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  • Ottman, Noora; Reunanen, Justus; Meijerink, Marjolein; Pietilä, Taija; Kainulainen, Veera; Klievink, Judith; Huuskonen, Laura; Aalvink, Steven; Skurnik, Mikael; Boeren, Sjef; Satokari, Reetta; Mercenier, Annick; Palva, Airi; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2017)
    Gut barrier function is key in maintaining a balanced response between the host and its microbiome. The microbiota can modulate changes in gut barrier as well as metabolic and inflammatory responses. This highly complex system involves numerous microbiota-derived factors. The gut symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila is positively correlated with a lean phenotype, reduced body weight gain, amelioration of metabolic responses and restoration of gut barrier function by modulation of mucus layer thickness. However, the molecular mechanisms behind its metabolic and immunological regulatory properties are unexplored. Herein, we identify a highly abundant outer membrane pili-like protein of A. muciniphila MucT that is directly involved in immune regulation and enhancement of trans-epithelial resistance. The purified Amuc_1100 protein and enrichments containing all its associated proteins induced production of specific cytokines through activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. This mainly leads to high levels of IL-10 similar to those induced by the other beneficial immune suppressive microorganisms such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Together these results indicate that outer membrane protein composition and particularly the newly identified highly abundant pili-like protein Amuc_1100 of A. muciniphila are involved in host immunological homeostasis at the gut mucosa, and improvement of gut barrier function.
  • Wiener, Zoltan; Hogstrom, Jenny; Hyvonen, Ville; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Holopainen, Tanja; Dufva, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Oliver, Guillermo; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari (2014)
  • Rousou, Charis; de Maar, Josanne; Qiu, Boning; van der Wurff-Jacobs, Kim; Ruponen, Marika; Urtti, Arto; Oliveira, Sabrina; Moonen, Chrit; Storm, Gert; Mastrobattista, Enrico; Deckers, Roel (2022)
    The combination of ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) has been applied to enhance drug permeability across tissue barriers. Most studies focused on only one physicochemical aspect (i.e., molecular weight of the delivered molecule). Using an in vitro epithelial (MDCK II) cell barrier, we examined the effects of USMB on the permeability of five molecules varying in molecular weight (182 Da to 20 kDa) and hydrophilicity (LogD at pH 7.4 from 1.5 to highly hydrophilic). Treatment of cells with USMB at increasing ultrasound pressures did not have a significant effect on the permeability of small molecules (molecular weight 259 to 376 Da), despite their differences in hydrophilicity (LogD at pH 7.4 from -3.2 to 1.5). The largest molecules (molecular weight 4 and 20 kDa) showed the highest increase in the epithelial permeability (3-7-fold). Simultaneously, USMB enhanced intracellular accumulation of the same molecules. In the case of the clinically relevant anti- C-X-C Chemokine Receptor Type 4 (CXCR4) nanobody (molecular weight 15 kDa), USMB enhanced paracellular permeability by two-fold and increased binding to retinoblastoma cells by five-fold. Consequently, USMB is a potential tool to improve the efficacy and safety of the delivery of drugs to organs protected by tissue barriers, such as the eye and the brain.