Browsing by Subject "INTENTION"

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  • Riikonen, Jarno M.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P.; Craigie, Samantha; Agarwal, Arnav; Agoritsas, Thomas; Couban, Rachel; Dahm, Philipp; Järvinen, Petrus; Montori, Victor; Power, Nicholas; Richard, Patrick O.; Rutanen, Jarno; Santti, Henrikki; Tailly, Thomas; Violette, Philippe D.; Zhou, Qi; Tikkinen, Kari A. O. (2019)
    Key PointsQuestionWhat is the association of decision aids vs usual care with shared decision-making in men deciding whether to undergo prostate cancer screening? FindingsThis systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 randomized clinical trials comparing decision aids for prostate cancer screening (12781 men) found that decision aids are probably associated with a small reduction in decisional conflict and are possibly associated with an increase in knowledge. Decision aids are possibly not associated with whether physicians and patients discuss prostate cancer screening and are possibly not associated with actual screening decisions. MeaningRandomized clinical trials have failed to provide compelling evidence for the use of decision aids for men contemplating prostate cancer screening that have, up to now, undergone rigorous testing to determine their outcome. ImportanceUS guidelines recommend that physicians engage in shared decision-making with men considering prostate cancer screening. ObjectiveTo estimate the association of decision aids with decisional outcomes in prostate cancer screening. Data SourcesMEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from inception through June 19, 2018. Study SelectionRandomized trials comparing decision aids for prostate cancer screening with usual care. Data Extraction and SynthesisIndependent duplicate assessment of eligibility and risk of bias, rating of quality of the decision aids, random-effects meta-analysis, and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations rating of the quality of evidence. Main Outcomes and MeasuresKnowledge, decisional conflict, screening discussion, and screening choice. ResultsOf 19 eligible trials (12781 men), 9 adequately concealed allocation and 8 blinded outcome assessment. Of 12 decision aids with available information, only 4 reported the likelihood of a true-negative test result, and 3 presented the likelihood of false-negative test results or the next step if the screening test result was negative. Decision aids are possibly associated with improvement in knowledge (risk ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.73; I-2=67%; risk difference, 12.1; low quality), are probably associated with a small decrease in decisional conflict (mean difference on a 100-point scale, -4.19; 95% CI, -7.06 to -1.33; I-2=75%; moderate quality), and are possibly not associated with whether physicians and patients discuss prostate cancer screening (risk ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.90-1.39; I-2=60%; low quality) or with men's decision to undergo prostate cancer screening (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; I-2=36%; low quality). Conclusions and RelevanceThe results of this study provide moderate-quality evidence that decision aids compared with usual care are associated with a small decrease in decisional conflict and low-quality evidence that they are associated with an increase in knowledge but not with whether physicians and patients discussed prostate cancer screening or with screening choice. Results suggest that further progress in facilitating effective shared decision-making may require decision aids that not only provide education to patients but are specifically targeted to promote shared decision-making in the patient-physician encounter. This systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 randomized clinical trials estimates the association of decision aids with decisional outcomes in prostate cancer screening.
  • Serim, Baris; Jacucci, Giulio (ACM, 2019)
    The term implicit interaction is often used to denote interactions that differ from traditional purposeful and attention demanding ways of interacting with computers. However, there is a lack of agreement about the term's precise meaning. This paper develops implicit interaction further as an analytic concept and identifies the methodological challenges related to HCI's particular design orientation. We first review meanings of implicit as unintentional, attentional background, unawareness, unconsciousness and implicature, and compare them in regards to the entity they qualify, the design motivation they emphasize and their constructive validity for what makes good interaction. We then demonstrate how the methodological challenges can be addressed with greater precision by using an updated, intentionality-based definition that specifies an input-effect relationship as the entity of implicit. We conclude by identifying a number of new considerations for design and evaluation, and by reflecting on the concepts of user and system agency in HCI.
  • McCarthy, Stephen; Rowan, Wendy; Kahma, Nina; Lynch, Laura; Ertiö, Titiana-Petra (2021)
    Purpose The dropout rates of open e-learning platforms are often cited as high as 97%, with many users discontinuing their use after initial acceptance. This study aims to explore this anomaly through the lens of affordances theory, revealing design-reality gaps between users' diverse goals and the possibilities for action provided by an open IT artefact. Design/methodology/approach A six-month case study was undertaken to investigate the design implications of user-perceived affordances in an EU sustainability project which developed an open e-learning platform for citizens to improve their household energy efficiency. Thematic analysis was used to reveal the challenges of user continuance behaviour based on how an open IT artefact supports users in achieving individual goals (e.g. reducing energy consumption in the home) and collective goals (lessening the carbon footprint of society). Findings Based on the findings, the authors inductively reveal seven affordances related to open e-learning platforms: informing, assessment, synthesis, emphasis, clarity, learning pathway and goal-planning. The findings centre on users' perception of these affordances, and the extent to which the open IT artefact catered to the goals and constraints of diverse user groups. Open IT platform development is further discussed from an iterative and collaborative perspective in order to explore different possibilities for action. Originality/value The study contributes towards research on open IT artefact design by presenting key learnings on how the designers of e-learning platforms can bridge design-reality gaps through exploring affordance personalisation for diverse user groups. This can inform the design of open IT artefacts to help ensure that system features match the expectations and contextual constraints of users through clear action-oriented possibilities.
  • Kaur, Puneet; Talwar, Shalini; Islam, Nazrul; Salo, Jari; Dhir, Amandeep (2022)
    The literature offers valuable insights into various aspects of service recovery and service outcomes. However, the available findings are limited relative to the size of the ever-expanding service economy. In particular, past studies have left more granular nuances of the association between service recovery strategies and service outcomes, such as the mediating role of forgiveness or the valence of forgiveness, under-explored. Recognising that an improved understanding of recovery from failures is crucial for sustaining positive customer-brand re-lationships in the service economy, the present study investigates the mediating effect of the valence of forgiveness (both exoneration and resentment) on the association between various service recovery strategies (apology, compensation and voice) and service outcomes (brand trust and negative word of mouth [NWOM]) in the context of food delivery apps (FDAs). We tested the proposed model by analysing data from 294 FDA users who had experienced FDA service failures and recovery efforts in the recent past. The findings suggest that recovery strategies are associated with exoneration, resentment and brand trust but not with NWOM. While exoneration mediates the association of these strategies with both brand trust and NWOM, resentment mediates only the association of these strategies with NWOM. Finally, the severity of previously experienced service failures and the speed of the service provider's response moderates the association of the valence of forgiveness with brand trust and NWOM. By uncovering the key role of the valence of forgiveness in service recovery, our study offers significant theoretical and practical implications for stakeholders.