Browsing by Subject "INTELLIGENCE"

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  • Greiff, Samuel; Wuestenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, March H. (2015)
    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.
  • Perander, Katarina; Londen, Monica; Holm, Gunilla (2020)
    Efforts to reach gender equality in education in Finland have been extensive. Both teacher education and policy documents for schools have focused on gender equality and gender-neutral treatment of students. The aim of this study is to explore if and how these efforts are manifested in upper secondary school teachers' and study counsellors' perceptions of students' self-belief, academic emotions, study habits and behaviour at school. Twenty-three interviews were conducted and analysed qualitatively through inductive content analysis. The results revealed that teachers and study counsellors perceive that girls' low self-belief and high achievement expectations affected their academic performance, while boys' insecurity or need for support was rarely mentioned. The teachers ascribed the students several gender-stereotypical attributes: girls were perceived as diligent and hard-working while boys were perceived as being indifferent towards school and achievements. The implications of these results for students' self-belief and for teacher education are discussed.
  • Bonetti, L.; Haumann, N. T.; Brattico, E.; Kliuchko, M.; Vuust, P.; Särkämö, T.; Näätänen, R. (2018)
    Objective: Memory is the faculty responsible for encoding, storing and retrieving information, comprising several sub-systems such as sensory memory (SM) and working memory (WM). Some previous studies exclusively using clinical population revealed associations between these two memory systems. Here we aimed at investigating the relation between modality-general WM performance and auditory SM formation indexed by magnetic mismatch negativity (MMN) responses in a healthy population of young adults. Methods: Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded MMN amplitudes to changes related to six acoustic features (pitch, timbre, location, intensity, slide, and rhythm) inserted in a 4-tone sequence in 86 adult participants who were watching a silent movie. After the MEG recordings, participants were administered the WM primary subtests (Spatial Span and Letter Number Sequencing) of Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS). Results: We found significant correlations between frontal MMN amplitudes to intensity and slide deviants and WM performance. In case of intensity, the relation was revealed in all participants, while for slide only in individuals with a musical background. Conclusions: Automatic neural responses to auditory feature changes are increased in individuals with higher visual WM performance. Significance: Conscious WM abilities might be linked to pre-attentive sensory-specific neural skills of prediction and short-term storage of environmental regularities. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti, Jari; Henriksson, Markus; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Räikkönen, Katri (2018)
    Objective To test if the Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test scores at 20.1 years predicted risk of organic dementia or Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Dementia was defined as inpatient or outpatient diagnosis of organic dementia or AD risk derived from Hospital Discharge or Causes of Death Registers in 2,785 men from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, divided based on age at first diagnosis into early onset (= 65 years). The Finnish Defence Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test comprises verbal, arithmetic, and visuospatial subtests and a total score (scores transformed into a mean of 100 and SD of 15). We used Cox proportional hazard models and adjusted for age at testing, childhood socioeconomic status, mother's age at delivery, parity, participant's birthweight, education, and stroke or coronary heart disease diagnosis. Results Lower cognitive ability total and verbal ability (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD disadvantage > 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-2.63) scores predicted higher early-onset any dementia risk across the statistical models; arithmetic and visuospatial ability scores were similarly associated with early-onset any dementia risk, but these associations weakened after covariate adjustments (HR per 1 SD disadvantage > 1.57, 95% CI 0.96-2.57). All associations were rendered non-significant when we adjusted for participant's education. Cognitive ability did not predict late-onset dementia risk. Conclusion These findings reinforce previous suggestions that lower cognitive ability in early life is a risk factor for early-onset dementia.
  • Boku, Shuken; Takeshi, Izumi; Abe, Seiji; Takahashi, Tomohisa; Nishi, Akira; Nomaru, Hiroko; Naka, Yasuhiko; Kang, Gina; Nagashima, Masako; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Hishimoto, Akitoyo; Enomoto, Shingo; Duran Torres, Gilberto; Tanigaki, Kenji; Zhang, Jinghang; Ye, Kenny; Kato, Shigeki; Männistö, Pekka Topias; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Hiroi, Noboru (2018)
    Working memory capacity, a critical component of executive function, expands developmentally from childhood through adulthood. Anomalies in this developmental process are seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and intellectual disabilities (ID), implicating this atypical process in the trajectory of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the cellular and neuronal substrates underlying this process are not understood. Duplication and triplication of copy number variants of 22q11.2 are consistently and robustly associated with cognitive deficits of ASD and ID in humans, and overexpression of small 22q11.2 segments recapitulates dimensional aspects of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders in mice. We capitalized on these two lines of evidence to delve into the cellular substrates for this atypical development of working memory. Using a region- and cell-type-selective gene expression approach, we demonstrated that copy number elevations of catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) or Tbx1, two genes encoded in the two small 22q11.2 segments, in adult neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus prevents the developmental maturation of working memory capacity in mice. Moreover, copy number elevations of COMT or Tbx1 reduced the proliferation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells in a cell-autonomous manner in vitro and migration of their progenies in the hippocampus granular layer in vivo. Our data provide evidence for the novel hypothesis that copy number elevations of these 22q11.2 genes alter the developmental trajectory of working memory capacity via suboptimal adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Latvala, Antti; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Almqvist, Catarina; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Kandler, Christian; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Rebato, Esther; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; Brescianini, Sonia; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Busjahn, Andreas; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Rose, Richard J.; Koskenvuo, Markku; Heikkilä, Kauko; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Sung, Joohon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Jooyeon; Lee, Sooji; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Medland, Sarah E.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; OEncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Goldberg, Jack H.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Maia, Jose A.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Turkheimer, Eric; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
  • Bijwaard, Govert E.; Tynelius, Per; Myrskylae, Mikko (2019)
    Education is negatively associated with most major causes of death. Prior work ignores the premise that cause-specific hazards are interdependent and that both education and mortality depend on cognitive ability. We analyse Swedish men aged 18-63, focusing on months lost due to specific causeswhich solves the interdependence problemand use a structural model that accounts for confounding due to cognitive ability. In a standard Cox model controlling for Intelligence Quotient, improving education is associated with large decreases in mortality for major causes of death. In the structural model, improving education is associated with a small decrease in months lost for most causes and education levels. Among the least educated, however, improving education strongly reduces the months lost, mainly those lost from external causes, such as accidents and suicide. Results suggest that conventional analysis of education and mortality may be biased, even if accounting for observed cognition.
  • Astikainen, Piia; Mällo, Tanel; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Naatanen, Risto (2014)
  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Wikstrom, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Videman, Mari; Karlsson, Linnea; Keskinen, Maria; Scheinin, Noora M.; Karlsson, Hasse; Huotilainen, Minna (2018)
    We evaluated the feasibility of a multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm in studying auditory processing of healthy newborns. The aim was to examine the automatic change-detection and processing of semantic and emotional information in speech in newborns. Brain responses of 202 healthy newborns were recorded with a multi-feature paradigm including a Finnish bi-syllabic pseudo-word/ta-ta/as a standard stimulus, six linguistically relevant deviant stimuli and three emotionally relevant stimuli (happy, sad, angry). Clear responses to emotional sounds were found already at the early latency window 100-200 ms, whereas responses to linguistically relevant minor changes and emotional stimuli at the later latency window 300-500 ms did not reach significance. Moreover, significant interaction between gender and emotional stimuli was found in the early latency window. Further studies on using multi-feature paradigms with linguistic and emotional stimuli in newborns are needed, especially those containing of follow-ups, enabling the assessment of the predictive value of early variations between subjects.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Tamminen, Jakke; Makkonen, Tommi; Merikanto, Ilona; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2019)
    Background: Sleep facilitates the extraction of semantic regularities amongst newly encoded memories, which may also lead to increased false memories. We investigated sleep stage proportions and sleep spindles in the recollection of adolescents' false memories, and their potential sex-specific differences. Methods: 196 adolescents (mean age 16.9 y; SD = 0.1, 61% girls) underwent the Deese, Roediger & McDermott (DRM) false memory procedure and overnight polysomnography, with free recall the following morning. Sleep was scored manually into stages 1, 2, 3 and REM. Stage 2 sleep spindle frequency, density, and peak amplitude were used as measures of spindle activity for slow (10-13 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) ranges. Results: In girls, a lower number of critical lures was associated with higher spindle frequency (p Conclusions: In adolescent girls, higher spindle activity was associated with fewer critical lures being falsely recalled in the DRM paradigm. Unlike studies using adult participants, we did not observe any association between slow-wave sleep and false memory recollection.
  • Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Verkasalo, Markku Johannes; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik (2017)
    Even though homophily (love of the same) is often thought of as a standard feature of friendships, the empirical evidence for attraction based on personality trait similarity is mixed at best. One reason for the inconsistent findings across studies could be variation in the large-scale social environment in which the studies have been conducted. We investigated whether diversity in the everyday social ecologies of 7- to 8-year-old children (N=549) moderates whether friendships are formed on the basis of similar personality traits and similar levels of Cognitive ability. Moderated polynomial regression and response surface analyses showed that classroom size moderated homophily based on Openness to Experience: children similar in Openness were more likely to form friendship ties, but only in larger classrooms. Moreover, we found homophily for Cognitive ability, especially among girls. The results for Openness and Cognitive ability were independent of each other. We discuss the social relevance of trait Openness and the notion that capacity to reciprocate underlies homophily based on Cognitive ability. Copyright (c) 2017 European Association of Personality Psychology
  • Zhang, Junfeng; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    Inspired by previous research indicating implicit beliefs about the malleability of human qualities, namely mindset, to affect learning outcomes, this article compares how Chinese and Finnish students’ mindsets and attributions for success reflect their cultural values and predict their academic achievement. The study was conducted in one Chinese (N=705) and two Finnish (N=495) middle schools utilizing Dweck’s mindset inventory, Weiner’s attribution scale and students’ school marks. The results illustrated that both Chinese and Finnish students held a growth mindset, and all identified the nature of intelligence as being more malleable than giftedness. However, Chinese students did not differentiate between intelligence and giftedness as clearly as Finnish students. Both students attributed the cause of their academic achievements to effort and ability, but placed more emphasis on effort. Furthermore, Chinese students’ preference for effort significantly accounted for higher language marks, whereas Finnish students with fixed mindsets about giftedness achieved higher mathematics marks. Cultural interpretation, implications and limitations of the results were discussed.
  • Levinthal, Cristiana; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2021)
    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parental engagement in the home-learning environment, and parents’ implicit beliefs about learning underlying such engagement. Nineteen parents of elementary school children between seven and twelve years old were interviewed in two different cultural contexts, Finland (N = 10) and Portugal (N = 9). The interviews were subjected to inductive and deductive content analysis. Forms of parental engagement at home were similar in both countries, divided between two main categories: engagement with the child’s holistic development and engagement with the child’s schooling process. Parental narratives about engagement were, for the most part, embedded in a growth mindset (or an incremental meaning system). The most common actualizations of engagement included considering the child’s learning contexts and emotions; encouraging effort, persistence and practice; approaching difficulties as a natural part of learning and suggesting strategies for overcoming them. Parental practices of engagement were combined with the actualization of their implicit beliefs to create engagement–mindset parental profiles. Twelve parents were classified as having a Growth mindset to support the child’s holistic development profile, and the other seven were distributed amongst the three remaining profiles. The study contributes to the growing interest on the association between parental engagement and their learning-related implicit beliefs, giving clear first-person illustrations of how both occur and interact in the home-learning environment. Implications for practice are discussed.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Tuominen, Moona; Tirri, Kirsi (2019)
    In this article we take up the two-fold task of creating a framework for a growth mindset pedagogy on the basis of our previous studies and exploring the critical points of this pedagogy in the classroom of a mixed-mindset teacher. The data include classroom observations and stimulated recall interviews. The results show how a teacher who is socialized into the Finnish educational system pursues core features of growth mindset pedagogy, despite not having a dominant growth mindset herself. However, we identify critical points in her practices, which suggest that teaching the theory of mindset in teacher education is needed. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Linnavalli, Tanja; Putkinen, Vesa; Lipsanen, Jari; Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari (2018)
    Several studies have suggested that intensive musical training enhances children’s linguistic skills. Such training, however, is not available to all children. We studied in a community setting whether a low-cost, weekly music playschool provided to 5–6-year-old children in kindergartens could already affect their linguistic abilities. Children (N = 66) were tested four times over two school-years with Phoneme processing and Vocabulary subtests, along with tests for Perceptual reasoning skills and Inhibitory control. We compared the development of music playschool children to their peers either attending to similarly organized dance lessons or not attending to either activity. Music playschool significantly improved the development of children’s phoneme processing and vocabulary skills. No such improvements on children’s scores for non-verbal reasoning and inhibition were obtained. Our data suggest that even playful group music activities – if attended to for several years – have a positive effect on pre-schoolers’ linguistic skills. Therefore we promote the concept of implementing regular music playschool lessons given by professional teachers in early childhood education.
  • Zhang, Junfeng; Kuusisto, Elina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi (2020)
    Given that little is known how peer feedback reflects adolescents’ academic well-being in different cultures, this study investigates, by means of multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM), the influence of peer feedback on the mindset and academic motivation of Chinese (N = 992) and Finnish (N = 870) students in the fourth to the ninth school grades. Within this investigation, we also explore the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of student feedback, mindset and academic motivation. The results indicate that the way students praise their peers in their feedback primes and modifies their mindsets and academic motivation. Person-focused praise reflects a fixed mindset and negative academic motivation (i.e., avoidance), whereas process-focused praise undermines negative academic motivation. The pupils in the two samples had growth mindsets. However, the Finnish students preferred to bestow neutral praise and to be more negative with regard to their academic motivation whereas the Chinese students favored process- and person-focused praise, the former reflecting not only their growth mindset but also their positive academic motivation (i.e., trying).
  • Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Pyhälä, Aili; Diaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Gueze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza (2016)
    Researchers have analysed whether school and local knowledge complement or substitute each other, but have paid less attention to whether those two learning models use different cognitive strategies. In this study, we use data collected among three contemporary hunter-gatherer societies with relatively low levels of exposure to schooling yet with high levels of local ecological knowledge to test the association between i) schooling and ii) local ecological knowledge and verbal working memory. Participants include 94 people (24 Baka, 25 Punan, and 45 Tsimane') from whom we collected information on 1) schooling and school related skills (i.e., literacy and numeracy), 2) local knowledge and skills related to hunting and medicinal plants, and 3) working memory. To assess working memory, we applied a multi-trial free recall using words relevant to each cultural setting. People with and without schooling have similar levels of accurate and inaccurate recall, although they differ in their strategies to organize recall: people with schooling have higher results for serial clustering, suggesting better learning with repetition, whereas people without schooling have higher results for semantic clustering, suggesting they organize recall around semantically meaningful categories. Individual levels of local ecological knowledge are not related to accurate recall or organization recall, arguably due to overall high levels of local ecological knowledge. While schooling seems to favour some organization strategies this might come at the expense of some other organization strategies.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Kuusisto, Elina; Hanhimäki, Eija; Tirri, Kirsi (2018)
    Implicit theories concerning the malleability of human qualities are known to have a powerful impact on motivation and learning, but their role in moral education is an under-researched topic. In this qualitative case study, we examined the impact of implicit theories on four Finnish teachers’ practices of teaching morally and in teaching morality. The data include preliminary and stimulated recall interviews (STR) as well as classroom observations. Our results demonstrate the multiple ways in which teachers’ implicit beliefs are communicated to students and influence teacher’s interpretations and endeavors to educate the ethical capabilities of students. The study provides evidence for the claim that implicit theories are an important construct which has been missing from the moral education literature. Directions for future research are suggested.
  • Koster, Jeremy; McElreath, Richard; Hill, Kim; Yu, Douglas; Shepard, Glenn; Van Vliet, Nathalie; Gurven, Michael; Trumble, Benjamin; Bird, Rebecca Bliege; Bird, Douglas; Codding, Brian; Coad, Lauren; Pacheco-Cobos, Luis; Winterhalder, Bruce; Lupo, Karen; Schmitt, Dave; Sillitoe, Paul; Franzen, Margaret; Alvard, Michael; Venkataraman, Vivek; Kraft, Thomas; Endicott, Kirk; Beckerman, Stephen; Marks, Stuart A.; Headland, Thomas; Pangau-Adam, Margaretha; Siren, Anders; Kramer, Karen; Greaves, Russell; Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Gueze, Maximilien; Duda, Romain; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Ellen, Roy; Ziker, John; Nielsen, Martin R.; Ready, Elspeth; Healey, Christopher; Ross, Cody (2020)
    Human adaptation depends on the integration of slow life history, complex production skills, and extensive sociality. Refining and testing models of the evolution of human life history and cultural learning benefit from increasingly accurate measurement of knowledge, skills, and rates of production with age. We pursue this goal by inferring hunters' increases and declines of skill from approximately 23,000 hunting records generated by more than 1800 individuals at 40 locations. The data reveal an average age of peak productivity between 30 and 35 years of age, although high skill is maintained throughout much of adulthood. In addition, there is substantial variation both among individuals and sites. Within study sites, variation among individuals depends more on heterogeneity in rates of decline than in rates of increase. This analysis sharpens questions about the coevolution of human life history and cultural adaptation.