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  • Aro, Karoliina; Nieminen, Pekka; Louvanto, Karolina; Jakobsson, Maija; Virtanen, Seppo; Lehtinen, Matti; Dillner, Joakim; Kalliala, Ilkka (2019)
    Background and aim. Age-specific type-distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) in cervical precancerous lesions is subject to change in the HPV vaccination era. Knowing the pre-vaccination type distribution helps to anticipate changes induced by mass vaccination and optimize screening. Methods. We recruited 1279 women referred to colposcopy for abnormal cytology into a population-based study on HPV type distribution in diagnostic cervical samples (ISRCTN10933736). The HPV genotyping findings were grouped as: HPV16/18+, other hrHPV+ (HPV31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68), non-vaccine targeted hrHPV+ (HPV35/39/51/56/59/66/68), low-risk HPV, and HPV negative. We estimated the HPV group-specific prevalence rates according to diagnostic histopathological findings in the age groups of = 45 (n = 326). Results. Altogether 503 cases with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (HSIL+) were diagnosed. More than half, 285 (56.7%) of HSIL+ cases were associated with HPV16/18: 64.3% (101/157) in women = 45 years of age (RR 0.55, 95% CI 039-0.75). Conversely, other hrHPV's were associated with 191 (38.0%) of HSIL+: 31.9% (50/157) in women = 45 (RR 1.71, 95% CI 126-2.33). The proportion of non-vaccine targeted hrHPV and HPV negative HSIL+ increased with advancing age. Conclusions. Pre-vaccination HPV type distribution in HSIL+ was distinctly polarised by age with HPV16/18 attributed disease being markedly more prevalent in women aged
  • Louvanto, Karolina; Eriksson, Tiina; Gray, Penelope; Apter, Dan; Baussano, Iacopo; Bly, Anne; Harjula, Katja; Heikkila, Kaisa; Hokkanen, Mari; Huhtinen, Leila; Ikonen, Marja; Karttunen, Heidi; Nummela, Mervi; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Veivo, Ulla; Dillner, Joakim; Elfstöm, Miriam; Nieminen, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Less frequent cervical cancer screening in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinated birth cohorts could produce considerable savings without increasing cervical cancer incidence and loss of life-years. We report here the baseline findings and interim results of safety and accuracy of infrequent screening among HPV16/18 vaccinated females. The entire 1992-1994 birth-cohorts (30,139 females) were invited to a community-randomized HPV16/18-vaccination trial. A total of 9,482 female trial participants received HPV16/18-vaccination in 2007-2009 at age of 13-15. At age 22, 4,273 (45%) of these females consented to attend a randomized trial on frequent (ages 22/25/28; Arm 1: 2,073 females) vs. infrequent screening (age 28; Arm 2: 2,200 females) in 2014-2017. Females (1,329), who had got HPV16/18 vaccination at age 18 comprised the safety Arm 3. Baseline prevalence and incidence of HPV16/18 and other high-risk HPV types were: 0.5% (53/1,000 follow-up years, 10(4)) and 25% (2,530/10(4)) in the frequently screened Arm 1; 0.2% (23/10(4)) and 24% (2,413/10(4)) in the infrequently screened Arm 2; and 3.1% (304/10(4)) and 23% (2,284/10(4)) in the safety Arm 3. Corresponding prevalence of HSIL/ASC-H and of any abnormal cytological findings were: 0.3 and 4.2% (Arm 1), 0.4 and 5.3% (Arm 2) and 0.3 and 4.7% (Arm 3). Equally rare HSIL/CIN3 findings in the infrequently screened safety Arm A3 (0.4%) and in the frequently screened Arm 1 (0.4%) indicate no safety concerns on infrequent screening despite the up to 10 times higher HPV16/18 baseline prevalence and incidence in the former.
  • Kyrgiou, Maria; Arbyn, Marc; Bergeron, Christine; Bosch, F. Xavier; Dillner, Joakim; Jit, Mark; Kim, Jane; Poljak, Mario; Nieminen, Pekka; Sasieni, Peter; Kesic, Vesna; Cuzick, Jack; Gultekin, Murat (2020)
    This paper summarises the position of ESGO and EFC on cervical screening based on existing guidelines and opinions of a team of lead experts. HPV test is replacing cytology as this offers greater protection against cervical cancer and allows longer screening intervals. Only a dozen of HPV tests are considered as clinically validated for screening. The lower specificity of HPV test dictates the use of triage tests that can select women for colposcopy. Reflex cytology is currently the only well validated triage test; HPV genotyping and p16 immunostaining may be used in the future, although methylation assays and viral load also look promising. A summary of quality assurance benchmarks is provided, and the importance to audit the screening histories of women who developed cancer is noted as a key objective. HPV-based screening is more cost-effective than cytology or cotesting. HPV-based screening should continue in the post-vaccination era. Only a fraction of the female population is vaccinated, and this varies across countries. A major challenge will be to personalise screening frequency according to vaccination status. Still the most important factor for successful prevention by screening is high population coverage and organised screening. Screening with self-sampling to reach under-screened women is promising.
  • Ritari, Jarmo; Hultman, Jenni; Fingerroos, Rita; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Pullat, Janne; Paulin, Lars; Kivi, Niina; Auvinen, Petri; Auvinen, Eeva (2012)
  • Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Eriksson, Tiina; Harjula, Katja; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Nieminen, Pekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Palmroth, Johanna; Petaja, Tiina; Pukkala, Eero; Vänskä, Simopekka; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Soila, Maaria; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank (2021)
    Introduction We conducted a community-randomized trial (NCTBLINDED) in Finland to assess gender-neutral and girls-only vaccination strategies with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18)vaccine. Methods Girls and boys (12-15 years) were invited. We randomized 33 communities (1:1:1 ratio): Arm A: 90% of randomly selected girls and boys received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine and 10% received hepatitis B vaccine (HBV); Arm B: 90% of randomly selected girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine, 10% of girls received HBV, and all boys received HBV; Arm C: all participants received HBV. Effectiveness measurements against prevalence of HPV-16/18 cervical infection were estimated in girls at 18.5 years. The main measures were: (1) overall effectiveness comparing Arms A or B, regardless of vaccination status, vs Arm C; (2) total effectiveness comparing AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls in pooled Arms A/B vs Arm C; (3) indirect effectiveness (herd effect) comparing girls receiving HBV or unvaccinated in Arm A vs Arm C. Co-primary objectives were overall effectiveness following gender-neutral or girls-only vaccination. Results Of 80,272 adolescents invited, 34,412 were enrolled. Overall effectiveness was 23.8% (95% confidence interval: -19.0, 51.1; P = 0.232) with gender-neutral vaccination. Following girls-only vaccination, overall effectiveness was 49.6% (20.1, 68.2; P = 0.004). Total effectiveness was over 90% regardless of vaccination strategy. No herd effect was found. Immunogenicity of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine was high in both sexes. Conclusions This study illustrates the difficulty in conducting community randomized trials. It is not plausible that vaccinating boys would reduce overall effectiveness, and the apparent lack of herd effect was unexpected given findings from other studies. This analysis was likely confounded by several factors but confirms the vaccine's high total effectiveness as in clinical trials.
  • Bowden, Sarah J.; Bodinier, Barbara; Kalliala, Ilkka; Kyrgiou, Maria; FinnGen Consortium (2021)
    Background Most uterine cervical high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are transient, with only a small fraction developing into cervical cancer. Family aggregation studies and heritability estimates suggest a significant inherited genetic component. Candidate gene studies and previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) report associations between the HLA region and cervical cancer. Adopting a genome-wide approach, we aimed to compare genetic variation in women with invasive cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 3 with that in healthy controls. Methods We did a GWAS in a cohort of unrelated European individuals using data from UK Biobank, a population-based cohort including 273 377 women aged 40-69 years at recruitment between March 13, 2006, and Oct 1, 2010. We used an additive univariate logistic regression model to analyse genetic variants associated with invasive cervical cancer or CIN3. We sought replication of candidate associations in FinnGen, a large independent dataset of 128 123 individuals. We also did a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach to explore the role of risk factors in the genetic risk of cervical cancer. Findings We included 4769 CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer case samples and 145 545 control samples in the GWAS. Of 9 600 464 assayed and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), six independent variants were associated with CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer. These included novel loci rs10175462 (PAX8; odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91; p=1.07 x 10(-9)) and rs27069 (CLPTM1L; 0.88, 0.84-0.92; p=2.51 x 10(-9)), and previously reported signals at rs9272050 (HLA-DQA1; 1.27, 1.21-1.32; p=2.51 x 10(-28)), rs6938453 (MICA; 0.79, 0.75-0 .83; p=1.97 x 10-(17)), rs55986091 (HLA-DQB1; 0.66, 0 .60-0.72; p=6.42 x 10-(22)), and rs9266183 (HLA-B; 0.73, 0.64-0.83; p=1.53 x 10(-6)). Three SNPs were replicated in the independent Finnish dataset of 1648 invasive cervical cancer cases: PAX8 (rs10175462; p=0.015), CLPTM1L (rs27069; p=2.54 x 10(-7)), and HLA-DQA1 (rs9272050; p=7.90 x 10(-8)). Mendelian randomisation further supported the complementary role of smoking (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.64-3.69), older age at first pregnancy (0.80, 0.68-0.95), and number of sexual partners (1.95, 1.44-2.63) in the risk of developing cervical cancer. Interpretation Our results provide new evidence for the genetic susceptibility to cervical cancer, specifically the PAX8, CLPTM1L, and HLA genes, suggesting disruption in apoptotic and immune function pathways. Future studies integrating host and viral, genetic, and epigenetic variation, could further elucidate complex host-viral interactions. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Pankakoski, Maiju; Heinavaara, Sirpa; Sarkeala, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti (2017)
    Objective: Regular screening and follow-up is an important key to cervical cancer prevention; however, screening inevitably detects mild or borderline abnormalities that would never progress to a more severe stage. We analysed the cumulative probability and recurrence of cervical abnormalities in the Finnish organized screening programme during a 22-year follow-up. Methods: Screening histories were collected for 364,487 women born between 1950 and 1965. Data consisted of 1 207,017 routine screens and 88,143 follow-up screens between 1991 and 2012. Probabilities of cervical abnormalities by age were estimated using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations methodology. Results: The probability of experiencing any abnormality at least once at ages 30-64 was 34.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33.3-34.6%). Probability was 5.4% (95% CI: 5.0-5.8%) for results warranting referral and 2.2% (95% CI: 2.0-2.4%) for results with histologically confirmed findings. Previous occurrences were associated with an increased risk of detecting new ones, specifically in older women. Conclusion: A considerable proportion of women experience at least one abnormal screening result during their lifetime, and yet very few eventually develop an actual precancerous lesion. Re-evaluation of diagnostic criteria concerning mild abnormalities might improve the balance of harms and benefits of screening. Special monitoring of women with recurrent abnormalities especially at older ages may also be needed.
  • Vanska, Simopekka; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Tiihonen, Petri; Apter, Dan; Lehtinen, Matti (2013)
  • Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Castellsague, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M.; Naud, Paulo; Palmroth, Johanna; Rowena Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Salmeron, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Apter, Dan; Teixeira, Julio C.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Hedrick, James; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Paavonen, Jorma; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary O.; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence; HPV PATRICIA Study Gp (2013)
  • Lehtinen, Matti; Lagheden, Camilla; Luostarinen, Tapio; Eriksson, Tiina; Apter, Dan; Harjula, Katja; Kuortti, Marjo; Natunen, Kari; Palmroth, Johanna; Petaja, Tiina; Pukkala, Eero; Siitari-Mattila, Mari; Struyf, Frank; Nieminen, Pekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Dubin, Gary; Dillner, Joakim (2017)
    Objective Due to long lag time between infection/ cancer diagnoses human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs will deliver vaccine efficacy (VE) estimates against cancer end-points late. Cancer registry follow-up of population-based, randomised trial cohorts of vaccinated and unvaccinated women was undertaken for the estimation of VE against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade three and invasive cancer (CIN3+). Methods We report interim results with 98 561 person years of Finnish Cancer Registry -based follow-up of individually and/or cluster randomised cohorts of HPV-16/ 18 vaccinated and unvaccinated adolescent women enrolled in June 2003/2005, and between May 2004 and April 2005, respectively. The cohorts comprised 15 627 18-to 19-year-old unvaccinated women (NCT01393470), and 2 401 and 64 16-to 17-year-old HPV-16/18 vaccinated women participating the PATRICIA (NCT00122681) and HPV-012 (NCT00169494) trials, respectively. The age-aligned passive follow-up started 6 months after the clinical trials' end. Results During the follow-up of 4.5 to 10 years post enrolment we identified 75 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 4 cases of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in the unvaccinated cohort, and 4 CIN3 cases in the HPV-16/18 vaccinated women. Diagnostic blocks were available for HPV typing from 87% of the cases. CIN3+ lesions were detectable in 54 cases. HPV16 was found in 26 of 50 unvaccinated CIN3+ cases, and in 3 CIN3+ cases in the HPV-16/18 vaccinated women. The latter were all baseline positive for cervical HPV16 DNA. Baseline data was not available for the unvaccinated women. Intention-to-treat VE against any CIN3+ was 66% (95% CI 8, 88). Conclusions Ten years post vaccination the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine shows continued efficacy against CIN3+ irrespectively of HPV type. Vaccine efficacy was not observed in baseline HPV16 DNA positive subjects.