Browsing by Subject "INSIGHT"

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  • Moreau, Juulia-Gabrielle; Joeleht, Argo; Aruvali, Jaan; Heikkila, Mikko J.; Stojic, Aleksandra N.; Thomberg, Thomas; Plado, Juri; Hietala, Satu (2022)
    Stoichiometric troilite (FeS) is a common phase in differentiated and undifferentiated meteorites. It is the endmember of the iron sulfide system. Troilite is important for investigating shock metamorphism in meteorites and studying spectral properties and space weathering of planetary bodies. Thus, obtaining coarse-grained meteoritic troilite in quantities is beneficial for these fields. The previous synthesis of troilite was achieved by pyrite or pyrrhotite heating treatments or chemical syntheses. However, most of these works lacked a visual characterization of the step by step process and the final product, the production of large quantities, and they were not readily advertised to planetary scientists or the meteoritical research community. Here, we illustrate a two-step heat treatment of pyrite to synthesize troilite. Pyrite powder was decomposed to pyrrhotite at 1023-1073 K for 4-6 h in Ar; the run product was then retrieved and reheated for 1 h at 1498-1598 K in N-2 (gas). The minerals were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature, and in situ high-temperature XRD. The primary observation of synthesis from pyrrhotite to troilite is the shift of a major diffraction peak from similar to 43.2 degrees 2 theta to similar to 43.8 degrees 2 theta. Troilite spectra matched an XRD analysis of natural meteoritic troilite. Slight contamination of Fe was observed during cooling to troilite, and alumina crucibles locally reacted with troilite. The habitus and size of troilite crystals allowed us to store it as large grains rather than powder; 27 g of pyrite yielded 17 g of stochiometric troilite.
  • Haapanen, Outi; Reidelbach, Marco; Sharma, Vivek (2020)
    Respiratory complex I (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) plays a central role in generating the proton electrochemical gradient in mitochondrial and bacterial membranes, which is needed to generate ATP. Several high-resolution structures of complex I have been determined, revealing its intricate architecture and complementing the biochemical and biophysical studies. However, the molecular mechanism of long-range coupling between ubiquinone (Q) reduction and proton pumping is not known. Computer simulations have been applied to decipher the dynamics of Q molecule in the similar to 30 angstrom long Q tunnel. In this short report, we discuss the binding and dynamics of Q at computationally predicted Q binding sites, many of which are supported by structural data on complex I. We suggest that the binding of Q at these sites is coupled to proton pumping by means of conformational rearrangements in the conserved loops of core subunits.
  • Heinonen, Jarmo; Numminen, Jussi; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Antell, Henrik; Taatila, Vesa; Suomala, Jyrki (2016)
    Scientific findings have suggested a two-fold structure of the cognitive process. By using the heuristic thinking mode, people automatically process information that tends to be invariant across days, whereas by using the explicit thinking mode people explicitly process information that tends to be variant compared to typical previously learned information patterns. Previous studies on creativity found an association between creativity and the brain regions in the prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the default mode network and the executive network. However, which neural networks contribute to the explicit mode of thinking during idea generation remains an open question. We employed an fMRI paradigm to examine which brain regions were activated when participants (n = 16) mentally generated alternative uses for everyday objects. Most previous creativity studies required participants to verbalize responses during idea generation, whereas in this study participants produced mental alternatives without verbalizing. This study found activation in the left anterior insula when contrasting idea generation and object identification. This finding suggests that the insula (part of the brain's salience network) plays a role in facilitating both the central executive and default mode networks to activate idea generation. We also investigated closely the effect of the serial order of idea being generated on brain responses: The amplitude of fMRI responses correlated positively with the serial order of idea being generated in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the central executive network. Positive correlation with the serial order was also observed in the regions typically assigned to the default mode network: the precuneus/ cuneus, inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate cortex. These networks support the explicit mode of thinking and help the individual to convert conventional mental models to new ones. The serial order correlated negatively with the BOLD responses in the posterior presupplementarymotor area, left premotor cortex, right cerebellum and left inferior frontal gyrus. This finding might imply that idea generation without a verbal processing demand reflecting lack of need for new object identification in idea generation events. The results of the study are consistent with recent creativity studies, which emphasize that the creativity process involves working memory capacity to spontaneously shift between different kinds of thinking modes according to the context.
  • Pour-Aboughadareh, Alireza; Yousefian, Mohsen; Moradkhani, Hoda; Poczai, Péter; Siddique, Kadambot HM (2019)
    PREMISE: In crop breeding programs, breeders use yield performance in both optimal and stressful environments as a key indicator for screening the most tolerant genotypes. During the past four decades, several yield-based indices have been suggested for evaluating stress tolerance in crops. Despite the well-established use of these indices in agronomy and plant breeding, a user-friendly software that would provide access to these methods is still lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Plant Abiotic Stress Index Calculator (iPASTIC) is an online program based on JavaScript and R that calculates common stress tolerance and susceptibility indices for various crop traits including the tolerance index (TOL), relative stress index (RSI), mean productivity (MP), harmonic mean (HM), yield stability index (YSI), geometric mean productivity (GMP), stress susceptibility index (SSI), stress tolerance index (STI), and yield index (YI). Along with these indices, this easily accessible tool can also calculate their ranking patterns, estimate the relative frequency for each index, and create heat maps based on Pearson's and Spearman's rank-order correlation analyses. In addition, it can also render three-dimensional plots based on both yield performances and each index to separate entry genotypes into Fernandez's groups (A, B, C, and D), and perform principal component analysis. The accuracy of the results calculated from our software was tested using two different data sets obtained from previous experiments testing the salinity and drought stress in wheat genotypes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: iPASTIC can be widely used in agronomy and plant breeding programs as a user-friendly interface for agronomists and breeders dealing with large volumes of data. The software is available at
  • Lindgren, Maija; Birling, Heli; Kieseppä, Tuula; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari (2020)
    Background: In first-episode psychosis (FEP), symptoms of anxiety and depression are common. We examined whether cognitive performance is associated with these clinical measures in FEP during a one-year follow-up. Methods: Young adults with non-affective FEP (n = 52) were assessed two months after their first psychiatric contact for psychosis. Matched controls (n = 62) were administered a baseline assessment 32 FEP subjects and 44 controls were assessed again at a one-year follow-up. In both assessments, a broad neuropsychological test battery was administered. Clinical evaluation was done with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Cross-sectional correlations were calculated at both time points. Cognitive test scores were used as independent variables in regression models, predicting both baseline and follow-up symptom levels. Results: At baseline, better performance especially in verbal memory and executive functioning was associated with elevated anxiety symptoms in FEP. In addition, better performance especially in verbal working memory was associated with depression. A year later, better cognitive performance was no longer associated with affective symptoms. Limitations: Small sample sizes are a limitation. Conclusions: In the FEP group, higher cognitive performance associated with affective symptoms. Right after getting severely ill, anxiety and depression may be a part of normal adaptive reactions to the situation and markers of an intact cognitive performance. This association seems to cease during the year following the FEP.
  • Mattila, Hans Kristian; Kačar, Dina; Mali, Tuulia Leena Elina; Lundell, Taina Kristina (2018)
    The Polyporales phlebioid white rot fungus Phlebia radiata is efficient in decomposing the wood main components, and in producing ethanol from lignocelluloses and waste materials. Based to these qualifications, the fungus was adopted for design of a consolidated bioprocess method to convert wood waste materials into ethanol without pretreatments. Higher ethanol yield was aimed by introducing collaborative fungal cultivations including isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, other yeasts, and a brown rot fungus. Various waste lignocellulose materials such as wheat and barley straw, recycled wood-fiber based core board, recycled construction waste wood, spruce saw dust, and birch wood were applied to represent wood and non-wood waste lignocellulose of different origin, chemical content and structure. In solid-state single cultivations with the white rot fungus P. radiata, both core board and barley straw turned out as suitable substrates for the consolidated bioprocess. Up to 32.4 ± 4.5 g/L of ethanol accumulated in the solid-state core board cultivation in 30 days whereas with barley straw, 7.0 ± 0.01 g/L of ethanol was obtained. Similar concentrations of ethanol were produced in increased-volume and higher gravity bioreactor cultivations without chemical, physical or enzymatic pretreatment. In all, our consolidated method adopting a white rot fungus is a promising and economic alternative for second generation bioethanol production from waste and residual lignocelluloses.
  • Petrova, E. V.; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Kohout, T.; Muftakhetdinova, R. F.; Yakovlev, G. A. (2019)
    A spherical geometry shock experiment with the light-colored lithology material of the Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite was carried out. The material was affected by shock and thermal metamorphism whose grade ranged from initial stage S3-4 to complete melting. The temperature and pressure were estimated at >2000 degrees C and >90 GPa. The textural shock effects were studied by optical and electron microscopy. A single experimental impact has produced the whole the range of shock pressures and temperatures and, correspondingly, four zones identified by petrographic analysis: (1) a melt zone, (2) a zone of melting silicates, (3) a black ring zone, and (4) a zone of weakly shocked initial material. The following textural features of the material were identified: displacement of the metal and troilite phases from the central melt zone; the development of a zone of mixed lithology (light-colored fragments in silicate melt); the origin of a dark-colored lithology ring; and the generation of radiating shock veinlets. The experimental sample shows four textural zones that correspond to the different lithology types of the Chelyabinsk LL5 meteorite found in fragments of the meteoritic shower in the collection at the Ural Federal University. Our results prove that shock wave loading experiment can be successfully applied in modeling of space shocks and can be used to experimentally model processes at the small bodies of the solar system.