Browsing by Subject "INTENSIVE-CARE-UNIT"

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  • Bellomo, Rinaldo; Kellum, John A.; Ronco, Claudio; Wald, Ron; Martensson, Johan; Maiden, Matthew; Bagshaw, Sean M.; Glassford, Neil J.; Lankadeva, Yugeesh; Vaara, Suvi; Schneider, Antoine (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis carry consensus definitions. The simultaneous presence of both identifies septic AKI. Septic AKI is the most common AKI syndrome in ICU and accounts for approximately half of all such AKI. Its pathophysiology remains poorly understood, but animal models and lack of histological changes suggest that, at least initially, septic AKI may be a functional phenomenon with combined microvascular shunting and tubular cell stress. The diagnosis remains based on clinical assessment and measurement of urinary output and serum creatinine. However, multiple biomarkers and especially cell cycle arrest biomarkers are gaining acceptance. Prevention of septic AKI remains based on the treatment of sepsis and on early resuscitation. Such resuscitation relies on the judicious use of both fluids and vasoactive drugs. In particular, there is strong evidence that starch-containing fluids are nephrotoxic and decrease renal function and suggestive evidence that chloride-rich fluid may also adversely affect renal function. Vasoactive drugs have variable effects on renal function in septic AKI. At this time, norepinephrine is the dominant agent, but vasopressin may also have a role. Despite supportive therapies, renal function may be temporarily or completely lost. In such patients, renal replacement therapy (RRT) becomes necessary. The optimal intensity of this therapy has been established, while the timing of when to commence RRT is now a focus of investigation. If sepsis resolves, the majority of patients recover renal function. Yet, even a single episode of septic AKI is associated with increased subsequent risk of chronic kidney disease.
  • Kataja, Anu; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Kober, Lars; Sionis, Alessandro; Spinar, Jindrich; Parissis, John; Carubelli, Valentina; Cardoso, Jose; Banaszewski, Marek; Marino, Rossella; Nieminen, Markku S.; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2018)
    Background: Altered mental status is among the signs of hypoperfusion in cardiogenic shock, the most severe form of acute heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of altered mental status, to identify factors associating with it, and to assess the prognostic significance of altered mental status in cardiogenic shock. Methods: Mental status was assessed at presentation of shock in 215 adult cardiogenic shock patients in a multinational, prospective, observational study. Clinical picture, biochemical variables, and short-term mortality were compared between patients presenting with altered and normal mental status. Results: Altered mental status was detected in 147 (68%) patients, whereas 68 (32%) patients had normal mental status. Patients with altered mental status were older (68 vs. 64 years, p=0.04) and more likely to have an acute coronary syndrome than those with normal mental status (85% vs. 74%, p=0.04). Altered mental status was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (76 vs. 80 mmHg, p=0.03) and lower arterial pH (7.27 vs. 7.35, p Conclusions: Altered mental status is a common clinical sign of systemic hypoperfusion in cardiogenic shock and is associated with poor outcome. It is also associated with several biochemical findings that reflect inadequate tissue perfusion, of which low arterial pH is independently associated with altered mental status.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Weber, Dieter G.; Ruppe, Etienne; Bassetti, Matteo; Wright, Brian J.; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto; Coccolini, Federico; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Coimbra, Raul; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Frederick A.; Maier, Ronald V.; De Waele, Jan J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Eckmann, Christian; Brink, Adrian J.; Mazuski, John E.; May, Addison K.; Sawyer, Rob G.; Mertz, Dominik; Montravers, Philippe; Kumar, Anand; Roberts, Jason A.; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Watkins, Richard R.; Lowman, Warren; Spellberg, Brad; Abbott, Iain J.; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid Kayode; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N.; Agresta, Ferdinando; Althani, Asma A.; Ansari, Shamshul; Ansumana, Rashid; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Baraket, Oussama; Bhangu, Aneel; Beltran, Marcelo A.; Bernhard, Michael; Biffl, Walter L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Brecher, Stephen M.; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R.; Buyne, Otmar R.; Cainzos, Miguel A.; Cairns, Kelly A.; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J.; Jusoh, Asri Che; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Colijn, Caroline; Corcione, Francesco; Cui, Yunfeng; Curcio, Daniel; Delibegovic, Samir; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; Dhingra, Sameer; Diaz, Jose J.; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Dillip, Angel; Di Saverio, Salomone; Doyle, Michael P.; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dogjani, Agron; Dupont, Herve; Eachempati, Soumitra R.; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Egiev, Valery N.; Elmangory, Mutasim M.; Ferrada, Paula; Fitchett, Joseph R.; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Guessennd, Nathalie; Giamarellou, Helen; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gkiokas, George; Goldberg, Staphanie R.; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gomi, Harumi; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Haque, Mainul; Hansen, Sonja; Hecker, Andreas; Heizmann, Wolfgang R.; Herzog, Torsten; Hodonou, Adrien Montcho; Hong, Suk-Kyung; Kafka-Ritsch, Reinhold; Kaplan, Lewis J.; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kees, Martin G.; Kenig, Jakub; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Peter K.; Kluger, Yoram; Khokha, Vladimir; Koike, Kaoru; Kok, Kenneth Y. Y.; Kong, Victory; Knox, Matthew C.; Inaba, Kenji; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia; Ivatury, Rao R.; Labbate, Maurizio; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Laterre, Pierre-Francois; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae Gil; Lee, Young Ran; Leone, Marc; Leppäniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y.; Loho, Tonny; Maegele, Marc; Malama, Sydney; Marei, Hany E.; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Marwah, Sanjay; Massele, Amos; McFarlane, Michael; Melo, Renato Bessa; Negoi, Ionut; Nicolau, David P.; Nord, Carl Erik; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Omari, AbdelKarim H.; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Ouadii, Mouaqit; Pereira Junior, Gerson Alves; Piazza, Diego; Pupelis, Guntars; Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Rocha, Claudio; Sakakhushev, Boris; Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel; Sato, Norio; Lohse, Helmut A. Segovia; Sganga, Gabriele; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Shelat, Vishal G.; Soreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; Talving, Peep; Tilsed, Jonathan V.; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Trueba, Gabriel; Trung, Ngo Tat; Ulrych, Jan; van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Vohra, Ravinder S.; Wani, Imtiaz; Uhl, Waldemar; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Zachariah, Sanoop K.; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L.; Corcione, Antonio; Melotti, Rita M.; Viscoli, Claudio; Viale, Perluigi (2016)
    Intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in high-risk patients. The cornerstones in the management of complicated IAIs are timely effective source control with appropriate antimicrobial therapy. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is important in the management of intra-abdominal infections and must be broad enough to cover all likely organisms because inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy is associated with poor patient outcomes and the development of bacterial resistance. The overuse of antimicrobials is widely accepted as a major driver of some emerging infections (such as C. difficile), the selection of resistant pathogens in individual patients, and for the continued development of antimicrobial resistance globally. The growing emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms and the limited development of new agents available to counteract them have caused an impending crisis with alarming implications, especially with regards to Gram-negative bacteria. An international task force from 79 different countries has joined this project by sharing a document on the rational use of antimicrobials for patients with IAIs. The project has been termed AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections). The authors hope that AGORA, involving many of the world's leading experts, can actively raise awareness in health workers and can improve prescribing behavior in treating IAIs.
  • Laurikkala, Johanna; Aneman, Anders; Peng, Alexander; Reinikainen, Matti; Pham, Paul; Jakkula, Pekka; Hästbacka, Johanna; Wilkman, Erika; Loisa, Pekka; Toppila, Jussi; Birkelund, Thomas; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    Background: Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is one feature of post cardiac arrest encephalopathy. We studied the incidence and features of CVR by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and associations with outcome and biomarkers of brain injury. Methods: A post-hoc analysis of 120 comatose OHCA patients continuously monitored with NIRS and randomised to low- or high-normal oxygen, carbon dioxide and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) targets for 48 h. The tissue oximetry index-(TOx) generated by the moving correlation coefficient between cerebral tissue oxygenation measured by NIRS and MAP was used as a dynamic index of CVR with-TOx > 0 indicating impaired reactivity and TOx > 0.3 used to delineate the lower and upper MAP bounds for disrupted CVR. TOx was analysed in the 0-12, 12-24, 24-48 h timeperiods and integrated over 0-48 h. The primary outcome was the association between TOx and six-month functional outcome dichotomised by the cerebral performance category (CPC1-2 good vs. 3-5 poor). Secondary outcomes included associations with MAP bounds for CVR and biomarkers of brain injury. Results: In 108 patients with sufficient data to calculate TOx, 76 patients (70%) had impaired CVR and among these, chronic hypertension was more common (58% vs. 31%, p = 0.002). Integrated TOx for 0-48 h was higher in patients with poor outcome than in patients with good outcome (0.89 95% CI [- 1.17 to 2.94] vs. - 2.71 95% CI [- 4.16 to - 1.26], p = 0.05). Patients with poor outcomes had a decreased upper MAP bound of CVR over time (p = 0.001), including the high-normal oxygen (p = 0.002), carbon dioxide (p = 0.012) and MAP (p = 0.001) groups. The MAP range of maintained CVR was narrower in all time intervals and intervention groups (p < 0.05). NfL concentrations were higher in patients with impaired CVR compared to those with intact CVR (43 IQR [15-650] vs 20 IQR [13-199] pg/ml, p = 0.042). Conclusion: Impaired CVR over 48 h was more common in patients with chronic hypertension and associated with poor outcome. Decreased upper MAP bound and a narrower MAP range for maintained CVR were associated with poor outcome and more severe brain injury assessed with NfL.
  • Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Roberts, Derek J.; Tolonen, Matti; McKee, Jessica L.; Leppaniemi, Ari; Faris, Peter; Doig, Christopher J.; Catena, Fausto; Fabian, Timothy; Jenne, Craig N.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kubes, Paul; Manns, Braden; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Pereira, Bruno M.; Diaz, Jose J.; Sugrue, Michael; Moore, Ernest E.; Ren, Jianan; Ball, Chad G.; Coimbra, Raul; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Dixon, Elijah; Biffl, Walter; MacLean, Anthony; Ball, Ian; Drover, John; McBeth, Paul B.; Posadas-Calleja, Juan G.; Parry, Neil G.; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Xiao, Jimmy; Sartelli, Massimo (2018)
    Background: Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) has an increasing incidence with mortality rates over 80% in some settings. Mortality typically results from disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, progressive and selfperpetuating bio-mediator generation, systemic inflammation, and multiple organ failure. Principles of treatment include early antibiotic administration and operative source control. A further therapeutic option may be open abdomen (OA) management with active negative peritoneal pressure therapy (ANPPT) to remove inflammatory ascites and ameliorate the systemic damage from SCIAS. Although there is now a biologic rationale for such an intervention as well as non-standardized and erratic clinical utilization, this remains a novel therapy with potential side effects and clinical equipoise. Methods: The Closed Or Open after Laparotomy (COOL) study will constitute a prospective randomized controlled trial that will randomly allocate eligible surgical patients intra-operatively to either formal closure of the fascia or use of the OA with application of an ANPTT dressing. Patients will be eligible if they have free uncontained intra-peritoneal contamination and physiologic derangements exemplified by septic shock OR a Predisposition-Infection-Response-Organ Dysfunction Score >= 3 or a World-Society-of-Emergency-Surgery-Sepsis-Severity-Score >= 8. The primary outcome will be 90-day survival. Secondary outcomes will be logistical, physiologic, safety, bio-mediators, microbiological, quality of life, and health-care costs. Secondary outcomes will include days free of ICU, ventilation, renal replacement therapy, and hospital at 30 days from the index laparotomy. Physiologic secondary outcomes will include changes in intensive care unit illness severity scores after laparotomy. Bio-mediator outcomes for participating centers will involve measurement of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, procalcitonin, activated protein C (APC), high-mobility group box protein-1, complement factors, and mitochondrial DNA. Economic outcomes will comprise standard costing for utilization of health-care resources. Discussion: Although facial closure after SCIAS is considered the current standard of care, many reports are suggesting that OA management may improve outcomes in these patients. This trial will be powered to demonstrate a mortality difference in this highly lethal and morbid condition to ensure critically ill patients are receiving the best care possible and not being harmed by inappropriate therapies based on opinion only.
  • Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; van Vught, Lonneke A.; Belzer, Clara; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom; de Vos, Willem M.; Wiersinga, W. Joost (2017)
    The intestinal microbiota has emerged as a virtual organ with essential functions in human physiology. Antibiotic-induced disruption of the microbiota in critically ill patients may have a negative influence on key energy resources and immunity. We set out to characterize the fecal microbiota composition in critically ill patients both with and without sepsis and to explore the use of microbiota-derived markers for clinical outcome measurements in this setting. In this prospective observational cohort study we analyzed the fecal microbiota of 34 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Fifteen healthy subjects served as controls. The fecal microbiota was phylogenetically characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and associations with clinical outcome parameters were evaluated. A marked shift in fecal bacterial composition was seen in all septic and non-septic critically ill patients compared with controls, with extreme interindividual differences. In 13 of the 34 patients, a single bacterial genus made up > 50% of the gut microbiota; in 4 patients this was even > 75%. A significant decrease in bacterial diversity was observed in half of the patients. No associations were found between microbiota diversity, Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, or Gram-positive/Gram-negative ratio and outcome measurements such as complications and survival. We observed highly heterogeneous patterns of intestinal microbiota in both septic and non-septic critically ill patients. Nevertheless, some general patterns were observed, including disappearance of bacterial genera with important functions in host metabolism. More detailed knowledge of the short- and long-term health consequences of these major shifts in intestinal bacterial communities is needed.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca; Malangoni, Mark; Moore, Ernest E.; Moore, Frederick A.; Ivatury, Rao; Coimbra, Raul; Leppaniemi, Ari; Biffl, Walter; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Ordonez, Carlos A.; Marwah, Sanjay; Gerych, Igor; Lee, Jae Gil; Trana, Cristian; Coccolini, Federico; Corradetti, Francesco; Kirkby-Bott, James (2014)
  • Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael; Young, Paul; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Pettilä, Ville (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluids are closely linked through oliguria, which is a marker of the former and a trigger for administration of the latter. Recent progress in this field has challenged the physiological and clinical rational of using oliguria as a trigger for the administration of fluid and brought attention to the delicate balance between benefits and harms of different aspects of fluid management in critically ill patients, in particular those with AKI. This narrative review addresses various aspects of fluid management in AKI outlining physiological aspects, the effects of crystalloids and colloids on kidney function and the effect of various resuscitation and de-resuscitation strategies on the course and outcome of AKI.
  • Rannikko, Juha; Holmberg, Ville; Karppelin, Matti; Arvola, Pertti; Huttunen, Reetta; Mattila, Eero; Kerttula, Niina; Puhto, Teija; Tamm, Ulle; Koivula, Irma; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana; Hohenthal, Ulla (2021)
    Because of widespread use of probiotics, their safety must be guaranteed. We assessed use of Saccharomyces boulardii probiotic yeast from medical records for patients who had Saccharomyces fungemia or other clinical Saccharomyces culture findings. We evaluated all Saccharomyces sp. findings at 5 university hospitals in Finland during 2009-2018. We found 46 patients who had Saccharomyces fungemia; at least 20 (43%) were using S. boulardii probiotic. Compared with a control group that had bacteremia or candidemia, the odds ratio for use of an S. boulardii probiotic was 14 (95% CI 4-44). Of 1,153 nonblood culture findings, the history for 125 patients was checked; at least 24 (19%) were using the probiotic (odds ratio 10, 95% CI 3-32). This study adds to published fungemia cases linked to use of S. boulardii probiotic and sheds light on the scale of nonblood Saccharomyces culture findings that are also linked to use of this probiotic.
  • Tolonen, Matti; Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Sartelli, Massimo; Roberts, Derek J.; McKee, Jessica L.; Leppaniemi, Ari; Doig, Christopher J.; Catena, Fausto; Fabian, Timothy; Jenne, Craig N.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Kubes, Paul; Kluger, Yoram; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Pereira, Bruno M.; Diaz, Jose J.; Sugrue, Michael; Moore, Ernest E.; Ren, Jianan; Ball, Chad G.; Coimbra, Raul; Dixon, Elijah; Biffl, Walter; MacLean, Anthony; McBeth, Paul B.; Posadas-Calleja, Juan G.; Di Saverio, Salomone; Xiao, Jimmy; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W. (2018)
    Background: Severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) is a worldwide challenge with increasing incidence. Open abdomen management with enhanced clearance of fluid and biomediators from the peritoneum is a potential therapy requiring prospective evaluation. Given the complexity of powering multi-center trials, it is essential to recruit an inception cohort sick enough to benefit from the intervention; otherwise, no effect of a potentially beneficial therapy may be apparent An evaluation of abilities of recognized predictive systems to recognize SCIAS patients was conducted using an existing intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS) database. Methods: All consecutive adult patients with a diffuse secondary peritonitis between 2012 and 2013 were collected from a quaternary care hospital in Finland, excluding appendicitis/cholecystitis. From this retrospectively collected database, a target population (93) of those with either ICU admission or mortality were selected. The performance metrics of the Third Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock based on both SOFA and quick SOFA, the World Society of Emergency Surgery Sepsis Severity Score (WSESSSS), the APACHE II score, Manheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), and the Calgary Predisposition, Infection, Response, and Organ dysfunction (CPIRO) score were all tested for their discriminant ability to identify this subgroup with SCIAS and to predict mortality. Results: Predictive systems with an area under-the-receiving-operating characteristic (AUQ curve >= 0.8 included SOFA, Sepsis-3 definitions, APACHE II, WSESSSS, and CPIRO scores with the overall best for CPIRO. The highest identification rates were SOFA score >= 2 (78.4%), followed by the WSESSSS score >= 8 (73.1%), SOFA >= 3 (752%), and APACHE II >= 14 (68.8%) identification. Combining the Sepsis-3 septic-shock definition and WSESSS >= 8 increased detection to 80%. Including CPIRO score >= 3 increased this to 82.8% (Sensitivity-SN; 83% Specificity-SP; 74%. Comparatively, SOFA >= 4 and WSESSSS >= 8 with or without septic-shock had 83.9% detection (SN; 84%, SP; 75%, 25% mortality). Conclusions: No one scoring system behaves perfectly, and all are largely dominated by organ dysfunction. Utilizing combinations of SOFA, CPIRO, and WSESSSS scores in addition to the Sepsis-3 septic shock definition appears to offer the widest "inclusion-criteria" to recognize patients with a high chance of mortality and ICU admission.
  • Hellevuo, H.; Sainio, M.; Huhtala, H.; Olkkola, K. T.; Tenhunen, J.; Hoppu, S. (2018)
    BackgroundThe survival rate of cardiac arrest patients is increasing. Our aim was to compare the quality of life before and after cardiac arrest and analyse the factors associated with outcome. MethodsAll adult cardiac arrest patients admitted to the Tampere University Hospital intensive care unit between 2009 and 2011 were included in a retrospective follow-up study if surviving to discharge and were asked to return a questionnaire after 6 months. Data on patient demographics and pre-arrest quality of life were retrieved from medical records. Data are given as means (SD) or medians [Q(1), Q(3)]. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with better quality of life after cardiac arrest. ResultsSix months after cardiac arrest, 36% (79/222) were alive and 70% (55/79) of those patients completed the follow-up EuroQoL (EQ-5D) quality of life questionnaire. Median values for the EQ-5D before and after cardiac arrest were 0.89 [0.63, 1] and 0.89 [0.62, 1], respectively (P = 0.75). Only the EQ-5D prior to cardiac arrest was associated with better quality of life afterwards (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.3; P = 0.02). ConclusionsQuality of life remained good after cardiac arrest especially in those patients who had good quality of life before cardiac arrest.
  • De Fazio, Chiara; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Soreide, Eldar; Creteur, Jacques; Grejs, Anders M.; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Laitio, Timo; Nee, Jens; Kirkegaard, Hans; Taccone, Fabio Silvio (2019)
    BackgroundThe aim of this study was to explore the performance and outcomes for intravascular (IC) versus surface cooling devices (SFC) for targeted temperature management (TTM) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.MethodsA retrospective analysis of data from the Time-differentiated Therapeutic Hypothermia (TTH48) trial (NCT01689077), which compared whether TTM at 33 degrees C for 48h results in better neurologic outcomes compared with standard 24-h duration. Devices were assessed for the speed of cooling and rewarming rates. Precision was assessed by measuring temperature variability (TV), i.e., the standard deviation (SD) of all temperature measurements in the cooling phase. Main outcomes were overall mortality and poor neurological outcome, including death, severe disability, or vegetative status.ResultsA total of 352 patients had available data and were included in the analysis; of those, 218 (62%) were managed with IC. A total of 114/218 (53%) patients with IC and 61/134 (43%) with SFC were cooled for 48h (p=0.22). Time to target temperature (34 degrees C) was significantly shorter for patients treated with endovascular devices (2.2 [1.1-4.0] vs. 4.2 [2.7-6.0] h, p
  • Raj, Rahul; Luostarinen, Teemu; Pursiainen, Eetu; Posti, Jussi P.; Takala, Riikka S. K.; Bendel, Stepani; Konttila, Teijo; Korja, Miikka (2019)
    Our aim was to create simple and largely scalable machine learning-based algorithms that could predict mortality in a real-time fashion during intensive care after traumatic brain injury. We performed an observational multicenter study including adult TBI patients that were monitored for intracranial pressure (ICP) for at least 24 h in three ICUs. We used machine learning-based logistic regression modeling to create two algorithms (based on ICP, mean arterial pressure [MAP], cerebral perfusion pressure [CPP] and Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]) to predict 30-day mortality. We used a stratified crossvalidation technique for internal validation. Of 472 included patients, 92 patients (19%) died within 30 days. Following cross-validation, the ICP-MAP-CPP algorithm's area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) increased from 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.74) on day 1 to 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.87) on day 5. The ICP-MAP-CPP-GCS algorithm's AUC increased from 0.72 (95% CI 0.64-0.78) on day 1 to 0.84 (95% CI 0.78-0.90) on day 5. Algorithm misclassification was seen among patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy. In conclusion, we present a new concept of dynamic prognostication for patients with TBI treated in the ICU. Our simple algorithms, based on only three and four main variables, discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with accuracies up to 81% and 84%. These open-sourced simple algorithms can likely be further developed, also in low and middleincome countries.
  • Sartelli, Massimo; Catena, Fausto; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Ansaloni, Luca; Biffl, Walter L.; Boermeester, Marja A.; Ceresoli, Marco; Chiara, Osvaldo; Coccolini, Federico; De Waele, Jan J.; Di Saverio, Salomone; Eckmann, Christian; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Giannella, Maddalena; Girardis, Massimo; Griffiths, Ewen A.; Kashuk, Jeffry; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Khokha, Vladimir; Kluger, Yoram; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Maier, Ronald V.; May, Addison K.; Malangoni, Mark; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Mazuski, John; Montravers, Philippe; Peitzman, Andrew; Pereira, Bruno M.; Reis, Tarcisio; Sakakushev, Boris; Sganga, Gabriele; Soreide, Kjetil; Sugrue, Michael; Ulrych, Jan; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Viale, Pierluigi; Moore, Ernest E. (2017)
    This paper reports on the consensus conference on the management of intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) which was held on July 23, 2016, in Dublin, Ireland, as a part of the annual World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) meeting. This document covers all aspects of the management of IAIs. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation recommendation is used, and this document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference findings.
  • Aimo, Alberto; Vergaro, Giuseppe; Ripoli, Andrea; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Figal, Domingo A. Pascual; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Lassus, Johan; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Gayat, Etienne; Breidthardt, Tobias; Sabti, Zaid; Mueller, Christian; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Grodin, Justin L.; Zhang, Yuhui; Bettencourt, Paulo; Maisel, Alan S.; Passino, Claudio; Januzzi, James L.; Emdin, Michele (2017)
    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of currently available data regarding the prognostic significance of soluble suppression of tumorigenecity-2 (sST2) concentration in acute heart failure (AHF). BACKGROUND Concentration of sST2 may have prognostic value in AHF. A comprehensive assessment of all available studies regarding sST2 in AHF is lacking. METHODS Three databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus) were searched. Inclusion criteria were follow-up studies, papers published in English, enrollment of patients with AHF, and availability of median hazard ratios for all-cause death and other outcome measures, when available. RESULTS Ten studies were included, with a global population of 4,835 patients and a median follow-up duration of 13.5 months. The following global hazard ratios calculated for log(2)(sST2) were admission sST2 and all-cause death, 2.46 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.80 to 3.37; p <0.001); discharge sST2 and all-cause death, 2.06 (95% CI: 1.37 to 3.11; p <0.001); admission sST2 and cardiovascular death, 2.29 (95% CI: 1.41 to 3.73; p <0.001); discharge sST2 and cardiovascular death, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.48 to 3.25; p <0.001); admission sST2 and heart failure (HF) hospitalization, 1.21 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.52; p = 0.060); discharge sST2 and HF hospitalization, 1.54 (95% CI: 1.03 to 2.32; p = 0.007); admission sST2 and all-cause death or HF hospitalization, 1.74 (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.45; p <0.001); and discharge sST2 and all-cause death or HF hospitalization, 1.63 (95% CI: 1.14 to 2.33; p <0.001). CONCLUSIONS Plasma sST2 has prognostic value with respect to all-cause and cardiovascular death as well as the composite outcome of all-cause death or HF hospitalization, with both admission and discharge values having prognostic efficacy. Discharge sST2, but not admission sST2, is predictive of HF rehospitalization during follow-up. (C) 2017 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • HEALICS Consortium; Keuning, Britt E.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2020)
    Background Mortality prediction models are applied in the intensive care unit (ICU) to stratify patients into different risk categories and to facilitate benchmarking. To ensure that the correct prediction models are applied for these purposes, the best performing models must be identified. As a first step, we aimed to establish a systematic review of mortality prediction models in critically ill patients. Methods Mortality prediction models were searched in four databases using the following criteria: developed for use in adult ICU patients in high-income countries, with mortality as primary or secondary outcome. Characteristics and performance measures of the models were summarized. Performance was presented in terms of discrimination, calibration and overall performance measures presented in the original publication. Results In total, 43 mortality prediction models were included in the final analysis. In all, 15 models were only internally validated (35%), 13 externally (30%) and 10 (23%) were both internally and externally validated by the original researchers. Discrimination was assessed in 42 models (98%). Commonly used calibration measures were the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (60%) and the calibration plot (28%). Calibration was not assessed in 11 models (26%). Overall performance was assessed in the Brier score (19%) and the Nagelkerke's R-2 (4.7%). Conclusions Mortality prediction models have varying methodology, and validation and performance of individual models differ. External validation by the original researchers is often lacking and head-to-head comparisons are urgently needed to identify the best performing mortality prediction models for guiding clinical care and research in different settings and populations.
  • Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Max, Adeline; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Ruckly, Stephane; Chanques, Gerald; Robleda, Gemma; Roche-Campo, Ferran; Mancebo, Jordi; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Soares, Marcio; Ionescu, Daniela C.; Grintescu, Ioana M.; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Rusinova, Katerina; Owczuk, Radoslaw; Egerod, Ingrid; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.; Kyranou, Maria; Joynt, Gavin M.; Burghi, Gaston; Freebairn, Ross C.; Ho, Kwok M.; Kaarlola, Anne; Gerritsen, Rik T.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Sulaj, Miroslav M. S.; Norrenberg, Michelle; Benoit, Dominique D.; Seha, Myriam S. G.; Hennein, Akram; Pereira, Fernando J.; Benbenishty, Julie S.; Abroug, Fekri; Aquilina, Andrew; Monte, Julia R. C.; An, Youzhong; Azoulay, Elie (2018)
    The intensity of procedural pain in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is well documented. However, little is known about procedural pain distress, the psychological response to pain. Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, multinational study of procedural pain. Pain distress was measured before and during procedures (0-10 numeric rating scale). Factors that influenced procedural pain distress were identified by multivariable analyses using a hierarchical model with ICU and country as random effects. A total of 4812 procedures were recorded (3851 patients, 192 ICUs, 28 countries). Pain distress scores were highest for endotracheal suctioning (ETS) and tracheal suctioning, chest tube removal (CTR), and wound drain removal (median [IQRs] = 4 [1.6, 1.7]). Significant relative risks (RR) for a higher degree of pain distress included certain procedures: turning (RR = 1.18), ETS (RR = 1.45), tracheal suctioning (RR = 1.38), CTR (RR = 1.39), wound drain removal (RR = 1.56), and arterial line insertion (RR = 1.41); certain pain behaviors (RR = 1.19-1.28); pre-procedural pain intensity (RR = 1.15); and use of opioids (RR = 1.15-1.22). Patient-related variables that significantly increased the odds of patients having higher procedural pain distress than pain intensity were pre-procedural pain intensity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05); pre-hospital anxiety (OR = 1.76); receiving pethidine/meperidine (OR = 4.11); or receiving haloperidol (OR = 1.77) prior to the procedure. Procedural pain has both sensory and emotional dimensions. We found that, although procedural pain intensity (the sensory dimension) and distress (the emotional dimension) may closely covary, there are certain factors than can preferentially influence each of the dimensions. Clinicians are encouraged to appreciate the multidimensionality of pain when they perform procedures and use this knowledge to minimize the patient's pain experience.
  • Uljas, Eliisa; Jalkanen, Ville; Kuitunen, Anne; Hynninen, Marja; Hästbacka, Johanna (2020)
    Background Studies demonstrate that up to one-third of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions are directly or indirectly related to alcohol. Screening for alcohol use is not routine. This study examined the prevalence of elevated %CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin) and above risk-level AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Consumption) in patients admitted to ICU. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical and laboratory data from a single ICU where %CDT and AUDIT-C were included in routine assessment. After excluding readmissions, 2532 adult patients from a 21-month period were included. Admission values of %CDT were available for 2049 patients, and AUDIT-C was available for 1617 patients. The association of %CDT and AUDIT-C with short- and long-term outcome was studied by using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results %CDT was above the reference value in 23.7% (486/2048) of patients with available %CDT. Of patients with available AUDIT-C, 33% (544/1617) had a risk-level AUDIT-C score. Patients with a risk-level AUDIT-C score were significantly younger than those with a lower score (51 vs 64 years, P <.0001). Increased %CDT was associated with higher severity of illness. AUDIT-C was associated independently with increased risk of long-term mortality in multivariate analysis (P = .007). Conclusion One in three of ICU patients are risk-level alcohol users as measured with AUDIT-C score, and one in four are analysed with %CDT. The prevalence varies according to the method used and any method alone may be insufficient to detect risk-level consumption reliably. Editorial Comment Alcohol overconsumption is associated with need for ICU admission and with less favorable outcomes. Diagnosis of alcohol overconsumption though is problematic due to low sensitivity in screening. In a pilot study, a biomarker and a screening tool are compared. The finding is that multiple tools are needed to achieve an adequate sensitivity for detection.
  • Poikonen, Eira; Lyytikainen, Outi; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Koivula, Irma; Lumio, Jukka; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Syrjala, Hannu; Ruutu, Petri (2010)