Browsing by Subject "INTERNALIZATION"

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  • Allolio, Christoph; Magarkar, Aniket; Jurkiewicz, Piotr; Baxova, Katarina; Javanainen, Matti; Mason, Philip E.; Sachl, Radek; Cebecauer, Marek; Hof, Martin; Horinek, Dominik; Heinz, Veronika; Rachel, Reinhard; Ziegler, Christine M.; Schröfel, Adam; Jungwirth, Pavel (2018)
    Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides do not enter cells by directly passing through a lipid membrane; they instead passively enter vesicles and live cells by inducing membrane multilamellarity and fusion. The molecular picture of this penetration mode, which differs qualitatively from the previously proposed direct mechanism, is provided by molecular dynamics simulations. The kinetics of vesicle agglomeration and fusion by an iconic cell-penetrating peptide-nonaarginine-are documented via real-time fluorescence techniques, while the induction of multilamellar phases in vesicles and live cells is demonstrated by a combination of electron and fluorescence microscopies. This concert of experiments and simulations reveals that the identified passive cell penetration mechanism bears analogy to vesicle fusion induced by calcium ions, indicating that the two processes may share a common mechanistic origin.
  • Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Santos, Helder A.; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Makila, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno (AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY., 2010)
  • Bimbo, Luis M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Santos, Hélder A.; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Mäkilä, Ermei; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Hirvonen, Jouni; Salonen, Jarno (AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY., 2010)
  • Abu Saleh, Doaa; Niskanen, Jukka; Xue, Yanming; Golberg, Dmitri; Winnik, Francoise M.; Sosnik, Alejandro (2017)
    We report an organic-inorganic hybrid core-shell nanomaterial obtained by conjugation of an amphiphilic monomethoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) diblock copolymer to hydroxylated boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). The extent of copolymer grafting reached 64% w/w, an exceptionally high value. The hybrid materials exhibit excellent physical stability in water and an outstanding loading capacity (31.3% w/w) for curcumin, a hydrophobic drug. Moreover, they present good compatibility with the Caco2 cell line, a model of intestinal epithelium. Our findings demonstrate the potential of multifunctional hybrid BNNTs to serve as a platform for complex amphiphilic nanoparticle architectures with improved features. (c) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Heikkilä, Outi; Merilahti, Pirjo; Hakanen, Marika; Karelehto, Eveliina; Alanko, Jonna; Sukki, Maria; Kiljunen, Saija; Susi, Petri (2016)
    Background: Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the alpha V beta 6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9. Methods: Two cell lines, A549 and SW480, were used in the study. SW480 was the study object for the integrin-independent entry and A549 was used as the control for integrin-dependent entry. Receptor levels were quantitated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR. Antibody blocking assay and siRNA silencing of receptor-encoding genes were used to block virus infection. Peptide phage display library was used to identify peptide binders to CV-A9. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the virus infection in the cells. Results: We investigated the receptor use and early stages of CV-A9 internalization to SW480 human epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells. Contrary to A549 infection, we showed that both CV-A9 and CV-A9-RGDdel internalized into SW480 cells and that function-blocking anti-alpha V integrin antibodies had no effect on the binding and entry of CV-A9. Whereas siRNA silencing of beta 6 integrin subunit had no influence on virus infection in SW480, silencing of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) inhibited the virus infection in both cell lines. By using a peptide phage display screening, the virus-binding peptide identical to the N-terminal sequence of HSPA5 protein was identified and shown to block the virus infection in both A549 and SW480 cell lines. HSPA5 was also found to co-localize with CV-A9 at the SW480 cell periphery during the early stages of infection by confocal microscopy. Conclusions: The data suggest that while alpha V beta 6 integrin is essential for CV-A9 in A549 cell line, it is not required in SW480 cell line in which beta 2M and HSPA5 alone are sufficient for CV-A9 infection. This suggests that the choice of CV-A9 receptor(s) is dependent on the tissue/cellular environment.