Browsing by Subject "INSULIN SENSITIVITY"

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  • Peddinti, Gopal; Bergman, Michael; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Groop, Leif (2019)
    Context: Early prediction of dysglycemia is crucial to prevent progression to type 2 diabetes. The 1-hour postload plasma glucose (PG) is reported to be a better predictor of dysglycemia than fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour PG, or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Objective: To evaluate the predictive performance of clinical markers, metabolites, HbA1c, and PG and serum insulin (INS) levels during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Design and Setting: We measured PG and INS levels at 0, 30, 60, and 120 minutes during an OGTT in 543 participants in the Botnia Prospective Study, 146 of whom progressed to type 2 diabetes within a 10-year follow-up period. Using combinations of variables, we evaluated 1527 predictive models for progression to type 2 diabetes. Results: The 1-hour PG outperformed every individual marker except 30-minute PG or mannose, whose predictive performances were lower but not significantly worse. HbA1c was inferior to 1-hour PG according to DeLong test P value but not false discovery rate. Combining the metabolic markers with PG measurements and HbA1c significantly improved the predictive models, and mannose was found to be a robust metabolic marker. Conclusions: The 1-hour PG, alone or in combination with metabolic markers, is a robust predictor for determining the future risk of type 2 diabetes, outperforms the 2-hour PG, and is cheaper to measure than metabolites. Metabolites add to the predictive value of PG and HbA1c measurements. Shortening the standard 75-g OGTT to 1 hour improves its predictive value and clinical usability.
  • Linkens, Armand M. A.; van Best, Niels; Niessen, Petra M.; Wijckmans, Nicole E. G.; de Goei, Erica E. C.; Scheijen, Jean L. J. M.; van Dongen, Martien C. J. M.; van Gool, Christel C. J. A. W.; de Vos, Willem M.; Houben, Alfons J. H. M.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.; Eussen, Simone J. M. P.; Penders, John; Schalkwijk, Casper G. (2022)
    Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), abundantly present in Westernized diets, are linked to negative health outcomes, but their impact on the gut microbiota has not yet been well investigated in humans. We investigated the effects of a 4-week isocaloric and macronutrient-matched diet low or high in AGEs on the gut microbial composition of 70 abdominally obese individuals in a double-blind parallel-design randomized controlled trial (NCT03866343). Additionally, we investigated the cross-sectional associations between the habitual intake of dietary dicarbonyls, reactive precursors to AGEs, and the gut microbial composition, as assessed by 16S rRNA amplicon-based sequencing. Despite a marked percentage difference in AGE intake, we observed no differences in microbial richness and the general community structure. Only the Anaerostipes spp. had a relative abundance >0.5% and showed differential abundance (0.5 versus 1.11%; p = 0.028, after low- or high-AGE diet, respectively). While the habitual intake of dicarbonyls was not associated with microbial richness or a general community structure, the intake of 3-deoxyglucosone was especially associated with an abundance of several genera. Thus, a 4-week diet low or high in AGEs has a limited impact on the gut microbial composition of abdominally obese humans, paralleling its previously observed limited biological consequences. The effects of dietary dicarbonyls on the gut microbiota composition deserve further investigation.
  • Kettunen, Jarno L. T.; Rantala, Elina; Dwivedi, Om P.; Isomaa, Bo; Sarelin, Leena; Kokko, Paula; Hakaste, Liisa; Miettinen, Päivi J.; Groop, Leif C.; Tuomi, Tiinamaija (2022)
    Aims/hypothesis Systematic studies on the phenotypic consequences of variants causal of HNF1A-MODY are rare. Our aim was to assess the phenotype of carriers of a single HNF1A variant and genetic and clinical factors affecting the clinical spectrum. Methods We conducted a family-based multigenerational study by comparing heterozygous carriers of the HNF1A p.(Gly292fs) variant with the non-carrier relatives irrespective of diabetes status. During more than two decades, 145 carriers and 131 non-carriers from 12 families participated in the study, and 208 underwent an OGTT at least once. We assessed the polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes, age at onset of diabetes and measures of body composition, as well as plasma glucose, serum insulin, proinsulin, C-peptide, glucagon and NEFA response during the OGTT. Results Half of the carriers remained free of diabetes at 23 years, one-third at 33 years and 13% even at 50 years. The median age at diagnosis was 21 years (IQR 17-35). We could not identify clinical factors affecting the age at conversion; sex, BMI, insulin sensitivity or parental carrier status had no significant effect. However, for 1 SD unit increase of a polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes, the predicted age at diagnosis decreased by 3.2 years. During the OGTT, the carriers had higher levels of plasma glucose and lower levels of serum insulin and C-peptide than the non-carriers. The carriers were also leaner than the non-carriers (by 5.0 kg, p=0.012, and by 2.1 kg/m(2) units of BMI, p=2.2 x 10(-4), using the first adult measurements) and, possibly as a result of insulin deficiency, demonstrated higher lipolytic activity (with medians of NEFA at fasting 621 vs 441 mu mol/l, p=0.0039; at 120 min during an OGTT 117 vs 64 mu mol/l, p=3.1 x 10(-5)). Conclusions/interpretation The most common causal variant of HNF1A-MODY, p.(Gly292fs), presents not only with hyperglycaemia and insulin deficiency, but also with increased lipolysis and markedly lower adult BMI. Serum insulin was more discriminative than C-peptide between carriers and non-carriers. A considerable proportion of carriers develop diabetes after young adulthood. Even among individuals with a monogenic form of diabetes, polygenic risk of diabetes modifies the age at onset of diabetes.
  • Jokinen, Riikka; Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Pirinen, Eija (2017)
    Obesity, a chronic state of energy overload, is characterized by adipose tissue dysfunction that is considered to be the major driver for obesity associated metabolic complications. The reasons for adipose tissue dysfunction are incompletely understood, but one potential contributing factor is adipose tissue mitochondrial dysfunction. Derangements of adipose tissue mitochondrial biogenesis and pathways associate with obesity and metabolic diseases. Mitochondria are central organelles in energy metabolism through their role in energy derivation through catabolic oxidative reactions. The mitochondrial processes are dependent on the proper NAD(+)/NADH redox balance and NAD+ is essential for reactions catalyzed by the key regulators of mitochondrial metabolism, sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs). Notably, obesity is associated with disturbed adipose tissue NAD(+) homeostasis and the balance of SIRT and PARP activities. In this review we aim to summarize existing literature on the maintenance of intracellular NAD(+) pools and the function of SIRTs and PARPs in adipose tissue during normal and obese conditions, with the purpose of comprehending their potential role in mitochondrial derangements and obesity associated metabolic complications. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the root cause of the adipose tissue mitochondrial derangements is crucial for developing new effective strategies to reverse obesity associated metabolic complications.
  • Bennet, Louise; Nilsson, Christopher; Mansour-Aly, Dina; Christensson, Anders; Groop, Leif; Ahlqvist, Emma (2021)
    Background Middle Eastern immigrants to Europe represent a high risk population for type 2 diabetes. We compared prevalence of novel subgroups and assessed risk of diabetic macro- and microvascular complications between diabetes patients of Middle Eastern and European origin. Methods This study included newly diagnosed diabetes patients born in Sweden (N = 10641) or Iraq (N = 286), previously included in the All New Diabetes in Scania cohort. The study was conducted between January 2008 and August 2016. Patients were followed to April 2017. Incidence rates in diabetic macro- and microvascular complications were assessed using cox-regression adjusting for the confounding effect of age at onset, sex, anthropometrics, glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and HbA1c. Findings In Iraqi immigrants versus native Swedes, severe insulin-deficient diabetes was almost twice as common (27.9 vs. 16.2% p <0.001) but severe insulin-resistant diabetes was less prevalent. Patients born in Iraq had higher risk of coronary events (hazard ratio [HR] 1.84, 95% CI 1.06-3.12) but considerably lower risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) than Swedes (HR 0.19; 0.05-0.76). The lower risk in Iraqi immigrants was partially attributed to better eGFR. Genetic risk scores (GRS) showed more genetic variants associated with poor insulin secretion but lower risk of insulin resistance in the Iraqi than native Swedish group. Interpretation People with diabetes, born in the Middle East present with a more insulin-deficient phenotype and genotype than native Swedes. They have a higher risk of coronary events but lower risk of CKD. Ethnic differences should be considered in the preventive work towards diabetes and its complications.
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2017)
    Recent studies on mice genetically modified at the Ahr locus and fed on high-fat diet have revealed a novel physiological role for the AHR in energy balance. Globally impaired function of the receptor counteracts the development of obesity by increasing energy expenditure, which appears to occur mostly in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. On the other hand, global and tissue-specific loss of AHR signaling can have opposite effects on liver fat content and their impact on insulin sensitivity is also context-dependent. As tryptophan metabolites are key AHR activators, these findings suggest that the AHR may act as a protein sensor enabling adequate protein intake from low-protein diets by allowing calorie overfeeding without resultant obesity.
  • Holster, Savanne; Hooiveld, Guido J.; Repsilber, Dirk; de Vos, Willem M.; Brummer, Robert J.; König, Julia (2019)
    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the introduction of new microbial communities into the intestine of a patient, with the aim of restoring a disturbed gut microbiota. Even though it is used as a potential treatment for various diseases, it is unknown how the host mucosa responds to FMT. This study aims to investigate the colonic mucosa gene expression response to allogenic (from a donor) or autologous (own) FMT in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In a recently conducted randomised, double-blinded, controlled clinical study, 17 IBS patients were treated with FMT by colonoscopy. RNA was isolated from colonic biopsies collected by sigmoidoscopy at baseline, as well as two weeks and eight weeks after FMT. In patients treated with allogenic FMT, predominantly immune response-related gene sets were induced, with the strongest response two weeks after the FMT. In patients treated with autologous FMT, predominantly metabolism-related gene sets were affected. Furthermore, several microbiota genera showed correlations with immune-related gene sets, with different correlations found after allogenic compared to autologous FMT. This study shows that the microbe-host response is influenced by FMT on the mucosal gene expression level, and that there are clear differences in response to allogenic compared to autologous FMT.
  • Jokinen, T. S.; Tiira, K.; Metsähonkala, L.; Seppala, E. H.; Hielm-Bjorkman, A.; Lohi, H.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O. (2015)
    BackgroundLagotto Romagnolo (LR) dogs with benign juvenile epilepsy syndrome often experience spontaneous remission of seizures. The long-term outcome in these dogs currently is unknown. In humans, behavioral and psychiatric comorbidities have been reported in pediatric and adult-onset epilepsies. Hypothesis/ObjectivesThe objectives of this study were to investigate possible neurobehavioral comorbidities in LR with a history of benign familial juvenile epilepsy (BFJE) and to assess the occurrence of seizures after the remission of seizures in puppyhood. AnimalsA total of 25 LR with a history of BFJE and 91 control dogs of the same breed. MethodsOwners of the LR dogs in the BFJE and control groups completed an online questionnaire about each dog's activity, impulsivity, and inattention. Principal component analysis (PCA) served to extract behavioral factors from the data. We then compared the scores of these factors between the 2 groups in a retrospective case-control study. We also interviewed all dog owners in the BFJE group by telephone to inquire specifically about possible seizures or other neurological problems after remission of seizures as a puppy. ResultsLagotto Romagnolo dogs with BFJE showed significantly higher scores on the factors Inattention and Excitability/Impulsivity than did the control group (P=.003; P=.021, respectively). Only 1 of the 25 BFJE LR exhibited seizures after remission of epilepsy in puppyhood. Conclusions and Clinical ImportanceAlthough the long-term seizure outcome in BFJE LR seems to be good, the dogs exhibit behavioral abnormalities resembling attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in humans, thus suggesting neurobehavioral comorbidities with epilepsy.
  • Graner, M.; Gustavsson, S.; Nyman, Kristofer; Siren, R.; Pentikainen, M. O.; Lundbom, J.; Hakkarainen, A.; Lauerma, K.; Lundbom, N.; Boren, J.; Nieminen, M. S.; Taskinen, M. -R. (2016)
    Background and aims: Lipid oversupply to cardiomyocytes or decreased utilization of lipids leads to cardiac steatosis. We aimed to examine the role of different circulating metabolic biomarkers as predictors of myocardial triglyceride (TG) content in non-diabetic men. Methods and results: Myocardial and hepatic TG contents were measured with 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, and LV function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by MR imaging in 76 non-diabetic men. Serum concentration of circulating metabolic biomarkers [adiponectin, leptin, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein 4 (A-FABP 4), resistin, and lipocalin-2] including beta-hydroxybuturate (beta-OHB) were measured. Subjects were stratified by tertiles of myocardial TG into low, moderate, and high myocardial TG content groups. Concentrations of beta-OHB were lower (p = 0.003) and serum levels of A-FABP 4 were higher (p <0.001) in the group with high myocardial TG content compared with the group with low myocardial TG content. beta-OHB was negatively correlated with myocardial TG content (r = -0.316, p = 0.006), whereas A-FABP 4 was not correlated with myocardial TG content (r = 0.192, p = 0.103). In multivariable analyses beta-OHB and plasma glucose levels were the best predictors of myocardial TG content independently of VAT and hepatic TG content. The model explained 58.8% of the variance in myocardial TG content. Conclusion: Our data showed that beta-OHB and fasting glucose were the best predictors of myocardial TG content in non-diabetic men. These data suggest that hyperglycemia and alterations in lipid oxidation may be associated with cardiac steatosis in humans. (C) 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Liimatta, Jani; Utriainen, Pauliina; Laitinen, Tomi; Voutilainen, Raimo; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo (2019)
    Context: Premature adrenarche (PA) is associated with childhood overweight and hyperinsulinemia; the long-term cardiometabolic outcome is unknown. Objective: To study cardiometabolic profile in adult women with previous PA. Design and participants: Thirty women with PA and 41 control subjects were followed from prepuberty to young adulthood. Main outcome measures: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and clinical and biochemical cardiovascular risk factors. Results: There were no differences in the prevalence of MetS or in any parameters indicating dyslipidemia, hypertension, hepatosteatosis, atherosclerosis, or low-grade inflammation between the study groups. However, prevalence of insulin resistance (IR; P = 0.014) and acanthosis nigricans (P = 0.010) was higher in the PA group. Neither fasting glucose nor insulin concentrations differed between the study groups, but HbA1c [adjusted for body mass index (BMI) P = 0.011] and Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (P = 0.044; BMI-adjusted P = nonsignificant) were higher in the PA group. Although BMI and fat percentage were comparable between the study groups, the PA group had higher central fat mass than the control group. In the whole study population, MetS and IR were associated with greater adult fat mass, but no prepubertal factors predicting later IR were found. Conclusion: PA does not seem to be associated with MetS, dyslipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, or low-grade inflammation in young adult women. However, some women with PA may be at an increased risk of unfavorable glucose metabolism, which is associated with increased central adiposity at adult age rather than determined by prepubertal factors. Copyright (C) 2019 Endocrine Society
  • Holster, S.; Repsilber, D.; Geng, D.; Hyotylainen, T.; Salonen, A.; Lindqvist, C. M.; Rajan, S. K.; de Vos, W. M.; Brummer, R. J.; König, J. (2021)
    Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the infusion of donor faecal material into the intestine of a patient with the aim to restore a disturbed gut microbiota. In this study, it was investigated whether FMT has an effect on faecal microbial composition, its functional capacity, faecal metabolite profiles and their interactions in 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Faecal samples from eight different time points before and until six months after allogenic FMT (faecal material from a healthy donor) as well as autologous FMT (own faecal material) were analysed by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GS-MS). The results showed that the allogenic FMT resulted in alterations in the microbial composition that were detectable up to six months, whereas after autologous FMT this was not the case. Similar results were found for the functional profiles, which were predicted from the phylogenetic sequencing data. While both allogenic FMT as well as autologous FMT did not have an effect on the faecal metabolites measured in this study, correlations between the microbial composition and the metabolites showed that the microbe-metabolite interactions seemed to be disrupted after allogenic FMT compared to autologous FMT. This shows that FMT can lead to altered interactions between the gut microbiota and its metabolites in IBS patients. Further research should investigate if and how this affects efficacy of FMT treatments.
  • Koli, Raika; Kohler, Klaus; Tonteri, Elina; Peltonen, Juha; Tikkanen, Heikki; Fogelholm, Mikael (2015)
    Background: Several studies have shown that cocoa and cocoa-containing foods have the potential to lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function. Most of the studies reporting the beneficial effects of dark chocolate on blood pressure have been short ( Design: This was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial involving 22 adults (8 women, 14 men), aged 33-64 y, BMI 27.7 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2) with mild hypertension. During the intervention period (8-wks) the participants reduced the intake of habitual snacks and replaced them with dark chocolate (49 g/day). In the control period, they only reduced the snacks without any added chocolate. Data (blood lipid profile, glucose, insulin, 24 h blood pressure) was collected in the beginning and end of both periods (intervention and control), and some variables also in the run-in and run-out periods (weight, body fat percentage, blood pressure, arterial stiffness index, diet and physical activity). Results: Daily consumption of dark chocolate had no effects on 24 h blood pressure, resting blood pressure (mean +/- SD, pre 142 +/- 11.5/89 +/- 4 mmHg vs. post 142 +/- 14.2/88 +/- 9.4 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively) or arterial stiffness (mean +/- SD, pre 7.68 +/- 0.88 vs. post 7.76 +/- 0.89). Weight was reduced by 1.0 +/- 2.2 kg during the control (reduced snack only) period, but was unchanged while eating chocolate (p <0.027 between the treatments). Conclusion: The data collected in this study indicates that inclusion of dark chocolate daily in the diet had no significant effects on blood pressure or other cardiovascular risk factors during a reduced snack period.
  • Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Packard, Chris J.; Boren, Jan (2019)
    Consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has increased dramatically in the last 40 years and is today commonly used commercially in soft drinks, juice, and baked goods. These products comprise a large proportion of the modern diet, in particular in children, adolescents, and young adults. A large body of evidence associate consumption of fructose and other sugar-sweetened beverages with insulin resistance, intrahepatic lipid accumulation, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the long term, these risk factors may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine and metabolized in the liver where it stimulates fructolysis, glycolysis, lipogenesis, and glucose production. This may result in hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important. Here we review recent evidence linking excessive fructose consumption to health risk markers and development of components of the Metabolic Syndrome.
  • Koopen, Annefleur; Witjes, Julia; Wortelboer, Koen; Majait, Soumia; Prodan, Andrei; Levin, Evgeni; Herrema, Hilde; Winkelmeijer, Maaike; Aalvink, Steven; Bergman, Jacques J. G. H. M.; Havik, Stephan; Hartmann, Bolette; Levels, Han; Bergh, Per-Olof; van Son, Jamie; Balvers, Manon; Bastos, Diogo Mendes; Stroes, Erik; Groen, Albert K.; Henricsson, Marcus; Kemper, Ellis Marleen; Holst, Jens; Strauch, Christopher M.; Hazen, Stanley L.; Backhed, Fredrik; De Vos, Willem M.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Rampanelli, Elena (2022)
    Objective Although gut dysbiosis is increasingly recognised as a pathophysiological component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the role and mode of action of specific gut microbes in metabolic health remain elusive. Previously, we identified the commensal butyrogenic Anaerobutyricum soehngenii to be associated with improved insulin sensitivity in subjects with MetS. In this proof-of-concept study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of A. soehngenii L2-7 on systemic metabolic responses and duodenal transcriptome profiles in individuals with MetS. Design In this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, 12 male subjects with MetS received duodenal infusions of A. soehngenii/ placebo and underwent duodenal biopsies, mixed meal tests (6 hours postinfusion) and 24-hour continuous glucose monitoring. Results A. soehngenii treatment provoked a markedly increased postprandial excursion of the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and an elevation of plasma secondary bile acids, which were positively associated with GLP-1 levels. Moreover, A. soehngenii treatment robustly shaped the duodenal expression of 73 genes, with the highest fold induction in the expression of regenerating islet-protein 1B (REG1B)-encoding gene. Strikingly, duodenal REG1B expression positively correlated with GLP-1 levels and negatively correlated with peripheral glucose variability, which was significantly diminished in the 24 hours following A. soehngenii intake. Mechanistically, Reg1B expression is induced upon sensing butyrate or bacterial peptidoglycan. Importantly, A. soehngenii duodenal administration was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions A single dose of A. soehngenii improves peripheral glycaemic control within 24 hours; it specifically stimulates intestinal GLP-1 production and REG1B expression. Further studies are needed to delineate the specific pathways involved in REG1B induction and function in insulin sensitivity.
  • Suikkanen, Julia; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Eriksson, Johan G.; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Hovi, Petteri (2018)
    Objectives Adults born preterm at very low birthweight (VLBW; Study design The Helsinki Study of VLBW Adults includes 166 VLBW and preterm infants born between 1978 and 1985. We collected postnatal nutrition data among 125 unimpaired subjects, who attended two study visits at the mean ages of 22.5 and 25.1 years. We evaluated the effects of energy and macronutrient intakes during the first three 3-week periods of life on key cardiometabolic risk factors with multiple linear regression models. We also report results adjusted for prenatal, postnatal and adult characteristics. Results Macronutrient and energy intakes were not associated with blood pressure, heart rate, or lipid levels in adulthood. Intakes were neither associated with fasting glucose or most other markers of glucose metabolism. An exception was that the first-three-weeks-of-life intakes predicted higher fasting insulin levels: 1 g/kg/day higher protein intake by 37.6% (95% CI: 8.0%, 75.2%), and 10 kcal/kg/day higher energy intake by 8.6% (2.6%, 14.9%), when adjusted for sex and age. These early intakes similarly predicted the adult homeostasis model assessment index. Further adjustments strengthened these findings. Conclusions Among VLBW infants with relatively low early energy intake, early macronutrient and energy intakes were unrelated to blood pressure, lipid levels and intravenous glucose tolerance test results. Contrary to our hypothesis, a higher macronutrient intake during the first three weeks of life predicted higher fasting insulin concentration in young adulthood.
  • van der Vossen, Eduard W. J.; Bastos, Diogo; Stols-Goncalves, Daniela; de Goffau, Marcus C.; Davids, Mark; Pereira, Joao P. B.; Li Yim, Andrew Y. F.; Henneman, Peter; Netea, Mihai G.; de Vos, Willem M.; de Jonge, Wouter; Groen, Albert K.; Nieuwdorp, Max; Levin, Evgeni (2021)
    Accumulating evidence shows that microbes with their theater of activity residing within the human intestinal tract (i.e., the gut microbiome) influence host metabolism. Some of the strongest results come from recent fecal microbial transplant (FMT) studies that relate changes in intestinal microbiota to various markers of metabolism as well as the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. Despite these developments, there is still a limited understanding of the multitude of effects associated with FMT on the general physiology of the host, beyond changes in gut microbiome composition. We examined the effect of either allogenic (lean donor) or autologous FMTs on the gut microbiome, plasma metabolome, and epigenomic (DNA methylation) reprogramming in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in individuals with metabolic syndrome measured at baseline (pre-FMT) and after 6 weeks (post-FMT). Insulin sensitivity was determined with a stable isotope-based 2 step hyperinsulinemic clamp and multivariate machine learning methodology was used to uncover discriminative microbes, metabolites, and DNA methylation loci. A larger gut microbiota shift was associated with an allogenic than with autologous FMT. Furthemore, the data results of the the allogenic FMT group data indicates that the introduction of new species can potentially modulate the plasma metabolome and (as a result) the epigenome. Most notably, the introduction of Prevotella ASVs directly correlated with methylation of AFAP1, a gene involved in mitochondrial function, insulin sensitivity, and peripheral insulin resistance (Rd, rate of glucose disappearance). FMT was found to have notable effects on the gut microbiome but also on the host plasma metabolome and the epigenome of immune cells providing new avenues of inquiry in the context of metabolic syndrome treatment for the manipulation of host physiology to achieve improved insulin sensitivity.
  • Saunajoki, Anni; Auvinen, Juha; Bloigu, Aini; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Hussi, Esko; Cederberg-Tamminen, Henna; Suija, Kadri; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Timonen, Markku (2022)
    The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the associations between albuminuria and fasting (FPG), 1 h post-load (1 h PG) and 2 h post-load plasma glucose (2 h PG) in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A total of 496 people free of known diabetes (mean age 72 years) participated in the examinations including the OGTT with plasma glucose measurements at 0, 1, and 2 h and levels of HbA1c. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and was defined as >= 3.0 mg/mmol. Compared with those without albuminuria, participants with albuminuria had significantly higher 1 h PG and 2 h PG levels, but not FPG or HbA1c levels. An elevated 1 h PG increased the estimated odds ratio of albuminuria more than three times in people with prediabetic 1 h PG (8.6-11.5 mmol/L: OR 3.60; 95% CI 1.70-7.64) and diabetic 1 h PG (>= 11.6 mmol/L: OR 3.05; 95% CI 1.29-7.23). After adjusting for blood pressure and age, the association of elevated 1 h PG with albuminuria remained significant. Prediabetic or diabetic FPG, 2 h PG, or HbA1c did not have a statistically significant association with albuminuria. These findings suggest that 1 h PG seems to be the best glycemic parameter and is useful in recognizing persons with an elevated risk of early kidney disease due to hyperglycemia.
  • Haverinen, Annina; Kangasniemi, Marika; Luiro, Kaisu; Piltonen, Terhi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tapanainen, Juha S. (2021)
    Objective: To compare the effects of two formulations of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), estradiol valerate (EV) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) combined with dienogest (DNG), and DNG-only, on glucose tolerance. Study Design: We performed a randomized, controlled 9-week clinical trial. Inclusion criteria were: age 18-35 years, regular menstrual cycle (28 +/- 7 days), no polycystic ovaries, non-smoking, no contraindications for COC use and a 2-month wash-out from hormonal contraceptive use. The women were randomized to EV + DNG (n = 20), EE + DNG (n = 20), and DNG-only (n = 19), and evaluated at baseline, at 4-5 weeks and 8-9 weeks of treatment. Study medications were used continuously for 63 days. Primary outcome measure was change in the whole-body insulin sensitivity index (Matsuda index) derived from the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) over the treatment period. Secondary outcome measures were area under curves (AUC) of glucose and insulin, homeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI). Results: Fifty-nine women enrolled, and 56 women completed the study. The Matsuda index changed from baseline as follows (mean percentage change, mean change [95%CI]): DNG-only -12%, -1.45 [95%CI -3.22-0.325] P = 0.10; EV + DNG + 2.7%, -0.10 [-1.34 to 1.14] P = 0.86; EE + DNG -5.5%, -1.02 [-2.51 to 0.46] P = 0.16, comparing the groups P = 0.27. There were no clinically significant differences in glucose tolerance between the COC groups, but the DNG-only group showed an improvement in the 2-h glucose levels (5.5 [95%CI 5.0-6.0] to 4.7 mmol/l [4.2-5.2], P = 0.001). Conclusion: We found no clinically significant differences between EV and EE combined with DNG and DNG-only on glucose tolerance in healthy, young, normal-weight women, indicating that these preparations appear close to neutral regarding glucose metabolism when used continuously for nine weeks. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Honkala, Sanna Maria; Motiani, Piryanka; Kivelä, Riikka; Hemanthakumar, Karthik Amudhala; Tolvanen, Erik; Motiani, Kumail Kumar; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A.; Kemppainen, Jukka; Heiskanen, Marja Anneli; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nuutila, Pirjo; Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Hannukainen, Jarna Christina (2020)
    Introduction We investigated the effects of a supervised progressive sprint interval training (SIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on adipocyte morphology and adipose tissue metabolism and function; we also tested whether the responses were similar regardless of baseline glucose tolerance and sex. Research design and methods 26 insulin-resistant (IR) and 28 healthy participants were randomized into 2-week-long SIT (4-6x30 s at maximum effort) and MICT (40-60 min at 60% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2peak)). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and fasting-free fatty acid uptake in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal and femoral subcutaneous adipose tissues (SATs) were quantified with positron emission tomography. Abdominal SAT biopsies were collected to determine adipocyte morphology, gene expression markers of lipolysis, glucose and lipid metabolism and inflammation. Results Training increased glucose uptake in VAT (p
  • Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Mehta, Roopa; Munoz-Hernandez, Liliana; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Teresa Tusie-Luna, Maria; Gomez-Perez, Francisco J.; Pajukanta, Paivi; Matikainen, Niina; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A. (2014)