Browsing by Subject "IRRIGATION"

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  • Karges, Kathleen; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D.; Watson, Christine A.; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Halwani, Mosab; Reckling, Moritz (2022)
    Soybean is one of the five crops that dominate global agriculture, along with maize, wheat, cotton and rice. In Europe, soybean still plays a minor role and is cultivated mainly in the South and East. Very little is known about the potential for soybean in higher latitudes with relatively cool conditions. To investigate the agronomic potential and limitations of soybean for feed (high grain yield) and food (high protein content, e.g., for tofu production) in higher latitudes, an organic soybean cropping system experiment was carried out from 2015 to 2017 in northeastern Germany. The objectives were: (1) to identify food- and feed-grade soybean cultivars that are adapted to a central European climate in terms of protein, grain yield, and yield stability, (2) to explore the effect of irrigation on soybean protein and grain yield under relatively dry growing conditions, and (3) to determine the agro-economic potential of soybean cultivation for both feed and food markets. Three soybean cultivars were tested with and without irrigation. The soybean feed-grade cultivars 'Sultana' and 'Merlin' were better adapted to the growing cycle and temperature, providing higher and more stable yields (average 2700 kg ha(-1)) than the food-grade cultivar 'Protibus' (average 1300 kg ha(-1)). Irrigation increased soybean grain yields by 41% on average. In the year with sufficient precipitation, no additional irrigation was necessary. Gross margins of organic soybean ranged between 750 (sic) ha(-1) for the rainfed food-grade soybean and 2000 (sic) ha(-1) for the irrigated feed-grade soybean and were higher than other crops. We demonstrated a large agro-economic potential for soybean as a novel grain legume crop to diversify cropping systems and increase the production of protein crops in central Europe.
  • Tiedje, James M.; Wang , Fang; Manaia, Celia M.; Virta, Marko; Sheng, Hongjie; Ma, Liping; Zhang , Tong; Topp, Edward (2019)
    Antibiotic resistance and its environmental component are gaining more attention as part of combating the growing healthcare crisis. The One Health framework, promulgated by many global health agencies, recognizes that antimicrobial resistance is a truly inter-domain problem in which human health, animal agriculture, and the environment are the core and interrelated components. This prospectus presents the status and issues relevant to the environmental component of antibiotic resistance, namely, the needs for advancing surveillance methodology: the environmental reservoirs and sources of resistance, namely, urban wastewater treatment plants, aquaculture production systems, soil receiving manure and biosolid, and the atmosphere which includes longer range dispersal. Recently, much work has been done describing antibiotic resistance genes in various environments; now quantitative, mechanistic, and hypothesis-driven studies are needed to identify practices that reduce real risks and maintain the effectiveness of our current antibiotics as long as possible. Advanced deployable detection methods for antibiotic resistance in diverse environmental samples are needed in order to provide the surveillance information to identify risks and define barriers that can reduce risks. Also needed are practices that reduce antibiotic use and thereby reduce selection for resistance, as well as practices that limit the dispersal of or destroy antibiotic-resistant bacteria or their resistance genes that are feasible for these varied environmental domains.
  • Minoia, Paola (2020)
    In this paper, the focus is on land dispossession instigated by large corporations, and the way they produce spaces of colonial persistence through particular structures and sovereignty systems that differ from the state-based administrative settings in which they are located. The study looks at phenomena that can be observed on large agricultural estates, particularly in the Teita sisal plantation in Taita-Taveta county in Kenya. This is one of the largest sisal estates in the world, established during colonial times. It is a corporation that uses migrant workers to avoid potential conflicts with the neighbouring communities which still consider those fields to be their own ancestral land. Different working tasks are racialized, and functioning bodies are exploited as resources that have to be maximised. Inside the camp, life and work are regulated with meticulous biopolitical order in restricted conditions. Patrolled borders and gates maintain distance from the local communities who claim the estate is expanding, dispossessing them of land, roads and the river, and repositioning them as squatters on what they see as their ancestral land. In relation to this private company, the national state values its taxation contributions and does not question the exceptional conditions of exploitation of human and environmental resources occurring within that space. The estate was accessed in 2013 and interviews took place then and later. This case study reveals situations of oppression on both sides of the estate borders, including struggles that remain fragmented and hidden. There is a need for new solidarity linkages between groups confronting land and other resource dispossession on a wider scale, to support their political empowerment and rights to human and environmental justice.
  • Ingutia, Rose Anyiko; Sumelius, John (2022)
    Food insecurity exacerbates malnutrition with irreversible consequences for children. Thus, we address the determinants of food security status with reference to women farmers, the determinants of access to irrigation technology as a critical determinant of food security and the effect of cooperatives on nutritional status. We used primary data from Kakamega, Kenya. Descriptive data analysis was applied together with regression analysis using logistic, probit and linear endogenous treatment models. Cooperative membership facilitates female farmers’ access to productive resources like credit, thereby contributing to improved food security status. Though most female farmers are not members of cooperatives, the female members of cooperatives perform slightly better as determinants of food security status and are more food secure than female non-members. The limitations of cooperatives include the low percentage of farmers using irrigation and farmers’ low nutritional status. Extension services positively impact irrigation, thereby calling for gender equality among field officers to enable communication with female farmers and for the formation of cooperatives that target women's needs. Governments, development agencies and civil societies should support cooperatives in their financial, technical and management issues to create awareness concerning family planning and offer access to credit and irrigation technology, resulting in increased food production, improved food security and nutrition status.
  • Haapala, Tapani; Palonen, Pauliina; Tamminen, Antti; Ahokas, Jukka (2015)
  • Näkki, Pinja; Setälä, Outi; Lehtiniemi, Maiju (2019)
    Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment. High concentrations of MPs are found from seafloor sediments, which have been proposed to act as their final sinks. Because bioturbation is an important process affecting the burial of MPs, a mesocosm experiment was established to study whether sediment infauna may also promote MP return to the sediment surface. Thin layers of frozen sediment containing an environmentally realistic concentration (500 μm and 100–300 μm) were added to depths of 2 cm and 5 cm in the experimental cylinders filled with sediment. The displacement of these MPs, made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), by a community of common benthic invertebrates in the northern Baltic Sea (clam Limecola balthica, polychaete Marenzelleria spp., gammarid Monoporeia affinis) was studied in a 10-week experiment. After the experiment, the MPs were extracted from each sediment layer and the animals were examined for MP ingestion. The results indicated that the transportation of MPs to the sediment surface by bioturbation was negligible. Thus, in the Baltic Sea, the seafloor may act as a sink for once sedimented MPs, reducing simultaneously the MP exposure of the macrofauna feeding on the sediment surface.
  • Tommiska, Pihla; Lonnrot, Kimmo; Raj, Rahul; Luostarinen, Teemu; Kivisaari, Riku (2019)
    BACKGROUND: A number of randomized controlled trials have shown the benefit of drain placement in the operative treatment of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH); however, few reports have described real-life results after adoption of drain placement into clinical practice. We report the results following a change in practice at Helsinki University Hospital from no drain to subdural drain (SD) placement after burr hole craniostomy for CSDH. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients undergoing burr hole craniostomy for CSDH. We compared outcomes between a 6-month period when SD placement was arbitrary (Julye December 2015) and a period when SD placement for 48 hours was routine (July-December 2017). Our primary outcome of interest was recurrence of CSDH necessitating reoperation within 6 months. Patient outcomes, infections, and other complications were assessed as well. RESULTS: A total of 161 patients were included, comprising 71 (44%) in the drain group and 90 (56%) in the non-drain group. There were no significant differences in age, comorbidities, history of trauma, or use of antithrombotic agents between the 2 groups (P > 0.05 for all). Recurrence within 6 months occurred in 18% of patients in the non-drain group, compared with 6% in the drain group (odds ratio, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.09-0.87; P = 0.028). There were no differences in neurologic outcomes (P = 0.72), mortality (P = 0.55), infection rate (P = 0.96), or other complications (P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: The change in practice from no drain to use of an SD after burr hole craniostomy for CSDH effectively reduced the 6-month recurrence rate with no effect on patient outcomes, infections, or other complications.