Browsing by Subject "INTENSITY"

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  • Cremers, Eline M. P.; de Witte, Theo; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Eikema, Diderik-Jan; Koster, Linda; van Biezen, Anja; Finke, Jurgen; Socie, Gerard; Beelen, Dietrich; Maertens, Johan; Nagler, Arnon; Kobbe, Guido; Ziagkos, Dimitris; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Sierra, Jorge; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ljungman, Per; Beguin, Yves; Ozkurt, Zubeyde Nur; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Jindra, Pavel; Robin, Marie; Kröger, Nicolaus (2019)
    Most myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-patients receive multiple red blood cell transfusions (RBCT). Transfusions may cause iron-related toxicity and mortality, influencing outcome after allogeneic HSCT. This prospective non-interventional study evaluated 222 MDS and CMML patients undergoing HSCT. Overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence (RI) at 36 months were 52%, 44%, 25%, and 31%, respectively. Age, percentage of marrow blasts and severe comorbidities impacted OS. RFS was significantly associated with RBCT burden prior to HSCT (HR: 1.7; p = .02). High ferritin levels had a significant negative impact on OS and RI, but no impact on NRM. Administration of iron chelation therapy prior to HSCT did not influence the outcome, but early iron reduction after HSCT (started before 6 months) improved RFS significantly after transplantation (56% in the control group vs. 90% in the treated group, respectively; p = .04). This study illustrates the impact of RBCT and related parameters on HSCT-outcome. Patients with an expected prolonged survival after transplantation may benefit from early iron reduction therapy after transplantation.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi Birgitta; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Tatevossian, Tatiana N.; Tatevossian, Ruben E.; Lund, Björn (2020)
    Archives and libraries were visited to find previously unknown documents testifying to the Luroy, Norway, earthquake of 31 August 1819 in northernmost continental Europe. The focus here is on Sweden, Finland, and Russia, which are important for determining the area of perceptibility east of Norway. The new written sources include 12 notes or entries in original archived documents, six contemporary newspaper reports, and two recollections written down years later. The original documentation uncovered is contributory to establishing the authenticity of the observations in Finland and Sweden. The dates of the original documentation allow tracing of the dissemination of eyewitness accounts in writing from the inner area of perceptibility southward to the larger documentation and population centers. New sources of information include weather reports of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, minutes of its meetings, and correspondence sent to the Senate in Finland. The minutes of meetings of the Academy indicate that ample data were collected in the Swedish province of Vasterbotten. We found no original Russian documentation but uncovered national newspapers that are more reliable than the previously used Parisian newspaper. To increase transparency, we provide the first list of macroseismic data points (MDPs) including the respective documentation that testify to the Luroy earthquake. A macroseismic intensity was assigned to a locality, using the European Macroseismic Scale of 1998, when adequate information was available. Accounting for the uncertainty of intensity assessment, the magnitude was estimated as moment magnitude M = 5.9 +/- 0.2, reconfirming the ranking as the largest onshore or nearshore earthquake in the historical seismicity record of Fennoscandia. In addition to the reappraisal of the 31 August 1819 earthquake, a macroseismic map is provided for the earthquake of 17 February 1819, which was felt in northern Finland and Sweden. Some of its MDPs were previously associated with the Luroy earthquake.
  • Saraceni, Francesco; Labopin, Myriam; Forcade, Edouard; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Socie, Gerard; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Blaise, Didier; Choi, Goda; Byrne, Jenny L.; Guillerm, Gaelle; Marchand, Tony; Esteve, Jordi; Bazarbachi, Ali; Savani, Bipin; Olivieri, Attilio; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2021)
    Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Viljanen, Niko; Honkavaara, Eija; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Huuskonen, Saija; Hynynen, Jari; Vastaranta, Mikko (2020)
    Forest management alters the growing conditions and thus further development of trees. However, quantitative assessment of forest management on tree growth has been demanding as methodologies for capturing changes comprehensively in space and time have been lacking. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has shown to be capable of providing three-dimensional (3D) tree stem reconstructions required for revealing differences between stem shapes and sizes. In this study, we used 3D reconstructions of tree stems from TLS and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to investigate how varying thinning treatments and the following growth effects affected stem shape and size of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees. The results showed that intensive thinning resulted in more stem volume and therefore total biomass allocation and carbon uptake compared to the moderate thinning.Relationship between tree height and diameter at breast height (i.e. slenderness) varied between both thinning intensity and type (i.e. from below and above) indicating differing response to thinning and allocation of stem growth of Scots pine trees. Furthermore, intensive thinning, especially from below, produced less variation in relative stem attributes characterizing stem shape and size. Thus, it can be concluded that thinning intensity,type, and the following growth effects have an impact on post-thinning stem shape and size of Scots pine trees.Our study presented detailed measurements on post-thinning stem growth of Scots pines that have been laborious or impracticable before the emergence of detailed 3D technologies. Moreover, the stem reconstructions from TLS and UAV provided variety of attributes characterizing stem shape and size that have not traditionally been feasible to obtain. The study demonstrated that detailed 3D technologies, such as TLS and UAV, provide information that can be used to generate new knowledge for supporting forest management and silviculture as well as improving ecological understanding of boreal forests.1
  • Hirvonen, Outi M.; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Gronholm, Lotta; Haltia, Olli; Rissanen, Antti; Tyynela-Korhonen, Kristiina; Rahko, Eeva K.; Lehto, Juho T.; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background: To avoid aggressive treatments at the end-of-life and to provide palliative care (PC), physicians need to terminate futile anti-cancer treatments and define the palliative goal of the treatment in time. This single center study assesses the practices used to make the decision that leads to treatment with a palliative goal, i.e., the PC decision and its effect on anti-cancer treatments at the end of life. Material and methods: Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated in tertiary hospital during 1st January 2013 - 31st December 2014 and deceased by the end of 2014 were identified in the hospital database (N = 2737). Of these patients, 992 were randomly selected for this study. The PC decision was screened from patient records, i.e., termination of cancer-specific treatments and a focus on symptom-centered PC. Results: The PC decision was defined in 82% of the patients during the last year of life (49% >30 days and 33%
  • Junttila, Samuli; Sugano, Junko; Vastaranta, Mikko; Linnakoski, Riikka; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Hannu; Hyyppa, Juha (2018)
    Changing climate is increasing the amount and intensity of forest stress agents, such as drought, pest insects, and pathogens. Leaf water content, measured here in terms of equivalent water thickness (EWT), is an early indicator of tree stress that provides timely information about the health status of forests. Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS) measures target geometry and reflectance simultaneously, providing spatially explicit reflectance information at several wavelengths. EWT and leaf internal structure affect leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared region that can be used to predict EWT with MS-TLS. A second wavelength that is sensitive to leaf internal structure but not affected by EWT can be used to normalize leaf internal effects on the shortwave infrared region and improve the prediction of EWT. Here we investigated the relationship between EWT and laser intensity features using multisensor MS-TLS at 690, 905, and 1,550 nm wavelengths with both drought-treated and Endoconidiophora polonica inoculated Norway spruce seedlings to better understand how MS-TLS measurements can explain variation in EWT. In our study, a normalized ratio of two wavelengths at 905 and 1,550 nm and length of seedling explained 91% of the variation (R-2) in EWT as the respective prediction accuracy for EWT was 0.003 g/cm(2) in greenhouse conditions. The relation between EWT and the normalized ratio of 905 and 1,550 nm wavelengths did not seem sensitive to a decreased point density of the MS-TLS data. Based on our results, different EWTs in Norway spruce seedlings show different spectral responses when measured using MS-TLS. These results can be further used when developing EWT monitoring for improving forest health assessments.
  • the Nordic Study Group of Pediatric Rheumatology (NoSPeR); Arnstad, Ellen Dalen; Rypdal, Veronika; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Herlin, Troels; Berntson, Lillemor; Fasth, Anders; Nielsen, Susan; Glerup, Mia; Ekelund, Maria; Zak, Marek; Aalto, Kristiina; Nordal, Ellen; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Rygg, Marite (2019)
    Objective To study self-reported pain early in the disease course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a predictor of long-term disease outcomes. Methods Consecutive cases of JIA with disease onset from 1997 to 2000 from defined geographical areas of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark were prospectively enrolled in this population-based cohort study. Self-reported, disease-related pain was measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS pain). Inclusion criteria were a baseline visit with a pain score 6 months after disease onset, followed by an 8-year study visit. Remission was defined according to Wallace et al (2004) preliminary criteria. Functional disability was measured by the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form if the child was age = 18 years. Damage was scored using the Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index. Results The final study cohort consisted of 243 participants, and 120 participants (49%) had oligoarticular onset. At baseline, 76% reported a VAS pain score >0 compared to 57% reporting at 8 years. Half of those who reported baseline pain also reported pain at 8 years but at a lower intensity. Compared to no pain, higher pain intensity at baseline predicted more pain at 8 years, more functional disability, more damage, and less remission without medication. Baseline pain predicted more use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs/biologics during the disease course. Participants with oligoarticular JIA reporting pain at baseline were more likely to develop extended oligoarticular JIA or other JIA categories with an unfavorable prognosis. Conclusion Early self-reported, disease-related pain among children and adolescents with JIA is common and seems to predict persistent pain and unfavorable long-term disease outcomes.
  • Cummins, P R; Pranantyo, I R; Pownall, J M; Griffin, J D; Meilano, I; Zhao, S (2020)
    As the world's largest archipelagic country in Earth's most active tectonic region, Indonesia faces a substantial earthquake and tsunami threat. Understanding this threat is a challenge because of the complex tectonic environment, the paucity of observed data and the limited historical record. Here we combine information from recent studies of the geology of Indonesia's Banda Sea with Global Positioning System observations of crustal motion and an analysis of historical large earthquakes and tsunamis there. We show that past destructive earthquakes were not caused by the supposed megathrust of the Banda outer arc as previously thought but are due to a vast submarine normal fault system recently discovered along the Banda inner arc. Instead of being generated by coseismic seafloor displacement, we find the tsunamis were more likely caused by earthquake-triggered submarine slumping along the fault's massive scarp, the Weber Deep. This would make the Banda detachment representative not only as a modern analogue for terranes hyper-extended by slab rollback but also for the generation of earthquakes and tsunamis by a submarine extensional fault system. Our findings suggest that low-angle normal faults in the Banda Sea generate large earthquakes, which in turn can generate tsunamis due to earthquake-triggered slumping. Low-angle normal faults in the Banda Sea have caused large earthquakes that indirectly generated tsunamis due to earthquake-triggered submarine slumping, according to an analysis of historical earthquake and tsunami events and GPS observations.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Bock, Peter; Nousiainen, Paula; Elder, Thomas; Blaukopf, Markus; Amer, Hassan; Zirbs, Ronald; Potthast, Antje; Gierlinger, Notburga (2020)
    Vibrational spectroscopy is a very suitable tool for investigating the plant cell wall in situ with almost no sample preparation. The structural information of all different constituents is contained in a single spectrum. Interpretation therefore heavily relies on reference spectra and understanding of the vibrational behavior of the components under study. For the first time, we show infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of dibenzodioxocin (DBDO), an important lignin substructure. A detailed vibrational assignment of the molecule, based on quantum chemical computations, is given in the Supporting Information; the main results are found in the paper. Furthermore, we show IR and Raman spectra of synthetic guaiacyl lignin (dehydrogenation polymer-G-DHP). Raman spectra of DBDO and G-DHP both differ with respect to the excitation wavelength and therefore reveal different features of the substructure/polymer. This study confirms the idea previously put forward that Raman at 532 nm selectively probes end groups of lignin, whereas Raman at 785 nm and IR seem to represent the majority of lignin substructures.
  • Mustajoki, Marianne; Forsen, Tom; Kauppila, Timo (2018)
    Background and aims: The language in assessing intensity or quality of pain has been studied but the results have been inconsistent. The physicians' language skills might affect the estimation of the severity of pain possibly leading to insufficient use of analgesics. Several interfering cultural factors have complicated studies aimed at exploring the language used to detect the quality of pain. We aimed to compare native and non-native language related qualitative aspects of pain chosen by Swedish speaking patients with diabetes. Methods: In the study participated 10 Finnish and 51 Swedish speaking patients with diabetes. The Pain Detect-questionnaire was used for clarifying the patients' pain and the mechanism of their pain (neuropathic or not) and for assessing the intensity and quality of pain. In addition, the patients completed the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (sfMPQ) in Finnish (test I). After 30 min the subjects completed the sfMPQ a second time in their native language (test H). The Swedish speakers estimated their second language, Finnish, proficiency on a 5-graded scale. Results: There were significantly more discrepancies between sfMPQ test I and test II among the Swedish speaking respondents who reported poor (hardly none) Finnish language proficiency compared with those with good Finnish proficiency. Discrepancies occurred especially between the affective qualities of pain. Conclusions: Poor second language proficiency exposes Swedish speakers to pain communication difficulties related to the affective aspects of pain. Consequently, discordant language communication could cause underestimation of the severity of pain and pain undertreatment.
  • Knaapila, Antti; Laaksonen, Oskar; Virtanen, Markus; Yang, Baoru; Lagstrom, Hanna; Sandell, Mari (2017)
    The primary dimension of odor is pleasantness, which is associated with a multitude of factors. We investigated how the pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors were associated with each other and with the use of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and level of food neophobia. A total of 126 adults (93 women, 33 men; age 25-61 years, mean 39 years) rated the odors from 12 spices (oregano, anise, rosemary, mint, caraway, sage, thyme, cinnamon, fennel, marjoram, garlic, and clove) for pleasantness and familiarity, and completed a multiple-choice odor identification. Data on the use of specific spices, overall use of herbs, and Food Neophobia Scale score were collected using an online questionnaire. Familiar odors were mostly rated as pleasant (except garlic), whereas unfamiliar odors were rated as neutral (r = 0.63). We observed consistent and often significant trends that suggested the odor pleasantness and familiarity were positively associated with the correct odor identification, consumption of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and food neophilia. Our results suggest that knowledge acquisition through repetitive exposure to spice odor with active attention may gradually increase the odor pleasantness within the framework set by the chemical characteristics of the aroma compound. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tiili, Paula; Putaala, Jukka; Mehtala, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Niiranen, Jussi; Korhonen, Pasi; Raatikainen, Pekka; Lehto, Mika (2019)
    Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating complication of oral anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of ICH and to evaluate the association of warfarin control with the risk of ICH in a nationwide cohort of unselected atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and Results: The FinWAF is a retrospective registry-linkage study. Data were collected from several nationwide Finnish health-care registers and laboratory databases. The primary outcome was any ICH (traumatic or non-traumatic). The quality of warfarin therapy was assessed continuously by calculating the time in therapeutic range in a 60-day window (TTR60). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used. A total of 53,953 patients were included (53% men; mean age, 73 years; mean follow-up, 2.94 years; mean TTR, 63%). In 129,684 patient-years, 1,196 patients had ICH (non-traumatic, 53.5%; traumatic, 43.6%; traumatic subdural, 38.6%); crude annual rate, 0.92%; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98). A lower TTR60 was significantly associated with higher risk of ICH (TTR60 80%; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% CI: 1.83-2.54). Other variables independently associated with ICH included age >65 years, previous stroke, male sex, low hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, and previous bleeding other than ICH. Conclusions: Poor control of warfarin treatment was associated with elevated risk of ICH. Approximately half of the ICH were traumatic, mainly subdural.
  • Waller, Katja; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Lindgren, Noora; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sievänen, Harri; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Background: Maintaining good fitness and good level of physical activity are important factors for maintaining physical independence later in life. The aim was to investigate the relationship between self-reported fitness and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in the elderly. Methods: Same-sex twin pairs born 1940-1944 in Finland were invited to the study. Altogether 787 individuals (mean age 72.9 years), of whom 404 were female, used a hip-worn triaxial accelerometer for at least 4 days and answered a question on perceived fitness. First, individual differences were studied between four fitness categories. Second, pairwise differences were examined among twin pairs discordant for fitness. Results: Self-reported fitness explained moderately the variation in objectively measured physical activity parameters: R-2 for daily steps 26%, for daily mean metabolic equivalent 31%, for daily moderate-to-vigorous activity time 31%, and lower for sedentary behavior time 14% (all p <.001). Better self-reported fitness was associated with more steps taken on average (8,558 daily steps [very good fitness] vs 2,797 steps [poor fitness], p <.001) and with a higher amount of moderate-to-vigorous activity (61 min vs 12 min p <.001, respectively) in the adjusted multivariable model. Among 156 twin pairs discordant for self-reported fitness, co-twins with better fitness took more steps, did more moderate-to-vigorous activity, and had less sedentary behavior (all, p <.05) compared to their less fit co-twins; however, difference was smaller among monozygotic than dizygotic pairs. Conclusion: One simple question on self-reported fitness is associated with daily activity profile among community-dwelling older people. However, genetic factors modulate this association to some extent.
  • Yu, Xiaowei; Hyyppa, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Kaartinen, Harri; Vastaranta, Mikko; Holopainen, Markus (2017)
    This paper investigated the potential of multispectral airborne laser scanning (ALS) data for individual tree detection and tree species classification. The aim was to develop a single-sensor solution for forest mapping that is capable of providing species-specific information, required for forest management and planning purposes. Experiments were conducted using 1903 ground measured trees from 22 sample plots and multispectral ALS data, acquired with an Optech Titan scanner over a boreal forest, mainly consisting of Scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea Abies), and birch (Betula sp.), in southern Finland. ALS-features used as predictors for tree species were extracted from segmented tree objects and used in random forest classification. Different combinations of features, including point cloud features, and intensity features of single and multiple channels, were tested. Among the field-measured trees, 61.3% were correctly detected. The best overall accuracy (OA) of tree species classification achieved for correctly-detected trees was 85.9% (Kappa = 0.75), using a point cloud and single-channel intensity features combination, which was not significantly different from the ones that were obtained either using all features (OA = 85.6%, Kappa = 0.75), or single-channel intensity features alone (OA = 85.4%, Kappa = 0.75). Point cloud features alone achieved the lowest accuracy, with an OA of 76.0%. Field-measured trees were also divided into four categories. An examination of the classification accuracy for four categories of trees showed that isolated and dominant trees can be detected with a detection rate of 91.9%, and classified with a high overall accuracy of 90.5%. The corresponding detection rate and accuracy were 81.5% and 89.8% for a group of trees, 26.4% and 79.1% for trees next to a larger tree, and 7.2% and 53.9% for trees situated under a larger tree, respectively. The results suggest that Channel 2 (1064 nm) contains more information for separating pine, spruce, and birch, followed by channel 1 (1550 nm) and channel 3 (532 nm) with an overall accuracy of 81.9%, 78.3%, and 69.1%, respectively. Our results indicate that the use of multispectral ALS data has great potential to lead to a single-sensor solution for forest mapping.
  • Toivonen, Tuuli; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Fink, Christoph; Hausmann, Anna; Hiippala, Tuomo; Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Di Minin, Enrico (2019)
    Improved understanding of human-nature interactions is crucial to conservation science and practice, but collecting relevant data remains challenging. Recently, social media have become an increasingly important source of information on human-nature interactions. However, the use of advanced methods for analysing social media is still limited, and social media data are not used to their full potential. In this article, we present available sources of social media data and approaches to mining and analysing these data for conservation science. Specifically, we (i) describe what kind of relevant information can be retrieved from social media platforms, (ii) provide a detailed overview of advanced methods for spatio-temporal, content and network analyses, (iii) exemplify the potential of these approaches for real-world conservation challenges, and (iv) discuss the limitations of social media data analysis in conservation science. Combined with other data sources and carefully considering the biases and ethical issues, social media data can provide a complementary and cost-efficient information source for addressing the grand challenges of biodiversity conservation in the Anthropocene epoch.
  • Mustonen, Laura; Aho, Tommi; Harno, Hanna; Kalso, Eija (2020)
    Objectives: Static mechanical allodynia (SMA), i. e., pain caused by normally non-painful static pressure, is a prevalent manifestation of neuropathic pain (NP). Although SMA may significantly affect the patient's daily life, it is less well studied in the clinical context. We aimed to characterize SMA in women with chronic post-surgical NP (CPSNP) after breast cancer surgery. Our objective was to improve understanding of the clinical picture of this prevalent pain condition. This is a substudy of a previously published larger cohort of patients with intercostobrachial nerve injury after breast cancer surgery (Mustonen et al. Pain. 2019;160:246-56). Methods: We studied SMA in 132 patients with CPSNP after breast cancer surgery. The presence, location, and intensity of SMA were assessed at clinical sensory examination. The patients gave self-reports of pain with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). We studied the association of SMA to type of surgery, oncological treatments, BMI, other pains, and psychological factors. General pain sensitivity was assessed by the cold pressor test. Results: SMA was prevalent (84%) in this cohort whereas other forms of allodynia were scarce (6%). Moderate-to-severe SMA was frequently observed even in patients who reported mild pain in BPI. Breast and the side of chest were the most common locations of SMA. SMA was associated with breast surgery type, but not with psychological factors. Severe SMA, but not self-reported pain, was associated with lower cold pain tolerance. Conclusions: SMA is prevalent in post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery and it may represent a distinct NP phenotype. High intensities of SMA may signal the presence of central sensitization. Implications: SMA should be considered when examining and treating patients with post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery.
  • Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid (2016)
    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an intriguing effect, efficiency of which depends on many factors and whose applicability to a given system is not obvious before the experiment. The motivation of the present work is to demonstrate the SERS effect on silicon nanocrystals (Si-nc) embedded in silica, the material of high technological importance. Using the Ag overlayer method, we have found the SERS effect for this material. The best result is obtained for Ag layers of a weight thickness of 12 nm, whose surface plasmons are in a resonance with the laser wavelength (488 nm). The enhancement obtained for the Raman signal from 3-4-nm Si-nc in a 40-nm SiOx film is above 100. The SERS effect is about twice stronger for ultra-small Si-nc (similar to 1 nm) and/or disordered silicon compared to Si-nc with sizes of 3-4 nm. The SERS measurements with an Ag overlayer allow detecting silicon crystallization for ultrathin SiOx films and/or for very low Si excess and suppress the Raman signal from the substrate and the photoluminescence of the film.
  • Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Vainio, Martti (2017)
    The perceived duration of a sound is affected by its fundamental frequency and intensity: higher sounds are judged to be longer, as are sounds with greater intensity. Since increasing intensity lengthens the perceived duration of the auditory object, and increasing the fundamental frequency increases the sounds perceived loudness (up to ca. 3 kHz), frequency modulation of duration could be potentially explained by a confounding effect where the primary cause of the modulation would be variations in intensity. Here, a series of experiments are described that were designed to disentangle the contributions of fundamental frequency, intensity, and duration to perceived loudness and duration. In two forced-choice tasks, participants judged duration and intensity differences between two sounds varying simultaneously in intensity, fundamental frequency, fundamental frequency gliding range, and duration. The results suggest that fundamental frequency and intensity each have an impact on duration judgments, while frequency gliding range did not influence the present results. We also demonstrate that the modulation of perceived duration by sound fundamental frequency cannot be fully explained by the confounding relationship between frequency and intensity.
  • Junttila, S.; Holopainen, M.; Vastaranta, M.; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P.; Kaartinen, H.; Hyyppä, J.; Hyyppä, H. (2019)
    Climate change is causing novel forest stress around the world due to changes in environmental conditions. Forest pest insects, such as Ips typographus (L.), are spreading toward the northern latitudes and are now able to produce more generations in their current range; this has increased forest disturbances. Timely information on tree decline is critical in allowing forest managers to plan effective countermeasures and to forecast potential infestation areas. Field-based infestation surveys of bark beetles have traditionally involved visual estimates of entrance holes, resin flow, and maternal-gallery densities; such estimates are prone to error and bias. Thus, objective and automated methods for estimating tree infestation status are required. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of dual-wavelength terrestrial lidar in the estimation and detection of I. typographus infestation symptoms. In addition, we examined the relationship between leaf water content (measured as gravimetric water content and equivalent water thickness) and infestation severity. Using two terrestrial lidar systems (operating at 905 nm and 1550 nm), we measured 29 mature Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) trees that exhibited low or moderate infestation symptoms. We calculated single and dual-wavelength lidar intensity metrics from stem and crown points to test these metrics' ability to discriminate I. typographus infestation levels using regressions and linear discriminant analyses. Across the various I. typographus infestation levels, we found significant differences (p