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  • Thomas, H. J. D.; Bjorkman, A. D.; Myers-Smith, I. H.; Elmendorf, S. C.; Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Vellend, M.; Blok, D.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Forbes, B. C.; Henry, G. H. R.; Hollister, R. D.; Normand, S.; Prevéy, J. S.; Rixen, C.; Schaepman-Strub, G.; Wilmking, M.; Wipf, S.; Cornwell, W. K.; Beck, P. S. A.; Georges, D.; Goetz, S. J.; Guay, K. C.; Rüger, N.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Spasojevic, M. J.; Alatalo, J. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Anadon-Rosell, A.; Angers-Blondin, S.; te Beest, M.; Berner, L. T.; Björk, R. G.; Buchwal, A.; Buras, A.; Carbognani, M.; Christie, K. S.; Collier, L. S.; Cooper, E. J.; Elberling, B.; Eskelinen, A.; Frei, E. R.; Grau, O.; Grogan, P.; Hallinger, M.; Heijmans, M. M. P. D.; Hermanutz, L.; Hudson, J. M. G.; Johnstone, J. F.; Hülber, K.; Iturrate-Garcia, M.; Iversen, C. M.; Jaroszynska, F.; Kaarlejarvi, E.; Kulonen, A.; Lamarque, L. J.; Lantz, T. C.; Lévesque, E.; Little, C. J.; Michelsen, A.; Milbau, A.; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Nielsen, S. S.; Ninot, J. M.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Olofsson, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Petraglia, A.; Rumpf, S. B.; Shetti, R.; Speed, J. D. M.; Suding, K. N.; Tape, K. D.; Tomaselli, M.; Trant, A. J.; Treier, U. A.; Tremblay, M.; Venn, S. E.; Vowles, T.; Weijers, S.; Wookey, P. A.; Zamin, T. J.; Bahn, M.; Blonder, B.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Campetella, G.; Cerabolini, B. E. L.; Chapin, F. S.; Craine, J. M.; Dainese, M.; Green, W. A.; Jansen, S.; Kleyer, M.; Manning, P.; Niinemets, Ü.; Onoda, Y.; Ozinga, W. A.; Peñuelas, J.; Poschlod, P.; Reich, P. B.; Sandel, B.; Schamp, B. S.; Sheremetiev, S. N.; de Vries, F. T. (2020)
    The majority of variation in six traits critical to the growth, survival and reproduction of plant species is thought to be organised along just two dimensions, corresponding to strategies of plant size and resource acquisition. However, it is unknown whether global plant trait relationships extend to climatic extremes, and if these interspecific relationships are confounded by trait variation within species. We test whether trait relationships extend to the cold extremes of life on Earth using the largest database of tundra plant traits yet compiled. We show that tundra plants demonstrate remarkably similar resource economic traits, but not size traits, compared to global distributions, and exhibit the same two dimensions of trait variation. Three quarters of trait variation occurs among species, mirroring global estimates of interspecific trait variation. Plant trait relationships are thus generalizable to the edge of global trait-space, informing prediction of plant community change in a warming world.
  • Dawson, Samantha Katherine; Boddy, Lynne; Halbwachs, Hans; Bässler, Claus; Andrew, Carrie; Crowther, Thomas Ward; Heilmann-Clausen, Jacob; Nordén, Jenni; Ovaskainen, Otso; Jönsson, Mari (2019)
    Functional traits are widely recognized as a useful framework for testing mechanisms underlying species community assemblage patterns and ecosystem processes. Functional trait studies in the plant and animal literature have burgeoned in the past 20 years, highlighting a need for standardized ways to measure ecologically meaningful traits across taxa and ecosystems. However, standardized measurements of functional traits are lacking for many organisms and ecosystems, including fungi. Basidiomycete wood fungi occur in all forest ecosystems world-wide, where they are decomposers and also provide food or habitat for other species, or act as tree pathogens. Despite their major role in the functioning of forest ecosystems, the understanding and application of functional traits in studies of communities of wood fungi lags behind other disciplines. As the research field of fungal functional ecology is growing, there is a need for standardized ways to measure fungal traits within and across taxa and spatial scales. This handbook reviews pre-existing fungal trait measurements, proposes new core fungal traits, discusses trait ecology in fungi and highlights areas for future work on basidiomycete wood fungi. We propose standard and potential future methodologies for collecting traits to be used across studies, ensuring replicability and fostering between-study comparison. Combining concepts from fungal ecology and functional trait ecology, methodologies covered here can be related to fungal performance within a community and environmental setting. This manuscript is titled "a start with" as we only cover a subset of the fungal community here, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating the writing of handbooks for other members of the macrofungal community, for example, mycorrhizal fungi. A is available for this article.
  • Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Norkko, Joanna; Valanko, Sebastian; Pilditch, Conrad (2013)
  • Halliday, Fletcher W.; Jalo, Mikko; Laine, Anna-Liisa (2021)
    Quantifying the relative impact of environmental conditions and host community structure on disease is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century, as both climate and biodiversity are changing at unprecedented rates. Both increasing temperature and shifting host communities toward more fast paced life history strategies are predicted to increase disease, yet their independent and interactive effects on disease in natural communities remain unknown. Here, we address this challenge by surveying foliar disease symptoms in 220, 0.5 m-diameter herbaceous plant communities along a 1100-m elevational gradient. We find that increasing temperature associated with lower elevation can increase disease by (1) relaxing constraints on parasite growth and reproduction, (2) determining which host species are present in a given location, and (3) strengthening the positive effect of host community pace-of-life on disease. These results provide the first field evidence, under natural conditions, that environmental gradients can alter how host community structure affects disease.
  • Martens, Helge; Tillmann, Urban; Harju, Kirsi; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Krock, Bernd (2017)
    Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell(-1), expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population.