Browsing by Subject "INTENSITY"

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  • Cremers, Eline M. P.; de Witte, Theo; de Wreede, Liesbeth; Eikema, Diderik-Jan; Koster, Linda; van Biezen, Anja; Finke, Jurgen; Socie, Gerard; Beelen, Dietrich; Maertens, Johan; Nagler, Arnon; Kobbe, Guido; Ziagkos, Dimitris; Itälä-Remes, Maija; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Sierra, Jorge; Niederwieser, Dietger; Ljungman, Per; Beguin, Yves; Ozkurt, Zubeyde Nur; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Jindra, Pavel; Robin, Marie; Kröger, Nicolaus (2019)
    Most myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)-patients receive multiple red blood cell transfusions (RBCT). Transfusions may cause iron-related toxicity and mortality, influencing outcome after allogeneic HSCT. This prospective non-interventional study evaluated 222 MDS and CMML patients undergoing HSCT. Overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence (RI) at 36 months were 52%, 44%, 25%, and 31%, respectively. Age, percentage of marrow blasts and severe comorbidities impacted OS. RFS was significantly associated with RBCT burden prior to HSCT (HR: 1.7; p = .02). High ferritin levels had a significant negative impact on OS and RI, but no impact on NRM. Administration of iron chelation therapy prior to HSCT did not influence the outcome, but early iron reduction after HSCT (started before 6 months) improved RFS significantly after transplantation (56% in the control group vs. 90% in the treated group, respectively; p = .04). This study illustrates the impact of RBCT and related parameters on HSCT-outcome. Patients with an expected prolonged survival after transplantation may benefit from early iron reduction therapy after transplantation.
  • Mäntyniemi, Päivi Birgitta; Sørensen, Mathilde B.; Tatevossian, Tatiana N.; Tatevossian, Ruben E.; Lund, Björn (2020)
    Archives and libraries were visited to find previously unknown documents testifying to the Luroy, Norway, earthquake of 31 August 1819 in northernmost continental Europe. The focus here is on Sweden, Finland, and Russia, which are important for determining the area of perceptibility east of Norway. The new written sources include 12 notes or entries in original archived documents, six contemporary newspaper reports, and two recollections written down years later. The original documentation uncovered is contributory to establishing the authenticity of the observations in Finland and Sweden. The dates of the original documentation allow tracing of the dissemination of eyewitness accounts in writing from the inner area of perceptibility southward to the larger documentation and population centers. New sources of information include weather reports of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, minutes of its meetings, and correspondence sent to the Senate in Finland. The minutes of meetings of the Academy indicate that ample data were collected in the Swedish province of Vasterbotten. We found no original Russian documentation but uncovered national newspapers that are more reliable than the previously used Parisian newspaper. To increase transparency, we provide the first list of macroseismic data points (MDPs) including the respective documentation that testify to the Luroy earthquake. A macroseismic intensity was assigned to a locality, using the European Macroseismic Scale of 1998, when adequate information was available. Accounting for the uncertainty of intensity assessment, the magnitude was estimated as moment magnitude M = 5.9 +/- 0.2, reconfirming the ranking as the largest onshore or nearshore earthquake in the historical seismicity record of Fennoscandia. In addition to the reappraisal of the 31 August 1819 earthquake, a macroseismic map is provided for the earthquake of 17 February 1819, which was felt in northern Finland and Sweden. Some of its MDPs were previously associated with the Luroy earthquake.
  • Saraceni, Francesco; Labopin, Myriam; Forcade, Edouard; Kroeger, Nicolaus; Socie, Gerard; Niittyvuopio, Riitta; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Labussiere-Wallet, Helene; Blaise, Didier; Choi, Goda; Byrne, Jenny L.; Guillerm, Gaelle; Marchand, Tony; Esteve, Jordi; Bazarbachi, Ali; Savani, Bipin; Olivieri, Attilio; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2021)
    Limited data are currently available on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) with a reduced performance status. We herein present the results of a registry study on 2,936 AML patients undergoing allo-SCT in first remission (CR1) with a Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score less than or equal to 80%. Two-year leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free, and relapse-free survival (GRFS) rates were 54%, 59%, and 41%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, patients with a KPS score = 80% had lower non-relapse mortality (NRM) and superior OS in comparison to patients with a KPS score
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Viljanen, Niko; Honkavaara, Eija; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Huuskonen, Saija; Hynynen, Jari; Vastaranta, Mikko (2020)
    Forest management alters the growing conditions and thus further development of trees. However, quantitative assessment of forest management on tree growth has been demanding as methodologies for capturing changes comprehensively in space and time have been lacking. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) has shown to be capable of providing three-dimensional (3D) tree stem reconstructions required for revealing differences between stem shapes and sizes. In this study, we used 3D reconstructions of tree stems from TLS and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to investigate how varying thinning treatments and the following growth effects affected stem shape and size of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees. The results showed that intensive thinning resulted in more stem volume and therefore total biomass allocation and carbon uptake compared to the moderate thinning.Relationship between tree height and diameter at breast height (i.e. slenderness) varied between both thinning intensity and type (i.e. from below and above) indicating differing response to thinning and allocation of stem growth of Scots pine trees. Furthermore, intensive thinning, especially from below, produced less variation in relative stem attributes characterizing stem shape and size. Thus, it can be concluded that thinning intensity,type, and the following growth effects have an impact on post-thinning stem shape and size of Scots pine trees.Our study presented detailed measurements on post-thinning stem growth of Scots pines that have been laborious or impracticable before the emergence of detailed 3D technologies. Moreover, the stem reconstructions from TLS and UAV provided variety of attributes characterizing stem shape and size that have not traditionally been feasible to obtain. The study demonstrated that detailed 3D technologies, such as TLS and UAV, provide information that can be used to generate new knowledge for supporting forest management and silviculture as well as improving ecological understanding of boreal forests.1
  • Hirvonen, Outi M.; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Gronholm, Lotta; Haltia, Olli; Rissanen, Antti; Tyynela-Korhonen, Kristiina; Rahko, Eeva K.; Lehto, Juho T.; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background: To avoid aggressive treatments at the end-of-life and to provide palliative care (PC), physicians need to terminate futile anti-cancer treatments and define the palliative goal of the treatment in time. This single center study assesses the practices used to make the decision that leads to treatment with a palliative goal, i.e., the PC decision and its effect on anti-cancer treatments at the end of life. Material and methods: Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated in tertiary hospital during 1st January 2013 - 31st December 2014 and deceased by the end of 2014 were identified in the hospital database (N = 2737). Of these patients, 992 were randomly selected for this study. The PC decision was screened from patient records, i.e., termination of cancer-specific treatments and a focus on symptom-centered PC. Results: The PC decision was defined in 82% of the patients during the last year of life (49% >30 days and 33%
  • Junttila, Samuli; Sugano, Junko; Vastaranta, Mikko; Linnakoski, Riikka; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Hannu; Hyyppa, Juha (2018)
    Changing climate is increasing the amount and intensity of forest stress agents, such as drought, pest insects, and pathogens. Leaf water content, measured here in terms of equivalent water thickness (EWT), is an early indicator of tree stress that provides timely information about the health status of forests. Multispectral terrestrial laser scanning (MS-TLS) measures target geometry and reflectance simultaneously, providing spatially explicit reflectance information at several wavelengths. EWT and leaf internal structure affect leaf reflectance in the shortwave infrared region that can be used to predict EWT with MS-TLS. A second wavelength that is sensitive to leaf internal structure but not affected by EWT can be used to normalize leaf internal effects on the shortwave infrared region and improve the prediction of EWT. Here we investigated the relationship between EWT and laser intensity features using multisensor MS-TLS at 690, 905, and 1,550 nm wavelengths with both drought-treated and Endoconidiophora polonica inoculated Norway spruce seedlings to better understand how MS-TLS measurements can explain variation in EWT. In our study, a normalized ratio of two wavelengths at 905 and 1,550 nm and length of seedling explained 91% of the variation (R-2) in EWT as the respective prediction accuracy for EWT was 0.003 g/cm(2) in greenhouse conditions. The relation between EWT and the normalized ratio of 905 and 1,550 nm wavelengths did not seem sensitive to a decreased point density of the MS-TLS data. Based on our results, different EWTs in Norway spruce seedlings show different spectral responses when measured using MS-TLS. These results can be further used when developing EWT monitoring for improving forest health assessments.
  • Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Finke, Jürgen; Labopin, Myriam; Craddock, Charles; Protheroe, Rachel; Kottaridis, Panagiotis; Tholouli, Eleni; Byrne, Jenny L.; Orchard, Kim; Salmenniemi, Urpu; Hilgendorf, Inken; Hunter, Hannah; Nicholson, Emma; Bloor, Adrian; Snowden, John A.; Verbeek, Mareike; Clark, Andrew; Savani, Bipin N.; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad (2022)
    In recent years considerable variations in conditioning protocols for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) protocols have been introduced for higher efficacy, lower toxicity, and better outcomes. To overcome the limitations of the classical definition of reduced intensity and myeloablative conditioning, a transplantation conditioning intensity (TCI) score had been developed. In this study, we compared outcome after two frequently used single alkylator-based conditioning protocols from the intermediate TCI score category, fludarabine/melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (FluMel) and fludarabine/treosulfan 42 g/m(2) (FluTreo) for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR). This retrospective analysis from the registry of the Acute Leukemia Working Party (ALWP) of the European Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) database included 1427 adult patients (median age 58.2 years) receiving either Flu/Mel (n = 1005) or Flu/Treo (n = 422). Both groups showed similar 3-year overall survival (OS) (54% vs 51.2%, p value 0.49) for patients conditioned with FluMel and FluTreo, respectively. However, patients treated with FluMel showed a reduced 3-year relapse incidence (32.4% vs. 40.4%, p value < 0.001) and slightly increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (25.7% vs. 20.2%, p value = 0.06) compared to patients treated with FluTreo. Our data may serve as a basis for further studies examining the role of additional agents/ intensifications in conditioning prior to allo-HCT.
  • Vaden, T.; Lähde, Ville; Majava, A.; Jarvensivu, P.; Toivanen, T.; Hakala, Emma; Eronen, J. T. (2020)
    The idea of decoupling "environmental bads" from "economic goods" has been proposed as a path towards sustainability by organizations such as the OECD and UN. Scientific consensus reports on environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) and resource use give an indication of the kind of decoupling needed for ecological sustainability: global, absolute, fast-enough and long-enough. This goal gives grounds for a categorisation of the different kinds of decoupling, with regard to their relevance. We conducted a survey of recent (1990-2019) research on decoupling on Web of Science and reviewed the results in the research according to the categorisation. The reviewed 179 articles contain evidence of absolute impact decoupling, especially between CO2 (and SOX) emissions and evidence on geographically limited (national level) cases of absolute decoupling of land and blue water use from GDP, but not of economy-wide resource decoupling, neither on national nor international scales. Evidence of the needed absolute global fast-enough decoupling is missing.
  • Vaden, T.; Lähde, Ville; Majava, A.; Jarvensivu, P.; Toivanen, T.; Hakala, Emma; Eronen, J. T. (2020)
    The idea of decoupling "environmental bads" from "economic goods" has been proposed as a path towards sustainability by organizations such as the OECD and UN. Scientific consensus reports on environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) and resource use give an indication of the kind of decoupling needed for ecological sustainability: global, absolute, fast-enough and long-enough. This goal gives grounds for a categorisation of the different kinds of decoupling, with regard to their relevance. We conducted a survey of recent (1990-2019) research on decoupling on Web of Science and reviewed the results in the research according to the categorisation. The reviewed 179 articles contain evidence of absolute impact decoupling, especially between CO2 (and SOX) emissions and evidence on geographically limited (national level) cases of absolute decoupling of land and blue water use from GDP, but not of economy-wide resource decoupling, neither on national nor international scales. Evidence of the needed absolute global fast-enough decoupling is missing.
  • Vaden, T.; Lähde, Ville; Majava, A.; Jarvensivu, P.; Toivanen, T.; Hakala, Emma; Eronen, J. T. (2020)
    The idea of decoupling "environmental bads" from "economic goods" has been proposed as a path towards sustainability by organizations such as the OECD and UN. Scientific consensus reports on environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) and resource use give an indication of the kind of decoupling needed for ecological sustainability: global, absolute, fast-enough and long-enough. This goal gives grounds for a categorisation of the different kinds of decoupling, with regard to their relevance. We conducted a survey of recent (1990-2019) research on decoupling on Web of Science and reviewed the results in the research according to the categorisation. The reviewed 179 articles contain evidence of absolute impact decoupling, especially between CO2 (and SOX) emissions and evidence on geographically limited (national level) cases of absolute decoupling of land and blue water use from GDP, but not of economy-wide resource decoupling, neither on national nor international scales. Evidence of the needed absolute global fast-enough decoupling is missing.
  • the Nordic Study Group of Pediatric Rheumatology (NoSPeR); Arnstad, Ellen Dalen; Rypdal, Veronika; Peltoniemi, Suvi; Herlin, Troels; Berntson, Lillemor; Fasth, Anders; Nielsen, Susan; Glerup, Mia; Ekelund, Maria; Zak, Marek; Aalto, Kristiina; Nordal, Ellen; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Rygg, Marite (2019)
    Objective To study self-reported pain early in the disease course of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a predictor of long-term disease outcomes. Methods Consecutive cases of JIA with disease onset from 1997 to 2000 from defined geographical areas of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Denmark were prospectively enrolled in this population-based cohort study. Self-reported, disease-related pain was measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS pain). Inclusion criteria were a baseline visit with a pain score 6 months after disease onset, followed by an 8-year study visit. Remission was defined according to Wallace et al (2004) preliminary criteria. Functional disability was measured by the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire and the Child Health Questionnaire Parent Form if the child was age = 18 years. Damage was scored using the Juvenile Arthritis Damage Index. Results The final study cohort consisted of 243 participants, and 120 participants (49%) had oligoarticular onset. At baseline, 76% reported a VAS pain score >0 compared to 57% reporting at 8 years. Half of those who reported baseline pain also reported pain at 8 years but at a lower intensity. Compared to no pain, higher pain intensity at baseline predicted more pain at 8 years, more functional disability, more damage, and less remission without medication. Baseline pain predicted more use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs/biologics during the disease course. Participants with oligoarticular JIA reporting pain at baseline were more likely to develop extended oligoarticular JIA or other JIA categories with an unfavorable prognosis. Conclusion Early self-reported, disease-related pain among children and adolescents with JIA is common and seems to predict persistent pain and unfavorable long-term disease outcomes.
  • Cummins, P R; Pranantyo, I R; Pownall, J M; Griffin, J D; Meilano, I; Zhao, S (2020)
    As the world's largest archipelagic country in Earth's most active tectonic region, Indonesia faces a substantial earthquake and tsunami threat. Understanding this threat is a challenge because of the complex tectonic environment, the paucity of observed data and the limited historical record. Here we combine information from recent studies of the geology of Indonesia's Banda Sea with Global Positioning System observations of crustal motion and an analysis of historical large earthquakes and tsunamis there. We show that past destructive earthquakes were not caused by the supposed megathrust of the Banda outer arc as previously thought but are due to a vast submarine normal fault system recently discovered along the Banda inner arc. Instead of being generated by coseismic seafloor displacement, we find the tsunamis were more likely caused by earthquake-triggered submarine slumping along the fault's massive scarp, the Weber Deep. This would make the Banda detachment representative not only as a modern analogue for terranes hyper-extended by slab rollback but also for the generation of earthquakes and tsunamis by a submarine extensional fault system. Our findings suggest that low-angle normal faults in the Banda Sea generate large earthquakes, which in turn can generate tsunamis due to earthquake-triggered slumping. Low-angle normal faults in the Banda Sea have caused large earthquakes that indirectly generated tsunamis due to earthquake-triggered submarine slumping, according to an analysis of historical earthquake and tsunami events and GPS observations.
  • Rasmussen, Pil U.; Abrego, Nerea; Roslin, Tomas; Opik, Maarja; Sepp, Siim-Kaarel; Blanchet, F. Guillaume; Huotari, Tea; Hugerth, Luisa W.; Tack, Ayco J. M. (2022)
    Knowledge about the distribution and local diversity patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are limited for extreme environments such as the Arctic, where most studies have focused on spore morphology or root colonization. We here studied the joint effects of plant species identity and elevation on AM fungal distribution and diversity. We sampled roots of 19 plant species in 18 locations in Northeast Greenland, using next generation sequencing to identify AM fungi. We studied the joint effect of plant species, elevation and selected abiotic conditions on AM fungal presence, richness and composition. We identified 29 AM fungal virtual taxa (VT), of which six represent putatively new VT. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal presence increased with elevation, and as vegetation cover and the active soil layer decreased. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal composition was shaped jointly by elevation and plant species identity. We demonstrate that the Arctic harbours a relatively species-rich and nonrandomly distributed diversity of AM fungi. Given the high diversity and general lack of knowledge exposed herein, we encourage further research into the diversity, drivers and functional role of AM fungi in the Arctic. Such insight is urgently needed for an area with some of the globally highest rates of climate change.
  • Karppinen, Jari E.; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Wiklund, Petri; Hamalainen, Kaisa; Laakkonen, Eija K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2019)
    Purpose We aimed to investigate if hereditary factors, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and metabolic health interact with resting fat oxidation (RFO) and peak fat oxidation (PFO) during ergometer cycling. Methods We recruited 23 male monozygotic twin pairs (aged 32-37 years) and determined their RFO and PFO with indirect calorimetry for 21 and 19 twin pairs and for 43 and 41 twin individuals, respectively. Using physical activity interviews and the Baecke questionnaire, we identified 10 twin pairs as LTPA discordant for the past 3 years. Of the twin pairs, 8 pairs participated in both RFO and PFO measurements, and 2 pairs participated in either of the measurements. We quantified the participants' metabolic health with a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. Results Fat oxidation within co-twins was correlated at rest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15-0.78] and during exercise (ICC = 0.67, 95% CI 0.33-0.86). The LTPA-discordant pairs had no pairwise differences in RFO or PFO. In the twin individual-based analysis, PFO was positively correlated with the past 12-month LTPA (r = 0.26, p = 0.034) and the Baecke score (r = 0.40, p = 0.022) and negatively correlated with the area under the curve of insulin (r = - 0.42, p = 0.015) and glucose (r = - 0.31, p = 0.050) during the oral glucose tolerance test. Conclusions Hereditary factors were more important than LTPA for determining fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Additionally, PFO, but not RFO, was associated with better metabolic health.
  • Bock, Peter; Nousiainen, Paula; Elder, Thomas; Blaukopf, Markus; Amer, Hassan; Zirbs, Ronald; Potthast, Antje; Gierlinger, Notburga (2020)
    Vibrational spectroscopy is a very suitable tool for investigating the plant cell wall in situ with almost no sample preparation. The structural information of all different constituents is contained in a single spectrum. Interpretation therefore heavily relies on reference spectra and understanding of the vibrational behavior of the components under study. For the first time, we show infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of dibenzodioxocin (DBDO), an important lignin substructure. A detailed vibrational assignment of the molecule, based on quantum chemical computations, is given in the Supporting Information; the main results are found in the paper. Furthermore, we show IR and Raman spectra of synthetic guaiacyl lignin (dehydrogenation polymer-G-DHP). Raman spectra of DBDO and G-DHP both differ with respect to the excitation wavelength and therefore reveal different features of the substructure/polymer. This study confirms the idea previously put forward that Raman at 532 nm selectively probes end groups of lignin, whereas Raman at 785 nm and IR seem to represent the majority of lignin substructures.
  • Sakki, Anniina J.; Makinen, Laura K.; Kanerva, Mervi; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna (2021)
    Objectives: To compare postoperative self-reported recovery results with monopolar tonsillotomy and cold dissection tonsillectomy in children. To evaluate the feasibility of the monopolar technique in tonsillotomy. Methods: Children Results: Altogether 166 patients were recruited; 103 (62%) returned the questionnaire. The first pain-free day with tonsillotomy was day 5 and with tonsillectomy day 11. After tonsillotomy, patients returned to normal activities faster, e.g. they were able to eat normally 6.5 days earlier than tonsillectomy patients. During the first postoperative week weight dropped after tonsillectomy, but not after tonsillotomy. The length of home care was 6 days with tonsillotomy and 10 days with tonsillectomy. The incidence of postoperative hemorrhage (including minor bleedings at home) was 14% after tonsillotomy and 32% after tonsillectomy. Hemorrhages needing interventions were 0% with tonsillotomy and 2% with tonsillectomy. Conclusion: Children operated on with monopolar tonsillotomy recovered faster and had less postoperative hemorrhage than those undergoing tonsillectomy. They were able to return earlier to daycare/school and their caregivers back to work. Recovery results with monopolar tonsillotomy were equal to other tonsillotomy techniques reported in the literature, hence the monopolar technique can be considered an alternative method to perform tonsillotomy.
  • Mustajoki, Marianne; Forsen, Tom; Kauppila, Timo (2018)
    Background and aims: The language in assessing intensity or quality of pain has been studied but the results have been inconsistent. The physicians' language skills might affect the estimation of the severity of pain possibly leading to insufficient use of analgesics. Several interfering cultural factors have complicated studies aimed at exploring the language used to detect the quality of pain. We aimed to compare native and non-native language related qualitative aspects of pain chosen by Swedish speaking patients with diabetes. Methods: In the study participated 10 Finnish and 51 Swedish speaking patients with diabetes. The Pain Detect-questionnaire was used for clarifying the patients' pain and the mechanism of their pain (neuropathic or not) and for assessing the intensity and quality of pain. In addition, the patients completed the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire (sfMPQ) in Finnish (test I). After 30 min the subjects completed the sfMPQ a second time in their native language (test H). The Swedish speakers estimated their second language, Finnish, proficiency on a 5-graded scale. Results: There were significantly more discrepancies between sfMPQ test I and test II among the Swedish speaking respondents who reported poor (hardly none) Finnish language proficiency compared with those with good Finnish proficiency. Discrepancies occurred especially between the affective qualities of pain. Conclusions: Poor second language proficiency exposes Swedish speakers to pain communication difficulties related to the affective aspects of pain. Consequently, discordant language communication could cause underestimation of the severity of pain and pain undertreatment.
  • Knaapila, Antti; Laaksonen, Oskar; Virtanen, Markus; Yang, Baoru; Lagstrom, Hanna; Sandell, Mari (2017)
    The primary dimension of odor is pleasantness, which is associated with a multitude of factors. We investigated how the pleasantness, familiarity, and identification of spice odors were associated with each other and with the use of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and level of food neophobia. A total of 126 adults (93 women, 33 men; age 25-61 years, mean 39 years) rated the odors from 12 spices (oregano, anise, rosemary, mint, caraway, sage, thyme, cinnamon, fennel, marjoram, garlic, and clove) for pleasantness and familiarity, and completed a multiple-choice odor identification. Data on the use of specific spices, overall use of herbs, and Food Neophobia Scale score were collected using an online questionnaire. Familiar odors were mostly rated as pleasant (except garlic), whereas unfamiliar odors were rated as neutral (r = 0.63). We observed consistent and often significant trends that suggested the odor pleasantness and familiarity were positively associated with the correct odor identification, consumption of the respective spice, overall use of herbs, and food neophilia. Our results suggest that knowledge acquisition through repetitive exposure to spice odor with active attention may gradually increase the odor pleasantness within the framework set by the chemical characteristics of the aroma compound. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Tiili, Paula; Putaala, Jukka; Mehtala, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Niiranen, Jussi; Korhonen, Pasi; Raatikainen, Pekka; Lehto, Mika (2019)
    Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating complication of oral anticoagulation. The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of ICH and to evaluate the association of warfarin control with the risk of ICH in a nationwide cohort of unselected atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Methods and Results: The FinWAF is a retrospective registry-linkage study. Data were collected from several nationwide Finnish health-care registers and laboratory databases. The primary outcome was any ICH (traumatic or non-traumatic). The quality of warfarin therapy was assessed continuously by calculating the time in therapeutic range in a 60-day window (TTR60). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used. A total of 53,953 patients were included (53% men; mean age, 73 years; mean follow-up, 2.94 years; mean TTR, 63%). In 129,684 patient-years, 1,196 patients had ICH (non-traumatic, 53.5%; traumatic, 43.6%; traumatic subdural, 38.6%); crude annual rate, 0.92%; 95% CI: 0.87-0.98). A lower TTR60 was significantly associated with higher risk of ICH (TTR60 80%; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% CI: 1.83-2.54). Other variables independently associated with ICH included age >65 years, previous stroke, male sex, low hemoglobin, thrombocytopenia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, and previous bleeding other than ICH. Conclusions: Poor control of warfarin treatment was associated with elevated risk of ICH. Approximately half of the ICH were traumatic, mainly subdural.
  • Muukkonen, Ilkka; Salmela, Viljami (2022)
    Face perception provides an excellent example of how the brain processes nuanced visual differences and trans-forms them into behaviourally useful representations of identities and emotional expressions. While a body of literature has looked into the spatial and temporal neural processing of facial expressions, few studies have used a dimensionally varying set of stimuli containing subtle perceptual changes. In the current study, we used 48 short videos varying dimensionally in their intensity and category (happy, angry, surprised) of expression. We measured both fMRI and EEG responses to these video clips and compared the neural response patterns to the predictions of models based on image features and models derived from behavioural ratings of the stimuli. In fMRI, the inferior frontal gyrus face area (IFG-FA) carried information related only to the intensity of the expres-sion, independent of image-based models. The superior temporal sulcus (STS), inferior temporal (IT) and lateral occipital (LO) areas contained information about both expression category and intensity. In the EEG, the coding of expression category and low-level image features were most pronounced at around 400 ms. The expression intensity model did not, however, correlate significantly at any EEG timepoint. Our results show a specific role for IFG-FA in the coding of expressions and suggest that it contains image and category invariant representations of expression intensity.