Browsing by Subject "INSOMNIA"

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  • Tan, Xiao; van Egmond, Lieve; Partinen, Markku; Lange, Tanja; Benedict, Christian (2019)
    Sleep and circadian disruptions are frequently observed in patients across hospital wards. This is alarming, since impaired nocturnal sleep and disruption of a normal circadian rhythm can compromise health and disturb processes involved in recovery from illness (eg, immune functions). With this in mind, the present narrative review discusses how patient characteristics (sleep disorders, anxiety, stress, chronotype, and disease), hospital routines (pain management, timing of medication, nocturnal vital sign monitoring, and physical inactivity), and hospital environment (light and noise) may all contribute to sleep disturbances and circadian misalignment in patients. We also propose hospital-based strategies that may help reduce sleep and circadian disruptions in patients admitted to the hospital. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Celikkayalar, Ercan; Airaksinen, Marja; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Nieminen, Jenni; Kleme, Jenni; Puustinen, Juha (2021)
    Purpose: The use of benzodiazepines and related drugs (BZD) is common among older adults although there is growing evidence of their harmful effects. This study investigated how well older people are aware of the potential risks related to the BZD they are taking and whether the risk awareness has changed in the years between 2004 and 2015. Patients and Methods: The data were collected by interviewing BZD using home-dwelling patients aged >= 65 years with normal cognitive function (MMSE >= 20) who were admitted to the hospital within a 1 month study period in the years 2004 and 2015. Patients were asked whether they were aware of the ten main potential risks related to BZD use. A risk awareness score (range 0-10) was assessed for each patient, each known potential risk yielding one point. Results: The study included 37 patients in 2004 and 31 patients in 2015. In 2004,6/37 patients (16%), while 16/31 patients (52%) in 2015 had risk awareness scores between 6 and 10. Awareness of dependence (p=0.047), interaction with alcohol (p=0.001), dizziness (p=0.002) and developing tolerance (p=0.002) had improved, while awareness of the other potential risks remained unchanged, muscle weakness being the least known (3/37 in 2004 and 4/31 in 2015 were aware of it as a potential risk). Regular BZD use had declined (p=0.043) but pro re nata (PRN; when required) BZD use had increased (p=0.003) between the years 2004 and 2015. Conclusion: Older BZD users' awareness of some potential risks related to BZD use (dependence, interaction with alcohol, dizziness and developing tolerance) had improved between 2004 and 2015, while awareness of other potential risks remained unchanged.
  • IDEFICS; I Family Consortia; Thumann, Barbara F.; Börnhorst, Claudia; Michels, Nathalie; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ahrens, Wolfgang (2019)
    Research on associations of positive mental health, in contrast to mental ill-health, with sleep duration and sleep disturbances in young populations is scarce. In particular, longitudinal studies focussing on the influence of positive mental health on sleep characteristics are lacking. Therefore, we investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of psychosocial well-being with sleep duration and sleep disturbances. For the cross-sectional analysis, we used data of 3-15-year-old children and adolescents participating in the 2013/14 examination of the European IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study (N = 6,336). The longitudinal analysis was restricted to children who also participated in the 2009/10 examination (N = 3,379). Associations between a psychosocial well-being score created from 16 items of the KINDLR Health-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire covering emotional well-being, self-esteem and social relationships, an age-standardized nocturnal sleep duration z-score and two sleep disturbance indicators ("trouble getting up in the morning", "difficulties falling asleep") were estimated using linear and logistic mixed-effects models. Cross-sectionally, a higher well-being score was associated with longer sleep duration and lower odds of sleep disturbances. A positive change in the well-being score over the 4-year period was associated with longer sleep duration and lower odds of sleep disturbances at follow-up. However, there was only weak evidence that higher psychosocial well-being at baseline was associated with better sleep 4 years later. Thus, our results suggest that increases in well-being are associated with improvements in both sleep duration and sleep disturbances, but that well-being measured at one point in time does not predict sleep characteristics several years later.
  • Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Daniel; Shirai, Kokoro; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimaki, Mika (2013)
  • Ämmälä, Antti-Jussi; Urrila, Anna-Sofia; Lahtinen, Aleksandra; Santangeli, Olena; Hakkarainen, Antti; Kantojärvi, Katri; Castaneda, Anu E.; Lundbom, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Paunio, Tiina (2019)
    Objectives: This study aimed to test the hypothesis that sleep and depression have independent effects on brain development and plasticity in adolescents, and that these changes are reflected in changes in the epigenome. Methods: Participants were 17 medication-free adolescent boys (age 16.05 +/- 0.80 years, mean +/- standard deviation (SD); eight cases with depression and sleep symptoms, nine healthy controls). Sleep was assessed by polysomnography recordings and the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Participants underwent a clinical evaluation. DNA methylation of blood leukocytes was measured by Illumina 450K array, and Ingenuity Pathway analysis was applied to identify the most significant pathways with differentially methylated positions (DMPs). Secondary analysis of the identified loci included linear correlations between methylation and the subjectively rated scales of sleep, depression and sleep microarchitecture. Results: Due to small sample size, we found no genome-wide significant differences in methylation between cases and controls. However, pathway analysis identified the synaptic long-term depression (LTD) canonical pathway (p = 0.00045) when the best 500 DMPs from the original case-control design were included. A flattened dissipation of slow wave sleep, tiredness and depression severity values correlated with five of 10 sites from the LTD pathway (IGF1R, PLAG16, PLA2R1, PPP2C5 and ERK12) in the secondary analysis when the case-control status was controlled for. Conclusion: Among adolescents, depressive disorder with sleep symptoms is associated with a distinctive epigenetic pattern of DNA methylation in blood leukocytes. The enrichment of DMPs on genes related to synaptic LTD emphasizes the role of sleep in synaptic plasticity and the widespread physiological consequences of disturbed sleep. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Int Headache Genetics Consortium; Daghlas, Iyas; Vgontzas, Angeliki; Guo, Yanjun; Artto, Ville; Palta, Priit; Muona, Mikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Wedenoja, Juho; Färkkilä, Markus; Kaunisto, Mari; Vepsäläinen, Salli; Kurki, Mitja I.; Hämäläinen, Eija; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wessman, Maija; Palotie, Aarno (2020)
    Objective Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk of migraine, however the extent of shared underlying biology and the direction of causal relationships between these traits is unclear. Delineating causality between sleep patterns and migraine may offer new pathophysiologic insights and inform subsequent intervention studies. Here, we used genetic approaches to test for shared genetic influences between sleep patterns and migraine, and to test whether habitual sleep patterns may be causal risk factors for migraine and vice versa. Methods To quantify genetic overlap, we performed genome-wide genetic correlation analyses using genome-wide association studies of nine sleep traits in the UK Biobank (n >= 237,627), and migraine from the International Headache Genetics Consortium (59,674 cases and 316,078 controls). We then tested for potential causal effects between sleep traits and migraine using bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization. Results Seven sleep traits demonstrated genetic overlap with migraine, including insomnia symptoms (rg = 0.29, P <10(-31)) and difficulty awakening (rg = 0.11, P <10(-4)). Mendelian randomization analyses provided evidence for potential causal effects of difficulty awakening on risk of migraine (OR [95% CI] = 1.37 [1.12-1.68], P = 0.002), and nominal evidence that liability to insomnia symptoms increased the risk of migraine (1.09 [1.02-1.16], P = 0.02). In contrast, there was minimal evidence for an effect of migraine liability on sleep patterns or disturbances. Interpretation These data support a shared genetic basis between several sleep traits and migraine, and support potential causal effects of difficulty awakening and insomnia symptoms on migraine risk. Treatment of sleep disturbances may therefore be a promising clinical intervention in the management of migraine.
  • van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse; Buil, J. Marieke; Koot, Hans M.; Paavonen, E. Juulia; Polo-Kantola, Paivi; Huizink, Anja C.; Karlsson, Linnea (2017)
    Background: For many women, pregnancy-related sleep disturbances and pregnancy-related anxiety change as pregnancy progresses and both are associated with lower maternal quality of life and less favorable birth outcomes. Thus, the interplay between these two problems across pregnancy is of interest. In addition, psychological resilience may explain individual differences in this association, as it may promote coping with both sleep disturbances and anxiety, and thereby reduce their mutual effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether sleep quality and sleep duration, and changes in sleep are associated with the level of and changes in anxiety during pregnancy. Furthermore, the study tested the moderating effect of resilience on these associations. Methods: At gestational weeks 14, 24, and 34, 532 pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study in Finland filled out questionnaires on general sleep quality, sleep duration and pregnancy-related anxiety; resilience was assessed in week 14. Results: Parallel process latent growth curve models showed that shorter initial sleep duration predicted a higher initial level of anxiety, and a higher initial anxiety level predicted a faster shortening of sleep duration. Changes in sleep duration and changes in anxiety over the course of pregnancy were not related. The predicted moderating effect of resilience was not found. Conclusions: The results suggested that pregnant women reporting anxiety problems should also be screened for sleeping problems, and vice versa, because women who experienced one of these pregnancy-related problems were also at risk of experiencing or developing the other problem. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Paavonen, E. Juulia; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Polkki, Pirjo; Kylliainen, Anneli; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Paunio, Tiina (2017)
    Study objectives: Maternal and paternal sleep insufficiency during pregnancy appears to be a risk factor for health and wellbeing in young families. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of sleep insufficiency and symptoms of insomnia during pregnancy (at 32nd pregnancy week) and their relationship to depression, anxiety and environmental stress. Methods: The study is based on a population based sample from Finland consisting of 1667 mothers and 1498 fathers from the Child-sleep birth cohort. We evaluated both the core symptoms of insomnia (sleep onset problems, nocturnal awakenings, too-early awakenings, and poor sleep quality) and the presence of insufficient sleep. Insufficient sleep was defined as a two-hour difference between self-assessed sleep need and reported sleep duration, or sleep duration shorter than six hours per night. Results: We found that symptoms of insomnia were more prevalent among women than among men (9.8%vs.6.2%), whereas sleep debt was less prevalent among women than among men (4.5%vs.9.6%). Overall, 11.8% of the women and 14.9% of the men reported either significant insomnia or short sleep. Symptoms of insomnia were related to symptoms of depression both among women and men (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 2.6-5.6 vs. AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.2), while short sleep was related to depression among women (AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.8-5.8), and to low education, poor health and a larger number of children among men. Conclusions: The study showed that insomnia and sleep insufficiency are prevalent among women and men during pregnancy. The findings underline the impact of insomnia to both maternal and paternal health during pregnancy as well as to the implementation of effective interventions to prevent negative consequences of sleep disturbances. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Varimo, Eveliina; Saastamoinen, Leena K.; Rättö, Hanna; Mogk, Hannu; Aronen, Eeva T. (2020)
    IntroductionRecently, prescribing antipsychotics for children and adolescents has been increasing in many countries. These drugs are often prescribed off-label, although antipsychotics have been associated with adverse effects. We determined the recent incidence of antipsychotic use among children and adolescents in Finland.MethodsFinnish National Prescription Register including all Finnish inhabitants receiving reimbursement for pharmaceuticals was searched for subjects of 1 to 17 years of age who had started an antipsychotic drug between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2017 (n = 26,353). Between 2008 and 2017, the range of number of Finnish children and adolescents aged 1 to 17 years was 1.01 to 1.03 million/year. The incidence was calculated by dividing the number of new users by all age- and sex-matched Finnish inhabitants in the year.ResultsBetween 2008 and 2017, the incidence of antipsychotic use among children and adolescents increased from 2.1 to 3.8 per 1000 individuals, respectively. In children aged 7 to 12 years, the incidence of antipsychotic use 1.4-folded (from 1.9 (95% CI: 1.8–2.0) to 2.7 (95% CI: 2.5–2.9) per 1000) with a cumulative increase of 0.2% per year (χ2 = 51.0, p <0.0001). In adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, the incidence 2.2-folded (from 4.3 (95% CI: 4.1–4.5) to 9.4 (95% CI: 9.1–9.8) per 1000) with a cumulative increase of 0.6% per year (χ2 = 590.3, p <0.0001). The increase in the incidence of use was steeper in girls (2.3-fold) than in boys (1.4-fold) (χ2 = 85.6, p <0.0001), especially between 2015 and 2017 (1.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively) (χ2 = 151.7, p <0.0001). The year 2011 was the turning point when the incidence in girls exceeded the incidence in boys, and the incidence of quetiapine use exceeded that of risperidone use.ConclusionsThe incidence of antipsychotic use increased between 2008 and 2017, especially in adolescent girls. The use of quetiapine increased, although it has few official indications in children and adolescents. Future studies should investigate the reasons for increasing use of antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, in children and adolescents.
  • Toffol, Elena; Kalleinen, Nea; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Partonen, Timo; Haukka, Jari; Polo-Kantola, Paivi (2021)
    Background: Sleep quality typically decreases after menopause, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Concentrations of melatonin are lower and its secretion profiles different before and after menopause. However, whether and how melatonin and sleep architecture are associated in women of different reproductive states have not been examined to date. Methods: Overnight serum melatonin samples were taken from 17 perimenopausal and 18 postmenopausal healthy women. Sleep quality was measured with all-night polysomnography recordings. Results: Melatonin concentrations tended to be the lowest during NREM sleep, and were associated with higher odds of transitions from wake to NREM sleep. The curves of predicted overnight melatonin values from linear mixed models varied according to sleep phases (NREM, REM, Wake) in perimenopausal, but not in postmenopausal women. In perimenopause higher melatonin area under curve (AUC) correlated with higher slow-wave activity (p = 0.043), and higher minimum concentrations with shorter slow-wave sleep (SWS) latency (p = 0.029). In postmenopause higher mean and maximum melatonin concentrations and AUC correlated with lower SWS percentage (p = 0.044, p = 0.029, p = 0.032), and higher mean (p = 0.032), maximum (p = 0.032) and minimum (p = 0.037) concentrations with more awakenings from REM sleep. In the age- and BMI-adjusted regression models, the association between higher maximum (p = 0.046) melatonin concentration and lower SWS percentage remained. Conclusions: The relationship between melatonin and sleep architecture differed in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. After menopause, high melatonin concentrations were associated with worse sleep. Whether these different patterns are related to aging of the reproductive system, and to decrease in menopausal sleep quality, remains to be elucidated. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (
  • Gluschkoff, Kia; Elovainio, Marko; Hintsa, Taina; Pentti, Jaana; Salo, Paula; Kivimaki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi (2017)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the longitudinal association of workplace violence with disturbed sleep and the moderating role of organisational justice (ie, the extent to which employees are treated with fairness) in teaching. Methods We identified 4988 teachers participating in the Finnish Public Sector study who reported encountering violence at work. Disturbed sleep was measured in three waves with 2-year intervals: the wave preceding exposure to violence, the wave of exposure and the wave following the exposure. Data on procedural and interactional justice were obtained from the wave of exposure to violence. The associations were examined using repeated measures log-binomial regression analysis with the generalised estimating equations method, adjusting for gender and age. Results Exposure to violence was associated with an increase in disturbed sleep (RR 1.32 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.52)) that also persisted after the exposure (RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.48)). The increase was higher among teachers perceiving the managerial practices as relatively unfair (RR 1.46 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.09) and RR 1.59 (95% CI 1.04 to 2.42) for interactional and procedural justice, respectively). By contrast, working in high-justice conditions seemed to protect teachers from the negative effect of violence on sleep. Conclusion Our findings show an increase in sleep disturbances due to exposure to workplace violence in teaching. However, the extent to which teachers are treated with justice moderates this association. Although preventive measures for violence should be prioritised, resources aimed at promoting justice at schools can mitigate sleep problems associated with workplace violence.
  • Kaseva, Kaisa; Dobewall, Henrik; Yang, Xiaolin; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsa, Taina; Hintsanen, Mirka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Elovainio, Marko; Raitakari, Olli; Tammelin, Tuija (2019)
    Purpose: Physical activity, sleep problems, and symptoms of depression contribute to overall well-being. The factors are reciprocally associated, but the nature of these associations remains unclear. The present study examined whether sleep problems mediated the association between physical activity and depressive symptoms. Methods: The eligible population (n = 3596) consisted of adults from the ongoing, population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study started in 1980. Participants' leisure-time physical activity was assessed with physical activity index (2007) and sleep problems with Jenkins' Sleep Questionnaire in 2007 and 2011. Depressive symptoms were measured using modified Beck Depression Inventory in 2007 and 2012, from which the items reflecting sleep problems were excluded. Mediation analyses, through which the associations between the variables were examined, were adjusted for sex and a set of health-related covariates assessed in 2007 and 2011. Results: Physical activity was associated with decreased levels of sleep problems and depressive symptoms (P <0.05). The association between physical activity and depressive symptoms (b = -0.10, P <0.01) was partly mediated by sleep problems (proportion mediated = 0.36, P <0.01). The adjustment for depressive symptoms at baseline attenuated the mediation effect (proportion mediated = 0.30, P > 0.05). Conclusions: Physical activity's favorable contribution to depressive symptoms was mediated partly by sleep, but the mediation effect disappeared after adjusting for the previous depressive symptoms in adulthood.
  • Vanttola, Päivi; Härmä, Mikko; Viitasalo, Katriina; Hublin, Christer; Virkkala, Jussi; Sallinen, Mikael; Karhula, Kati; Puttonen, Sampsa (2019)
    PurposeAlthough shift work disorder (SWD) affects a major part of the shift working population, little is known about its manifestation in real life. This observational field study aimed to provide a detailed picture of sleep and alertness among shift workers with a questionnaire-based SWD, by comparing them to shift workers without SWD during work shifts and free time.MethodsSWD was determined by a questionnaire. Questionnaires and 3-week field monitoring, including sleep diaries, actigraphy, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), EEG-based sleep recordings, and Psychomotor Vigilance Tasks (PVT), were used to study 22 SWD cases and 9 non-SWD workers.ResultsThe SWD group had a shorter subjective total sleep time and greater sleep debt before morning shifts than the non-SWD group. Unlike the non-SWD group, the SWD group showed little compensatory sleep on days off. The SWD group had lower objective sleep efficiency and longer sleep latency on most days, and reported poorer relaxation at bedtime and sleep quality across all days than the non-SWD group. The SWD group's average KSS-sleepiness was higher than the non-SWD group's sleepiness at the beginning and end of morning shifts and at the end of night shifts. The SWD group also had more lapses in PVT at the beginning of night shifts than the non-SWD group.ConclusionsThe results indicate that SWD is related to disturbed sleep and alertness in association with both morning and night shifts, and to less compensatory sleep on days off. SWD seems to particularly associate with the quality of sleep.
  • Kalsi, Juhani; Tervo, Timo; Bachour, Adel; Partinen, Markku (2018)
    Objective: To study different factors that are associated with fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents (FSMVA) and in other types of fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVA) in Finland. Methods: All FMVA that were caused by falling asleep at the wheel (FSMVA) during the years 2005-2014 were investigated using OTI (Finnish Crash Data Institute) data. The control group consisted of 136 drivers who died in other types of FMVA in 2013. A total of 258 accidents were investigated. Results: The mean age of the 122 drivers in the FSMVA group was 44 (standard deviation 19) years; there were 100 men (82%) and 22 women. The mean age of the 136 control drivers was 45 (standard deviation 19) years; there were 116 men (85%) and 20 women. Short sleep time ( Conclusion: Short sleep is a major cause of fatal sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents. Driver health factors such as sleep apnea or acute/chronic diseases as well as use of sedative medications and drugs are known risk factors for FSMVA, but these factors are associated also with other types of accidents. Healthy individuals are at risk for falling asleep while driving if they are sleep deprived. All drivers should be aware of the importance of adequate sleep. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Halonen, Risto; Kajanto, Kristiina; Lipsanen, Jari; Makkonen, Tommi; Peltonen, Miina; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Knowledge on efficient ways to reduce presleep arousal and, therefore, improve sleep, is scanty. We explored the effects of presleep slow breathing and music listening conditions on sleep quality and EEG power spectral density in young adults in a randomized, controlled trial with a crossover design. Participants’ (N = 20, 50% females) sleep was measured on two consecutive nights with polysomnography (40 nights), the other night serving as the control condition. The intervention condition was either a 30-minute slow breathing exercise or music listening (music by Max Richter: Sleep). The intervention and control conditions were placed in a random order. We measured heart rate variability prior to, during and after the intervention condition, and found that both interventions increased immediate heart rate variability. Music listening resulted in decreased N2 sleep, increased frontal beta1 power spectral density, and a trend towards increased N3 sleep was detected. In the slow breathing condition higher central delta power during N3 was observed. While some indices pointed to improved sleep quality in both intervention groups, neither condition had robust effects on sleep quality. These explorative findings warrant further replication in different populations.
  • Kronholm, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lallukka, Tea; Peltonen, Markku; Seppänen, Johanna; Virta, Lauri (2019)
    Purpose: Whether the association between hypnotic and increased mortality risk is created by causation or confounding, has been long debated. We further examined the possibility of confounding by indication with a comprehensive approach. Methods: The National FINRISK Study cohorts of 1997, 2002, and 2007 (25,436 participants aged 25-74) were followed up until July 2012. There were 1822 deaths, and at least one gender, baseline age and cohort matched 'control' was found for 1728 'cases' yielding a final analytical sample of 3955 individuals. An index age, equivalent to the age at death of their respective cases' was set for each control. Hypnotic drug purchases were followed from the Finnish nationwide register during a 36-month run-up period before the date of death/index date. The prevalence and incidence of hypnotic purchases were compared between cases and matched controls. Moreover, latent developmental trajectories of purchases were modelled and their relations with specific and all-cause death risks were analysed. Results: An increasing difference between cases and controls was observed as regards the use of hypnotic drugs. During the last 30 months before the date of death/index date, the rate ratio of incident purchases between cases and controls was 2.37 (95% CL, 1.79-3.12) among older and 3.61 (95% CL, 2.37-5.89) among younger individuals. The developmental trajectories of hypnotic drug purchases were differently and by interpretation plausibly associated with specific mortality risks. Conclusions: In most cases the association between hypnotics and mortality risk is created by symptomatic treatment when death is approaching. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.