Browsing by Subject "INSTRUCTION"

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  • Ronimus, Miia; Eklund, Kenneth; Westerholm, Jari; Ketonen, Ritva; Lyytinen, Heikki (2020)
    We used a randomized controlled trial to investigate if a mobile game, GraphoLearn (GL), could effectively support the learning of first graders (N = 70), who have severe difficulties in reading and spelling. We studied the effects of two versions of the game: GL Reading, which focused on training letter-sound correspondence and word reading; and GL Spelling, which included additional training in phonological skills and spelling. During the spring of first grade, the children trained with tablet computers which they could carry with them during the six-week intervention. The average exposure time to training was 5 hr 44 min. The results revealed no differences in the development of reading or spelling skills between GL players and the control group. However, pre-training self-efficacy moderated the effect among GL Reading players: children with high self-efficacy developed more than the control group in word reading fluency, whereas children with low self-efficacy developed less than the control group in spelling.
  • Schnepel, Susanne; Aunio, Pirjo (2022)
    This systematic review investigates the characteristics of effective mathematics interventions for students with intellectual disabilities (ID) age 5 to 12, focusing on early numeracy, arithmetic, and arithmetical problem solving skills. Twenty studies from 2008-2020 were reviewed: 17 had a single-subject design and three a group-comparison design. The studies included a total of 135 students with ID. Consistent with previous studies, the analysis showed that interventions with systematic and explicit instruction with feedback and the use of manipulatives are effective instructional approaches and strategies for students with ID. This study reveals that effective interventions are well-structured, high intensity learning sequences adapted to the students' achievement level. The intensity of an intervention requires careful consideration of the number of intervention sessions per week and their duration. Further studies should investigate which instructional strategy is most effective for each type of skill and the optimum intensity of interventions.
  • Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Salonen, Visajaani; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Schneider, Barbara; Krajcik, Joseph (2021)
    We present teacher-researcher partnership (TRP) as a way of fostering teachers' professional learning. Teachers' participation as research group members is an essential aspect of the partnership. Teachers and researchers share the same goal, which is to improve their understanding of and enhance students' engagement in science. Project-based learning (PBL) was selected as a means of enhancing student engagement. The activities of the partnership focused on the co-design and enactment of and co-reflection on PBL units. Teachers participated in the design of the data collection process and the interpretation of initial findings. As an indicator of teachers' professional learning, we examined students' engagement during different implementations of the PBL units. Student engagement was measured using a situational experience sampling questionnaire delivered via mobile phones. The students' experiences of scientific practices and engagement in actual learning situations were measured in the first and second years of the teachers' implementation of the teaching units. An analysis of the students' responses showed that the students were 20% more engaged in the second year than in the first year. We argue that TRP has the potential to enhance teachers' professional learning.
  • Kokkonen, Tommi; Lichtenberger, Andreas; Schalk, Lennart (2022)
    Concreteness fading has been proposed as a general instructional approach to support learning of abstract mathematics and science concepts. Accordingly, organizing external knowledge representations in a three-step concrete-to-idealized sequence should be more beneficial than the reverse, concreteness introduction, sequence. So far, evidence for the benefits of concreteness fading come mainly from studies investigating learning of basic mathematics concepts. Studies on learning natural science concepts are scarce and have not implemented the full three-step-sequence. In an experimental classroom study (N = 70), we compared concreteness fading and concreteness introduction in high school science education about electromagnetic induction using a detailed assessment. Furthermore, we explored whether these sequences differentially affect the use of the different representations during instruction. Both sequences were equally effective and there were no differences in using the representations. We discuss why our results question the proposed advantages of concreteness fading and highlight conceptual differences and learning goals across domains.
  • Sotiropoulou Drosopoulou, Christina; Murray, Janice; Smith, Martine; Launonen, Kaisa; Neuvonen, Kirsi; Lynch, Yvonne; Stadskleiv, Kristine; von Tetzchner, Stephen (2022)
    Active engagement in interactions is crucial for the development of identity, social competence, and cognitive abilities. For children with severe speech impairment (SSI) who have little or no intelligible speech, active participation in conversations is challenging and can be critical for their social inclusion and participation. The present study investigated the conversational patterns emerging from interactions between children with SSI who use aided communication and typically speaking conversation partners (CPs) and explored whether active participation was different in interactions with different numbers of partners (dyadic versus multi-person interactions). An unusually large multilingual dataset was used (N= 85 conversations). This allowed us to systematically investigate discourse analysis measures indicating participation: the distribution of conversational control (initiations versus responses versus recodes) and summoning power (obliges versus comments). The findings suggest that (i) conversations were characterized by asymmetrical conversational patterns with CPs assuming most of the conversational control and (ii) multi-person interactions were noticeably more symmetric compared to dyadic, as children's active participation in multi-person interactions was significantly increased. Clinical implications and best practice recommendations are discussed.
  • Niemelä, Mikko A. (2021)
    This paper makes a theoretical contribution to the discussion of powerful knowledge in education. The major claim is that curriculum integration can structure knowledge for a coherent curriculum, and thus, support the idea of powerful knowledge. The mainstream understanding of curriculum integration promotes it as a pedagogical arrangement and views school subjects as being guilty of fragmenting students’ experience. Leaning on empirical evidence, this paper argues that the question of integration cannot be left to teachers and students alone; rather, it is crucial to design a coherent written curriculum that supports teaching-studying-learning process with an appropriately differentiated and integrated structure for school subjects. Alternatives for subject design and knowledge-based curriculum integration with the potential for developing powerful knowledge are presented.
  • Thuneberg, H. M.; Salmi, H. S.; Bogner, F. X. (2018)
    An informal mathematical module integrating Arts (modifying STEM to STEAM) and following an inquiry-based learning approach was applied to a sample of 392 students (aged 12-13 years). The three lesson module dealt with mathematical phenomena providing participants with the commercially available hands-on construction kit, aiming to advance STEAM education. Pupils built original, personal, and individual geometrical structures by using plastic pipes in allowing high levels of creativity as well as of autonomy. Tutors supervised the construction process and intervened only on demand. A pre-/ post-test design monitored the cognitive knowledge and the variables of relative autonomy, visual reasoning, formal operations as well as creativity. Our informal intervention produced newly acquired cognitive knowledge which as a process was shown of being supported by a broad basis of (soft) factors as described above. A path analysis elaborated the role of creativity (measured with two subscale: act and flow) to cognitive learning (post-knowledge), when flow was shown to lead. Pre-knowledge scores were significantly influenced by both creativity subscales: act and flow. However, relative autonomy, visual reasoning and formal operations contributed, too. In consequence, cognitive learning within STEAM modules was shown dependent on external triggers. Conclusions for appropriate educational settings to foster STEAM environments are discussed.
  • Tang, Xin; Kikas, Eve; Pakarinen, Eija; Laursen, Brett; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina (2022)
    Background Most previous studies of teaching styles and reading skills have been cross-sectional. Longitudinal research is needed to clarify the direction of effects. The present longitudinal study examined the degree to which differences in teaching styles in the third grade predict the sixth-grade reading performance. The consistency of the findings was addressed by comparing results across students in two countries (Finland and Estonia). Methods A total of 1,057 students (50.9% boys) were followed from the third to sixth grade. Teaching styles of third-grade teachers (N = 70) were examined as predictors of the development of reading (i.e., third-grade to sixth-grade reading fluency and comprehension). Results Five patterns of third-grade teaching practices were found across two countries: child-centred style, teacher-directed style, child-dominated style, extreme child-centred style, and mixed child-centred and teacher-directed style (mixed teaching style). The mixed teaching style and the child-centred style in the third grade were related to the greatest increases in reading fluency from the third to sixth grade, over and above the contribution of age, gender and maternal education. Conclusions The findings underscore the importance of the flexible use of child-centred and teacher-directed practices, which are both linked to the development of reading fluency during late primary school years.
  • Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Kervinen, Anttoni; Uitto, Anna; Laine, Aulikki; Koliseva, Annina; Pyykkö, Lassi; Impiö, Pentti; Aittola, Tiina (2019)
    This research clarifies how a collaborative team teaching model (CTTM) can support both pre-service and in-service teachers’ professional development in using inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools. The data were collected via a questionnaire-based survey approach after inquiry projects implementation at public schools in four Finnish cities. In total, 98 pre-service teachers and 51 in-service class teachers were involved in the research. According to their experiences collaborative team teaching was seen as an adequate teaching approach in primary school science lessons. Both in-service and pre-service teachers experienced inquiry-based science teaching enthusiastically and received new ideas, knowledge and skills to carry out inquiries during the school projects. Also, they became more confident to use inquiry-based approach in their teaching. The findings indicate that the CTTM combines pre-service teachers’ professional development and in-service teachers’ expertise and the model successfully support the use of inquiry-based practices in primary school science education.
  • Ekstam, Ulrika; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2017)
    Teacher efficacy beliefs is an important characteristic to predict instructional quality and the level of cognitive activation and educational support. Since teacher efficacy beliefs are context and domain specific, this study focuses on how special education pre-service teachers' individual interest and subject knowledge in mathematics predict their efficacy beliefs in teaching mathematics. Data were collected from 57 special education pre-service teachers. The results indicated that the individual interest of pre-service teachers has a strong effect on teacher efficacy beliefs, while subject knowledge has only an indirect effect. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hellstrand, Heidi; Korhonen, Johan; Linnanmäki, Karin; Aunio, Pirjo (2020)
    This manuscript presents a study in which the new version of the computer-based training programme, The Number Race (NR), was used as an intervention for mathematically low-performing children in grade one (Mage = 86.46, SD = 3.89). In addition to ordinary teacher instruction in mathematics, the intervention group (n = 29) received NR training for 15-minute sessions, 3–4 days per week, during a four-week period. One comparison group comprising mathematically low-performing children (n = 27) and another comprising average-performing children (n = 278) received only ordinary teacher instruction in mathematics during this period. The children’s mathematical skills (e.g. counting and basic arithmetic skills) were measured three times during grade one, using three parallel tests. The grouping was based on the first assessment, using the lowest 20th percentile as the cut-off point in the test. The NR intervention took place between the second and third assessments. There was no statistically significant NR intervention effect found in this study.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Ávalos, Beatrice; Upadyaya, Katja; Araneda, Sebastian; Juuti, Kalle; Cumsille, Patricio; Inkinen, Janna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    This study examines how classroom activities, student gender and student personal interest in science studies and careers predict situational interest in physics learning. Teaching modules were designed based on the secondary physics curricula in Finland (Helsinki) and Chile (Santiago and Vina del Mar) emphasising students engagement in scientific practices. The study was implemented in four classrooms in both countries. Data on situational interest and ongoing classroom activities were obtained using the experience sampling method, with measurements taken three times during a lesson. The process yielded a total of 1717 measurements in the Finnish schools and 1767 in the Chilean schools. Multilevel regression analyses with mixed effects and random intercept were conducted. Results showed a positive effect of scientific practices that required asking questions, designing scientific inquiry and interpreting data on situational interest. Student collaborative situations were more interesting for Chilean students than for Finnish ones. In terms of gender differences, on average, Finnish male and female students experienced the same level of situational interest, while the situational interest of Chilean female students was higher than the average of male students. Personal interest in science studies and careers was the best predictor of situational interest in both countries.