Browsing by Subject "ISM: kinematics and dynamics"

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  • Liu, Hong-Li; Tej, Anandmayee; Liu, Tie; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Stutz, Amelia; Juvela, Mika; Qin, Sheng-Li; Xu, Feng-Wei; Bronfman, Leonardo; Evans, Neal J.; Saha, Anindya; Issac, Namitha; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Li, Shanghuo; Zhang, Siju; Baug, Tapas; Dewangan, Lokesh; Wu, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Chang Won; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Zhou, Jianwen; Soam, Archana (2022)
    We present a comprehensive study of the gas kinematics associated with density structures at different spatial scales in the filamentary infrared dark cloud, G034.43+00.24 (G34). This study makes use of the (HCO+)-C-13 (1-0) molecular line data from the ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions (ATOMS) survey, which has spatial and velocity resolution of similar to 0.04 pc and 0.2 km s(-1), respectively. Several tens of dendrogram structures have been extracted in the position-position-velocity space of (HCO+)-C-13, which include 21 small-scale leaves and 20 larger-scale branches. Overall, their gas motions are supersonic but they exhibit the interesting behaviour where leaves tend to be less dynamically supersonic than the branches. For the larger scale, branch structures, the observed velocity-size relation (i.e. velocity variation/dispersion versus size) are seen to follow the Larson scaling exponent while the smaller-scale, leaf structures show a systematic deviation and display a steeper slope. We argue that the origin of the observed kinematics of the branch structures is likely to be a combination of turbulence and gravity-driven ordered gas flows. In comparison, gravity-driven chaotic gas motion is likely at the level of small-scale leaf structures. The results presented in our previous paper and this current follow-up study suggest that the main driving mechanism for mass accretion/inflow observed in G34 varies at different spatial scales. We therefore conclude that a scale-dependent combined effect of turbulence and gravity is essential to explain the star-formation processes in G34.
  • Saajasto, Mika; Harju, Jorma; Juvela, Mika; Tie, Liu; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Wu, Yuefang; Kim, Kee-Tae; Tatematsu, Kenichi; Wang, Ke; Thompson, Mark (2019)
    Context. We present molecular line and dust continuum observations of a Planck-detected cold cloud, G074.11+00.11. The cloud consists of a system of curved filaments and a central star-forming clump. The clump is associated with several infrared sources and H2O maser emission. Aims. We aim to determine the mass distribution and gas dynamics within the clump to investigate if the filamentary structure seen around the clump repeats itself on a smaller scale, and to estimate the fractions of mass contained in dense cores and filaments. The velocity distribution of pristine dense gas can be used to investigate the global dynamical state of the clump, the role of filamentary inflows, filament fragmentation, and core accretion. Methods. We used molecular line and continuum observations from single dish observatories and interferometric facilities to study the kinematics of the region. Results. The molecular line observations show that the central clump may have formed as a result of a large-scale filament collision. The central clump contains three compact cores. Assuming a distance of 2.3 kpc, based on Gaia observations and a three-dimensional extinction method of background stars, the mass of the central clump exceeds 700 M-circle dot, which is roughly similar to 25% of the total mass of the cloud. Our virial analysis suggests that the central clump and all identified substructures are collapsing. We find no evidence for small-scale filaments associated with the cores. Conclusions. Our observations indicate that the clump is fragmented into three cores with masses in the range [10, 50] M-circle dot and that all three are collapsing. The presence of an H2O maser emission suggests active star formation. However, the CO lines show only weak signs of outflows. We suggest that the region is young and any processes leading to star formation have just recently begun.
  • Saajasto, M.; Juvela, M.; Dobashi, K.; Shimoikura, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Montillaud, J.; Marshall, D. J.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Feher, O.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Toth, L. V.; Montier, L.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Onishi, T. (2017)
    Context. The combination of line and continuum observations can provide vital insight into the formation and fragmentation of filaments and the initial conditions for star formation. We have carried out line observations to map the kinematics of an evolved, actively star forming filament G82.65-2.00. The filament was first identified from the Planck data as a region of particularly cold dust emission and was mapped at 100-500 mu m as a part of the Herschel key program Galactic Cold Cores. The Herschel observations cover the central part of the filament, corresponding to a filament length of similar to 12 pc at the assumed distance of 620 pc.& para;& para;Aims. CO observations show that the filament has an intriguing velocity field with several velocity components around the filament. In this paper, we study the velocity structure in detail, to quantify possible mass accretion rate onto the filament, and study the masses of the cold cores located in the filament.& para;& para;Methods. We have carried out line observations of several molecules, including CO isotopologues, HCO+, HCN, and CS with the Osaka 1.85 m telescope and the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. The spectral line data are used to derive velocity and column density information.& para;& para;Results. The observations reveal several velocity components in the field, with strongest line emission concentrated to velocity range similar to[3,5] km s(-1). The column density of molecular hydrogen along the filament varies from 1.0 to 2.3 x 10(22) cm(2). We have examined six cold clumps from the central part of the filament. The clumps have masses in the range 10-20 M circle dot (similar to 70 M circle dot in total) and are close to or above the virial mass. Furthermore, the main filament is heavily fragmented and most of the substructures have a mass lower than or close to the virial mass, suggesting that the filament is dispersing as a whole. Position-velocity maps of (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 lines indicate that at least one of the striations is kinematically connected to two of the clumps, potentially indicating mass accretion from the striation onto the main filament. We tentatively estimate the accretion rate to be M = 2.23 x 10(-6) M circle dot/yr.& para;& para;Conclusions. Our line observations have revealed two or possibly three velocity components connected to the filament G82.65-2.00 and putative signs of mass accretion onto the filament. The line observations combined with Herschel and WISE maps suggest a possible collision between two cloud components.
  • Navarro-Almaida, D.; Le Gal, R.; Fuente, A.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Wakelam; Cazaux, S.; Caselli, P.; Laas, J. C.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Loison, J. C.; Gerin, M.; Kramer, C.; Roueff, E.; Bachillerl, R.; Commercon, B.; Friesen, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Giuliano, B. M.; Jimenez-Serram; Kirk, J. M.; Lattanzi, M.; Malinen, J.; Marcelino, N.; Martin-Domenech, R.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Pineda, J.; Tercero, B.; Trevino-Morales, S. P.; Roncero, O.; Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.; Ward-Thompson, D. (2020)
    Context. Sulphur is one of the most abundant elements in the Universe. Surprisingly, sulphuretted molecules are not as abundant as expected in the interstellar medium and the identity of the main sulphur reservoir is still an open question.Aims. Our goal is to investigate the H2S chemistry in dark clouds, as this stable molecule is a potential sulphur reservoir.Methods. Using millimeter observations of CS, SO, H2S, and their isotopologues, we determine the physical conditions and H2S abundances along the cores TMC 1-C, TMC 1-CP, and Barnard 1b. The gas-grain model NAUTILUS is used to model the sulphur chemistry and explore the impact of photo-desorption and chemical desorption on the H2S abundance.Results. Our modeling shows that chemical desorption is the main source of gas-phase H2S in dark cores. The measured H2S abundance can only be fitted if we assume that the chemical desorption rate decreases by more than a factor of 10 when n(H) > 2 x 10(4). This change in the desorption rate is consistent with the formation of thick H2O and CO ice mantles on grain surfaces. The observed SO and H2S abundances are in good agreement with our predictions adopting an undepleted value of the sulphur abundance. However, the CS abundance is overestimated by a factor of 5-10. Along the three cores, atomic S is predicted to be the main sulphur reservoir.Conclusions. The gaseous H2S abundance is well reproduced, assuming undepleted sulphur abundance and chemical desorption as the main source of H2S. The behavior of the observed H2S abundance suggests a changing desorption efficiency, which would probe the snowline in these cold cores. Our model, however, highly overestimates the observed gas-phase CS abundance. Given the uncertainty in the sulphur chemistry, we can only conclude that our data are consistent with a cosmic elemental S abundance with an uncertainty of a factor of 10.
  • Fuente, A.; Navarro, D. G.; Caselli, P.; Gerin, M.; Kramer, C.; Roueff, E.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Bachiller, R.; Cazaux, S.; Commercon, B.; Friesen, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Giuliano, B. M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gratier, P.; Hacar, A.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kirk, J.; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Loison, J. C.; Malinen, J.; Marcelino, N.; Martin-Domenech, R.; Munoz-Caro, G.; Pineda, J.; Tafalla, M.; Tercero, B.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Trevino-Morales, S. P.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roncero, O.; Vidal, T.; Ballester, M. Y. (2019)
    GEMS is an IRAM 30 m Large Program whose aim is determining the elemental depletions and the ionization fraction in a set of prototypical star-forming regions. This paper presents the first results from the prototypical dark cloud Taurus molecular cloud (TMC) 1. Extensive millimeter observations have been carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope (3 and 2mm) and the 40 m Yebes telescope (1.3 cm and 7 mm) to determine the fractional abundances of CO, HCO+, HCN, CS, SO, HCS+, and N2H+ in three cuts which intersect the dense filament at the well-known positions TMC 1-CP, TMC 1-NH3, and TMC 1-C, covering a visual extinction range from A(v) similar to 3 to similar to 20 mag. Two phases with differentiated chemistry can be distinguished: (i) the translucent envelope with molecular hydrogen densities of 1-5 x 10(3) cm(-3); and (ii) the dense phase, located at A(v) > 10 mag, with molecular hydrogen densities >10(4) cm(-3). Observations and modeling show that the gas phase abundances of C and O progressively decrease along the C+/C/CO transition zone (A(v) similar to 3 mag) where C/H similar to 8 x 10(-5) and C/O similar to 0.8-1, until the beginning of the dense phase at A(v) similar to 10 mag. This is consistent with the grain temperatures being below the CO evaporation temperature in this region. In the case of sulfur, a strong depletion should occur before the translucent phase where we estimate an S/H similar to (0.4-2.2) x 10(-6), an abundance similar to 7-40 times lower than the solar value. A second strong depletion must be present during the formation of the thick icy mantles to achieve the values of S/H measured in the dense cold cores (S/H similar to 8 x 10(-8)). Based on our chemical modeling, we constrain the value of zeta(H2) to similar to(0.5-1.8) x 10(-16) s(-1) in the translucent cloud.
  • Juvela, Mika (2020)
    Context. Radiative transfer (RT) modelling is part of many astrophysical simulations. It is used to make synthetic observations and to assist the analysis of observations. We concentrate on modelling the radio lines emitted by the interstellar medium. In connection with high-resolution models, this can be a significant computationally challenge.Aims. Our aim is to provide a line RT program that makes good use of multi-core central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs). Parallelisation is essential to speed up computations and to enable large modelling tasks with personal computers.Methods. The program LOC is based on ray-tracing (i.e. not Monte Carlo) and uses standard accelerated lambda iteration methods for faster convergence. The program works on 1D and 3D grids. The 1D version makes use of symmetries to speed up the RT calculations. The 3D version works with octree grids, and to enable calculations with large models, is optimised for low memory usage.Results. Tests show that LOC results agree with other RT codes to within similar to 2%. This is typical of code-to-code differences, which are often related to different interpretations of the model set-up. LOC run times compare favourably especially with those of Monte Carlo codes. In 1D tests, LOC runs were faster by up to a factor similar to 20 on a GPU than on a single CPU core. In spite of the complex path calculations, a speed-up of up to similar to 10 was also observed for 3D models using octree discretisation. GPUs enable calculations of models with hundreds of millions of cells, as are encountered in the context of large-scale simulations of interstellar clouds.Conclusions. LOC shows good performance and accuracy and is able to handle many RT modelling tasks on personal computers. It is written in Python, with only the computing-intensive parts implemented as compiled OpenCL kernels. It can therefore also a serve as a platform for further experimentation with alternative RT implementation details.
  • Liu, Tie; Zhang, Qizhou; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Juvela, Mika; Thompson, Mark; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liu, Sheng-yuan; Naomi, Hirano; Koch, Patrick; Henkel, Christian; Sanhueza, Patricio; He, JinHua; Rivera-Ingraham, Alana; Wang, Ke; Cunningham, Maria R.; Tang, Ya-Wen; Lai, Shih-Ping; Yuan, Jinghua; Li, Di; Fuller, Gary; Kang, Miju; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Yang, Ji; Xu, Ye; Hirota, Tomoya; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Huei-Ru; Kwon, Woojin; Meng, Fanyi; Zhang, Huawei; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Yi, Hee-Weon (2016)
    We are performing a series of observations with ground-based telescopes toward Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) in the lambda Orionis complex in order to systematically investigate the effects of stellar feedback. In the particular case of PGCC G192.32-11.88, we discovered an extremely young Class 0 protostellar object (G192N) and a proto-brown dwarf candidate (G192S). G192N and G192S are located in a gravitationally bound brightrimmed clump. The velocity and temperature gradients seen in line emission of CO isotopologues indicate that PGCC G192.32-11.88 is externally heated and compressed. G192N probably has the lowest bolometric luminosity (similar to 0.8 L-circle dot) and accretion rate (6.3 x 10(-7) M-circle dot yr(-1)) when compared with other young Class 0 sources (e.g., PACS Bright Red Sources) in the Orion complex. It has slightly larger internal luminosity (0.21 +/- 0.01 L-circle dot) and outflow velocity (similar to 14 km s(-1)) than the predictions of first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs). G192N might be among the youngest Class 0 sources, which are slightly more evolved than an FHSC. Considering its low internal luminosity (0.08 +/- 0.01 L-circle dot) and accretion rate (2.8 x 10(-8) M-circle dot yr(-1)), G192S is an ideal proto-brown dwarf candidate. The star formation efficiency (similar to 0.3%-0.4%) and core formation efficiency (similar to 1%) in PGCC G192.32-11.88 are significantly smaller than in other giant molecular clouds or filaments, indicating that the star formation therein is greatly suppressed owing to stellar feedback.
  • Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.; Grenman, T.; Mäkelä, M. M.; Persson, C. M. (2017)
    Context. The Carina nebula hosts a large number of globulettes. An optical study of these tiny molecular clouds shows that the majority are of planetary mass, but there are also those with masses of several tens up to a few hundred Jupiter masses. Aims. We seek to search for, and hopefully detect, molecular line emission from some of the more massive objects; in case of successful detection we aim to map their motion in the Carina nebula complex and derive certain physical properties. Methods. We carried out radio observations of molecular line emission in (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 (2-1) and (3-2) of 12 globulettes in addition to positions in adjacent shell structures using APEX. Results. All selected objects were detected with radial velocities shifted relative to the emission from related shell structures and background molecular clouds. Globulettes along the western part of an extended dust shell show a small spread in velocity with small velocity shifts relative to the shell. This system of globulettes and shell structures in the foreground of the bright nebulosity surrounding the cluster Trumpler 14 is expanding with a few km s(-1) relative to the cluster. A couple of isolated globulettes in the area move at similar speed. Compared to similar studies of the molecular line emission from globulettes in the Rosette nebula, we find that the integrated line intensity ratios and line widths are very different. The results show that the Carina objects have a different density/temperature structure than those in the Rosette nebula. In comparison the apparent size of the Carina globulettes is smaller, owing to the larger distance, and the corresponding beam filling factors are small. For this reason we were unable to carry out a more detailed modelling of the structure of the Carina objects in the way as performed for the Rosette objects. Conclusions. The Carina globulettes observed are compact and denser than objects of similar mass in the Rosette nebula. The distribution and velocities of these globulettes suggest that they have originated from eroding shells and elephant trunks. Some globulettes in the Trumpler 14 region are quite isolated and located far from any shell structures. These objects move at a similar speed as the globulettes along the shell, suggesting that they once formed from cloud fragments related to the same foreground shell.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Toth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott (2016)
    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of similar to 100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L-TIR) and molecular line luminosities (L-mol') of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L-TIR similar to 10(3) L-circle dot. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L-TIR-L-mol' correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and sigma(line)/sigma(vir). Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L-TIR-L-mol' correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L-TIR larger than L-TIR similar to 10(4.5) L-circle dot. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M-clump-L-mol' and L-TIR-L-mol' relations.
  • Padoan, Paolo; Juvela, Mika; Pan, Liubin; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Åke (2016)
    We present a comparison of molecular clouds (MCs) from a simulation of supernova (SN) driven interstellar medium (ISM) turbulence with real MCs from the Outer Galaxy Survey. The radiative transfer calculations to compute synthetic CO spectra are carried out assuming that the CO relative abundance depends only on gas density, according to four different models. Synthetic MCs are selected above a threshold brightness temperature value, T-B,T-min = 1.4 K, of the J = 1 - 0 (CO)-C-12 line, generating 16 synthetic catalogs (four different spatial resolutions and four CO abundance models), each containing up to several thousands MCs. The comparison with the observations focuses on the mass and size distributions and on the velocity-size and mass-size Larson relations. The mass and size distributions are found to be consistent with the observations, with no significant variations with spatial resolution or chemical model, except in the case of the unrealistic model with constant CO abundance. The velocity-size relation is slightly too steep for some of the models, while the mass-size relation is a bit too shallow for all models only at a spatial resolution dx approximate to 1 pc. The normalizations of the Larson relations show a clear dependence on spatial resolution, for both the synthetic and the real MCs. The comparison of the velocity-size normalization suggests that the SN rate in the Perseus arm is approximately 70% or less of the rate adopted in the simulation. Overall, the realistic properties of the synthetic clouds confirm that SN-driven turbulence can explain the origin and dynamics of MCs.
  • Krieger, Nico; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam K.; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jurgen; Weiss, Axel; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Levy, Rebecca C.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Gorski, Mark (2019)
    We present 0.'' 15 (similar to 2.5 pc) resolution ALMA CO(3-2) observations of the starbursting center in NGC 253. Together with archival ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) data, we decompose the emission into disk and nondisk components. We find similar to 7%-16% of the CO luminosity to be associated with the nondisk component (1.2-4.2 x 10(7) K km s(-1) pc(2)). The total molecular gas mass in the center of NGC 253 is similar to 3.6 x 10(8) M-circle dot with similar to 0.5 x 10(8) M-circle dot (similar to 15%) in the nondisk component. These measurements are consistent across independent mass estimates through three CO transitions. The high-resolution CO(3-2) observations allow us to identify the molecular outflow within the nondisk gas. Using a starburst conversion factor, we estimate the deprojected molecular mass outflow rate, kinetic energy, and momentum in the starburst of NGC 253. The deprojected molecular mass outflow rate is in the range of similar to 14-39 M-circle dot yr(-1) with an uncertainty of 0.4 dex. The large spread arises due to different interpretations of the kinematics of the observed gas while the errors are due to unknown geometry. The majority of this outflow rate is contributed by distinct outflows perpendicular to the disk, with a significant contribution by diffuse molecular gas. This results in a mass-loading factor eta = (M) over dot(out)/(M) over dot(SFR) in the range eta similar to 8-20 for gas ejected out to similar to 300 pc. We find the kinetic energy of the outflow to be similar to 2.5-4.5 x 10(54) erg and a typical error of similar to 0.8 dex, which is similar to 0.1% of the total or similar to 8% of the kinetic energy supplied by the starburst. The outflow momentum is 4.8-8.7 x 10(8) M-circle dot km s(-1) (similar to 0.5 dex error) or similar to 2.5%-4% of the kinetic momentum released into the ISM by the feedback. The unknown outflow geometry and launching sites are the primary sources of uncertainty in this study.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, Mika; Wang, Ke; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wu, Yuefang; Thompson, Mark; Fuller, Gary; Eden, David; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Lin, Yuxin; Johnstone, D.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Q.; Hirano, N.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Evans, Neal J.; White, Glenn J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, Steve; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, Mengyao; Soam, Archana; Peretto, N.; Samal, Manash R.; Fich, Michel; Parsons, Harriet; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Malinen, Johanna; Bendo, George J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, Hong-Li; Wouterloot, Jan; Li, Pak Shing; Qian, Lei; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Feng, Siyi; Aikawa, Yuri; Akhter, S.; Alina, Dana; Bell, Graham; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, Andrew; Bogner, Rebeka; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, M.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Cosentino, Giuliana; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Doi, Yasuo; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, Edith; Feher, O.; Fraser, Helen; Friberg, Per; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, Jane; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, J.; He, Yuxin; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, Tae-Geun; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kang, Miju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Shinyoung; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Lo, N.; Lopez, John A. P.; Lu, Xing; Lyo, A-Ran; Mardones, D.; Marston, A.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, Julien; Moore, T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, Soojong; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pattle, Kate M.; Pech, Gerardo; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Richer, John; Saito, M.; Sakai, Takeshi; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, Alessio; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, S.; Walsh, Andrew; Wang, Bingru; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Junzhi; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, Anthony; Xu, Ye; Yang, J.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Yuan, Lixia; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, Chenlin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; Zuo, Pei; Zhang, Chao (2018)
    The low dust temperatures (<14 K) of Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) make them ideal targets to probe the initial conditions and very early phase of star formation. "TOP-SCOPE" is a joint survey program targeting similar to 2000 PGCCs in J = 1-0 transitions of CO isotopologues and similar to 1000 PGCCs in 850 mu m continuum emission. The objective of the "TOP-SCOPE" survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are similar to 6200 M-circle dot, similar to 12 pc, and similar to 500 M-circle dot pc(-1), respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (beta) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.