Browsing by Subject "IR"

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  • Khakalo, Alexey; Tanaka, Atsushi; Korpela, Antti; Hauru, Lauri K. J.; Orelma, Hannes (2019)
    Synthetic structural materials of high mechanical performance are typically either of large weight (for example, steels, and alloys) or involve complex manufacturing processes and thus have high cost or cause adverse environmental impact (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). In this perspective, low-cost, abundant and nature-based materials, such as wood, represent particular interest provided they fulfill the requirements for advanced engineering structures and applications, especially when manufactured totally additive-free. Here, we report on a novel all-wood material concept based on delignification, partial surface dissolution using ionic liquid (IL) followed by densification resulting in a high-performance material. A delignification process using sodium chlorite in acetate buffer solution was applied to controllably delignify the entire bulk wooden material while retaining the highly beneficial structural directionality of wood. In a subsequent step, obtained delignified porous wood template was infiltrated with an IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [EMIM]OAc and heat activated at 95 degrees C to partially dissolve the fiber surface. Afterward, treated wood was washed with water to remove IL and hot-pressed to gain a very compact cellulosic material with fused fibers while retaining unidirectional fiber orientation. The obtained cellulose materials were structurally, chemically, and mechanically characterized revealing superior tensile properties compared to native wood. Furthermore, suggested approach allows almost 8-fold tensile strength improvement in the direction perpendicular to fiber orientation, which is otherwise very challenging to achieve.
  • Wlodarski, Maksymilian; Putkonen, Matti; Norek, Malgorzata (2020)
    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to characterize the chemical structure and dynamics of various types of samples. However, the signal-to-noise-ratio drops rapidly when the sample thickness gets much smaller than penetration depth, which is proportional to wavelength. This poses serious problems in analysis of thin films. In this work, an approach is demonstrated to overcome these problems. It is shown that a standard IR spectroscopy can be successfully employed to study the structure and composition of films as thin as 20 nm, when the layers were grown on porous substrates with a well-developed surface area. In contrast to IR spectra of the films deposited on flat Si substrates, the IR spectra of the same films but deposited on porous ceramic support show distinct bands that enabled reliable chemical analysis. The analysis of Zn-S ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) from diethylzinc (DEZ) and 1,5-pentanedithiol (PDT) as precursors of Zn and S, respectively, served as proof of concept. However, the approach presented in this study can be applied to analysis of any ultrathin film deposited on target substrate and simultaneously on porous support, where the latter sample would be a reference sample dedicated for IR analysis of this film.
  • Pynnönen, Henna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Methylation analysis by Ciucanu and Kerek (1984) and Hakomori (1964) and the meaning of circumstances in the reaction, reaction parameters and structure of the sample were reviewed in this study. The experimental work consisted of methylation analysis of glucose, cellobiose, isomaltose, pullulan, commercial dextran and dextrans produced by lactic acid bacteria Weissella confusa and Leuconostoc citreum. The success of the methylation was controlled using the IR-method. Methylated samples were treated by methanolysis and acid hydrolysis. The structure analyses were carried out with GC-MSspectra. Two different columns: DB-1 and HP-5 were compared in the GC-analysis. Two hours methylation in the ultrasonic bath gave good methylation results. It was easy to control the methylation by IR-method. OH-peak (3400 cm-1) was absent and CH3- peaks (2900 and 2800 cm-1) were high after successful methylation. IR-spectroscopy is a valuable tool to check if methylation has been successful. Samples could be remethylated before hydrolysis and derivation if necessary. After methanolysis there were ?- and ?-pyranose forms from each methylated monosaccharides. Due to reduction after the acid hydrolysis method, there was only one methylated form from each product. The structures of glucose, cellobiose, isomaltose and pullulan were solved by both hydrolysis methods. Recovery of these samples was good but the deviation was large. The structure of commercial dextran and dextran produced by W. confusa were solved by methanolysis method and partly by acid hydrolysis method. Recovery of these samples was poor. The methylation succeeded only in one of the dextran samples produced by L. citreum. The methylation analysis of dextrans could be developed in the future by increasing the temperature and the time of mixing and by adding some glycerol.