peaks in the 5-Hz LC-MUA oscillation. Analysis of cross-regional transfer entropy demonstrated that the PFC hy transients were predictive of a transient increase in LC-MUA. An -29 ms delay between these signals was consistent with the conduction velocity from the PFC to the LC. Finally, we showed that PFC hy transients are associated with synchronized spiking of a subset (27%) of PFC single units. Our data suggest that PFC hy transients may indicate the timing of the top-down excitatory input to LC, at least under conditions when LC neuronal population activity fluctuates rhythmically at 5 Hz. Synchronized PFC neuronal spiking that occurs during hy transients may provide a previously unknown mode of top-down control over the LC. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to control activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC). Prior anatomical and prefrontal stimulation studies demonstrated the potential for PFC-LC interactions; however, it is unknown what types of PFC activity affect the LC. Here, we show that transient increases in PFC high y power and associated changes in PFC unit-pair synchrony are a potential sign of top-down control over the LC.