Browsing by Subject "ISM: molecules"

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  • Feher, O.; Juvela, M.; Lunttila, T.; Montillaud, J.; Ristorcelli, I.; Zahorecz, S.; Toth, L. V. (2017)
    Context. The physical state of cold cloud clumps has a great impact on the process and efficiency of star formation and the masses of the forming stars inside these objects. The sub-millimetre survey of the Planck space observatory and the far-infrared follow-up mapping of the Herschel space telescope provide an unbiased, large sample of these cold objects. Aims. We have observed (CO)-C-12(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(1-0) emission in 35 high-density clumps in 26 Herschel fields sampling different environments in the Galaxy. Here, we aim to derive the physical properties of the objects and estimate their gravitational stability. Methods. The densities and temperatures of the clumps were calculated from both the dust continuum and the molecular line data. Kinematic distances were derived using (CO)-C-13(1-0) line velocities to verify previous distance estimates and the sizes and masses of the objects were calculated by fitting 2D Gaussian functions to their optical depth distribution maps on 250 mu m. The masses and virial masses were estimated assuming an upper and lower limit on the kinetic temperatures and considering uncertainties due to distance limitations. Results. The derived excitation temperatures are between 8.5-19.5 K, and for most clumps between 10 15 K, while the Herschel-derived dust colour temperatures are more uniform, between 12 16 K. The sizes (0.1-3 pc), (CO)-C-13 column densities (0.5-44 x 10(15) cm(-2)) and masses (from less than 0.1 M-circle dot to more than 1500 M-circle dot) of the objects all span broad ranges. We provide new kinematic distance estimates, identify gravitationally bound or unbound structures and discuss their nature. Conclusions. The sample contains objects on a wide scale of temperatures, densities and sizes. Eleven gravitationally unbound clumps were found, many of them smaller than 0.3 pc, but large, parsec-scale clouds with a few hundred solar masses appear as well. Colder clumps have generally high column densities but warmer objects appear at both low and higher column densities. The clump column densities derived from the line and dust observations correlate well, but are heavily affected by uncertainties of the dust properties, varying molecular abundances and optical depth effects.
  • Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Tie; Ohashi, Satoshi; Sanhueza, Patricio; Quang Nguyen Luong; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary; Wu, Yuefang; Li, Di; Di Francesco, James; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wang, Ke; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Juvela, Mika; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Cunningham, Maria; Saito, Masao; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Toth, L. Viktor; He, Jinhua; Sakai, Takeshi; Kim, Jungha; JCMT Large Program SCOPE Collabora; TRAO Key Science Program TOP Colla (2017)
    We observed 13 Planck cold clumps with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/SCUBA-2 and with the Nobeyama 45 m radio telescope. The N2H+ distribution obtained with the Nobeyama telescope is quite similar to SCUBA-2 dust distribution. The 82 GHz HC3N, 82 GHz CCS, and 94 GHz CCS emission are often distributed differently with respect to the N2H+ emission. The CCS emission, which is known to be abundant in starless molecular cloud cores, is often very clumpy in the observed targets. We made deep single-pointing observations in DNC, (HNC)-C-13, N2D+, and cyclic-C3H2 toward nine clumps. The detection rate of N2D+ is 50%. Furthermore, we observed the NH3 emission toward 15 Planck cold clumps to estimate the kinetic temperature, and confirmed that most targets are cold (less than or similar to 20 K). In two of the starless clumps we observed, the CCS emission is distributed as it surrounds the N2H+ core (chemically evolved gas), which resembles the case of L1544, a prestellar core showing collapse. In addition, we detected both DNC and N2D+. These two clumps are most likely on the verge of star formation. We introduce the chemical evolution factor (CEF) for starless cores to describe the chemical evolutionary stage, and analyze the observed Planck cold clumps.
  • Liu, Tie; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Kee-Tae; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Zhang, Qizhou; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Juvela, Mika; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Garay, Guido; Hirota, Tomoya; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kang, Sung-Ju; Li, Di; Li, Pak-Shing; Mardones, Diego; Qin, Sheng-Li; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Tej, Anandmayee; Toth, L. Viktor; Wu, Jing-Wen; Wu, Yue-Fang; Yi, Hee-weon; Yun, Hyeong-Sik; Liu, Hong-Li; Peng, Ya-Ping; Li, Juan; Li, Shang Huo; Lee, Chang Won; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Baug, Tapas; Wang, Jun-Zhi; Zhang, Yong; Issac, Namitha; Zhu, Feng-Yao; Luo, Qiu-Yi; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Xu, Feng-Wei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Chao; Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Chao (2020)
    We report studies of the relationships between the total bolometric luminosity (L-bol or L-TIR) and the molecular line luminosities of J = 1 - 0 transitions of (HCN)-C-13, (HCO+)-C-13, HCN, and HCO+ with data obtained from ACA observations in the 'ATOMS' survey of 146 active Galactic star-forming regions. The correlations between L-bol and molecular line luminosities L-mol' of the four transitions all appear to be approximately linear. Line emission of isotopologues shows as large scatters in L-bol-L-mol' relations as their main line emission. The log(L-bol/L-mol') for different molecular line tracers have similar distributions. The L-bol-to-L-mol' ratios do not change with galactocentric distances (R-GC) and clump masses (M-clump). The molecular line luminosity ratios (HCN-to-HCO+, (HCN)-C-13-to-(HCO+)-C-13, HCN-to-(HCN)-C-13, and HCO+-to-(HCO+)-C-13) all appear constant against L-bol, dust temperature (T-d), M-clump, and R-GC. Our studies suggest that both the main lines and isotopologue lines are good tracers of the total masses of dense gas in Galactic molecular clumps. The large optical depths of main lines do not affect the interpretation of the slopes in star formation relations. We find that the mean star formation efficiency (SFE) of massive Galactic clumps in the 'ATOMS' survey is reasonably consistent with other measures of the SFE for dense gas, even those using very different tracers or examining very different spatial scales.
  • Harju, Jorma; Sipilä, Olli; Brunken, Sandra; Schlemmer, Stephan; Caselli, Paola; Juvela, Mika; Menten, Karl M.; Stutzki, Juergen; Asvany, Oskar; Kaminski, Tomasz; Okada, Yoko; Higgins, Ronan (2017)
    We report on the detection of the ground-state rotational line of ortho-D2H+ at 1.477 THz (203 mu m) using the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz frequencies (GREAT) on. board the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The line is seen in absorption against. far-infrared continuum from the protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 in Ophiuchus. The para-D2H+ line at 691.7 GHz was not detected with the APEX telescope toward this position. These D2H+ observations complement our previous detections of para-H2D+ and ortho-H2D+ using SOFIA and APEX. By modeling chemistry and radiative transfer in the dense core surrounding the protostars, we find that the ortho-D2H+ and para-H2D+ absorption features mainly originate in the cool (T <18 K) outer envelope of the core. In contrast, the ortho-H2D+ emission from the core is significantly absorbed by the ambient molecular cloud. Analyses of the combined D2H+ and H2D+ data result in an age estimate of similar to 5. x. 10(5) yr for the core, with an uncertainty of similar to 2. x. 10(5) yr. The core material has probably been pre-processed for another 5. x. 10(5) years in conditions corresponding to those in the ambient molecular cloud. The inferred timescale is more than 10 times the age of the embedded protobinary. The D2H+ and H2D+ ions have large and nearly equal total (ortho+ para) fractional abundances of similar to 10(-9) in the outer envelope. This confirms the central role of H-3 + in the deuterium chemistry in cool, dense gas, and adds support to the prediction of chemistry models that also D-3(+) should be abundant in these conditions.
  • Harju, J.; Daniel, F.; Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Pineda, J. E.; Friesen, R. K.; Punanova, A.; Guesten, R.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Myers, P. C.; Faure, A.; Hily-Blant, P.; Rist, C.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schlemmer, S.; Shirley, Y. L. (2017)
    Context. Ammonia and its deuterated isotopologues probe physical conditions in dense molecular cloud cores. The time-dependence of deuterium fractionation and the relative abundances of different nuclear spin modifications are supposed to provide a means of determining the evolutionary stages of these objects. Aims. We aim to test the current understanding of spin-state chemistry of deuterated species by determining the abundances and spin ratios of NH2D, NHD2 and ND3 in a quiescent, dense cloud. Methods. Spectral lines of NH3, NH2D, NHD2, ND3 and N2D+ were observed towards a dense, starless core in Ophiuchus with the APEX, GBT and IRAM 30-m telescopes. The observations were interpreted using a gas-grain chemistry model combined with radiative transfer calculations. The chemistry model distinguishes between the different nuclear spin states of light hydrogen molecules, ammonia and their deuterated forms. Different desorption schemes can be considered. Results. High deuterium fractionation ratios with NH2D = NH3 similar to 0 : 4, NHD2 = NH2D similar to 0 : 2 and ND3 = NHD2 similar to 0 : 06 are found in the core. The observed ortho/para ratios of NH2D and NHD2 are close to the corresponding nuclear spin statistical weights. The chemistry model can approximately reproduce the observed abundances, but consistently predicts too low ortho/para-NH2D, and too large ortho/para-NHD2 ratios. The longevity of N2H+ and NH3 in dense gas, which is prerequisite to their strong deuteration, can be attributed to the chemical inertia of N-2 on grain surfaces. Conclusions. The discrepancies between the chemistry model and the observations are likely to be caused by the fact that the model assumes complete scrambling in principal gas-phase deuteration reactions of ammonia, which means that all the nuclei are mixed in reactive collisions. If, instead, these reactions occur through proton hop/hydrogen abstraction processes, statistical spin ratios are to be expected. The present results suggest that while the deuteration of ammonia changes with physical conditions and time, the nuclear spin ratios of ammonia isotopologues do not probe the evolutionary stage of a cloud.
  • Navarro-Almaida, D.; Le Gal, R.; Fuente, A.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Wakelam; Cazaux, S.; Caselli, P.; Laas, J. C.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Loison, J. C.; Gerin, M.; Kramer, C.; Roueff, E.; Bachillerl, R.; Commercon, B.; Friesen, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Giuliano, B. M.; Jimenez-Serram; Kirk, J. M.; Lattanzi, M.; Malinen, J.; Marcelino, N.; Martin-Domenech, R.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Pineda, J.; Tercero, B.; Trevino-Morales, S. P.; Roncero, O.; Hacar, A.; Tafalla, M.; Ward-Thompson, D. (2020)
    Context. Sulphur is one of the most abundant elements in the Universe. Surprisingly, sulphuretted molecules are not as abundant as expected in the interstellar medium and the identity of the main sulphur reservoir is still an open question.Aims. Our goal is to investigate the H2S chemistry in dark clouds, as this stable molecule is a potential sulphur reservoir.Methods. Using millimeter observations of CS, SO, H2S, and their isotopologues, we determine the physical conditions and H2S abundances along the cores TMC 1-C, TMC 1-CP, and Barnard 1b. The gas-grain model NAUTILUS is used to model the sulphur chemistry and explore the impact of photo-desorption and chemical desorption on the H2S abundance.Results. Our modeling shows that chemical desorption is the main source of gas-phase H2S in dark cores. The measured H2S abundance can only be fitted if we assume that the chemical desorption rate decreases by more than a factor of 10 when n(H) > 2 x 10(4). This change in the desorption rate is consistent with the formation of thick H2O and CO ice mantles on grain surfaces. The observed SO and H2S abundances are in good agreement with our predictions adopting an undepleted value of the sulphur abundance. However, the CS abundance is overestimated by a factor of 5-10. Along the three cores, atomic S is predicted to be the main sulphur reservoir.Conclusions. The gaseous H2S abundance is well reproduced, assuming undepleted sulphur abundance and chemical desorption as the main source of H2S. The behavior of the observed H2S abundance suggests a changing desorption efficiency, which would probe the snowline in these cold cores. Our model, however, highly overestimates the observed gas-phase CS abundance. Given the uncertainty in the sulphur chemistry, we can only conclude that our data are consistent with a cosmic elemental S abundance with an uncertainty of a factor of 10.
  • Bulut, N.; Roncero, O.; Aguado, A.; Loison, J-C; Navarro-Almaida, D.; Wakelam, V.; Fuente, A.; Roueff, E.; Le Gal, R.; Caselli, P.; Gerin, M.; Hickson, K. M.; Spezzano, S.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Bachiller, R.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kramer, C.; Tercero, B.; Rodriguez-Baras, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Trevino-Morales, S. P.; Esplugues, G.; Cazaux, S.; Commercon, B.; Laas, J.; Kirk, J.; Lattanzi, M.; Martin-Domenech, R.; Munoz-Caro, G.; Pineda, J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Tafalla, M.; Marcelino, N.; Malinen, J.; Friesen, R.; Giuliano, B. M.; Agundez, M.; Hacar, A. (2021)
    Context. Carbon monosulphide (CS) is among the most abundant gas-phase S-bearing molecules in cold dark molecular clouds. It is easily observable with several transitions in the millimeter wavelength range, and has been widely used as a tracer of the gas density in the interstellar medium in our Galaxy and external galaxies. However, chemical models fail to account for the observed CS abundances when assuming the cosmic value for the elemental abundance of sulfur. Aims. The CS+O -> CO + S reaction has been proposed as a relevant CS destruction mechanism at low temperatures, and could explain the discrepancy between models and observations. Its reaction rate has been experimentally measured at temperatures of 150-400 K, but the extrapolation to lower temperatures is doubtful. Our goal is to calculate the CS+O reaction rate at temperatures Methods. We performed ab initio calculations to obtain the three lowest potential energy surfaces (PES) of the CS+O system. These PESs are used to study the reaction dynamics, using several methods (classical, quantum, and semiclassical) to eventually calculate the CS + O thermal reaction rates. In order to check the accuracy of our calculations, we compare the results of our theoretical calculations for T similar to 150-400 K with those obtained in the laboratory. Results. Our detailed theoretical study on the CS+O reaction, which is in agreement with the experimental data obtained at 150-400 K, demonstrates the reliability of our approach. After a careful analysis at lower temperatures, we find that the rate constant at 10 K is negligible, below 10(-15) cm(3) s(-1), which is consistent with the extrapolation of experimental data using the Arrhenius expression. Conclusions. We use the updated chemical network to model the sulfur chemistry in Taurus Molecular Cloud 1 (TMC 1) based on molecular abundances determined from Gas phase Elemental abundances in Molecular CloudS (GEMS) project observations. In our model, we take into account the expected decrease of the cosmic ray ionization rate, zeta(H2), along the cloud. The abundance of CS is still overestimated when assuming the cosmic value for the sulfur abundance.
  • Fuente, A.; Navarro, D. G.; Caselli, P.; Gerin, M.; Kramer, C.; Roueff, E.; Alonso-Albi, T.; Bachiller, R.; Cazaux, S.; Commercon, B.; Friesen, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Giuliano, B. M.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Gratier, P.; Hacar, A.; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kirk, J.; Lattanzi, Fernando Alfredo; Loison, J. C.; Malinen, J.; Marcelino, N.; Martin-Domenech, R.; Munoz-Caro, G.; Pineda, J.; Tafalla, M.; Tercero, B.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Trevino-Morales, S. P.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Roncero, O.; Vidal, T.; Ballester, M. Y. (2019)
    GEMS is an IRAM 30 m Large Program whose aim is determining the elemental depletions and the ionization fraction in a set of prototypical star-forming regions. This paper presents the first results from the prototypical dark cloud Taurus molecular cloud (TMC) 1. Extensive millimeter observations have been carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope (3 and 2mm) and the 40 m Yebes telescope (1.3 cm and 7 mm) to determine the fractional abundances of CO, HCO+, HCN, CS, SO, HCS+, and N2H+ in three cuts which intersect the dense filament at the well-known positions TMC 1-CP, TMC 1-NH3, and TMC 1-C, covering a visual extinction range from A(v) similar to 3 to similar to 20 mag. Two phases with differentiated chemistry can be distinguished: (i) the translucent envelope with molecular hydrogen densities of 1-5 x 10(3) cm(-3); and (ii) the dense phase, located at A(v) > 10 mag, with molecular hydrogen densities >10(4) cm(-3). Observations and modeling show that the gas phase abundances of C and O progressively decrease along the C+/C/CO transition zone (A(v) similar to 3 mag) where C/H similar to 8 x 10(-5) and C/O similar to 0.8-1, until the beginning of the dense phase at A(v) similar to 10 mag. This is consistent with the grain temperatures being below the CO evaporation temperature in this region. In the case of sulfur, a strong depletion should occur before the translucent phase where we estimate an S/H similar to (0.4-2.2) x 10(-6), an abundance similar to 7-40 times lower than the solar value. A second strong depletion must be present during the formation of the thick icy mantles to achieve the values of S/H measured in the dense cold cores (S/H similar to 8 x 10(-8)). Based on our chemical modeling, we constrain the value of zeta(H2) to similar to(0.5-1.8) x 10(-16) s(-1) in the translucent cloud.
  • Juvela, Mika (2020)
    Context. Radiative transfer (RT) modelling is part of many astrophysical simulations. It is used to make synthetic observations and to assist the analysis of observations. We concentrate on modelling the radio lines emitted by the interstellar medium. In connection with high-resolution models, this can be a significant computationally challenge.Aims. Our aim is to provide a line RT program that makes good use of multi-core central processing units (CPUs) and graphics processing units (GPUs). Parallelisation is essential to speed up computations and to enable large modelling tasks with personal computers.Methods. The program LOC is based on ray-tracing (i.e. not Monte Carlo) and uses standard accelerated lambda iteration methods for faster convergence. The program works on 1D and 3D grids. The 1D version makes use of symmetries to speed up the RT calculations. The 3D version works with octree grids, and to enable calculations with large models, is optimised for low memory usage.Results. Tests show that LOC results agree with other RT codes to within similar to 2%. This is typical of code-to-code differences, which are often related to different interpretations of the model set-up. LOC run times compare favourably especially with those of Monte Carlo codes. In 1D tests, LOC runs were faster by up to a factor similar to 20 on a GPU than on a single CPU core. In spite of the complex path calculations, a speed-up of up to similar to 10 was also observed for 3D models using octree discretisation. GPUs enable calculations of models with hundreds of millions of cells, as are encountered in the context of large-scale simulations of interstellar clouds.Conclusions. LOC shows good performance and accuracy and is able to handle many RT modelling tasks on personal computers. It is written in Python, with only the computing-intensive parts implemented as compiled OpenCL kernels. It can therefore also a serve as a platform for further experimentation with alternative RT implementation details.
  • Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Harju, J. (2019)
    We constructed two new models for deuterium and spin-state chemistry for the purpose of modeling the low-temperature environment prevailing in starless and pre-stellar cores. The fundamental difference between the two models is in the treatment of ion-molecule proton-donation reactions of the form XH+ + Y -> X + YH+, which are allowed to proceed either via full scrambling or via direct proton hop, that is, disregarding proton exchange. The choice of the reaction mechanism affects both deuterium and spin-state chemistry, and in this work our main interest is on the effect on deuterated ammonia. We applied the new models to the starless core H-MM1, where several deuterated forms of ammonia have been observed. Our investigation slightly favors the proton hop mechanism over full scrambling because the ammonia D/H ratios are better fit by the former model, although neither model can reproduce the observed NH2D ortho-to-para ratio of 3 (the models predict a value of similar to 2). Extending the proton hop scenario to hydrogen atom abstraction reactions yields a good agreement for the spin-state abundance ratios, but greatly overestimates the deuterium fractions of ammonia. However, one can find a reasonably good agreement with the observations with this model by increasing the cosmic-ray ionization rate over the commonly adopted value of similar to 10(-17) s(-1). We also find that the deuterium fractions of several other species, such as H2CO, H2O, and CH3, are sensitive to the adopted proton-donation reaction mechanism. Whether the full scrambling or proton hop mechanism dominates may be dependent on the reacting system, and new laboratory and theoretical studies for various reacting systems are needed to constrain chemical models.
  • Lattanzi, Valerio; Bizzocchi, Luca; Vasyunin, Anton I.; Harju, Jorma; Giuliano, Barbara M.; Vastel, Charlotte; Caselli, Paola (2020)
    Context. Pre-stellar cores (PSCs) are units of star formation. Besides representing early stages of the dynamical evolution leading to the formation of stars and planets, PSCs also provide a substrate for incipient chemical complexity in the interstellar space. Aims. Our aim is to understand the influence of external conditions on the chemical composition of PSCs. For this purpose, we compared molecular column densities in two typical PSCs, L183 and L1544, which are embedded in different environments. Methods. A single-pointing survey of L183 at lambda = 3 mm was conducted using the IRAM 30-m single-dish antenna. This led to the detection of more than 100 emission lines from 46 molecular species. The molecular column densities and excitation temperatures derived from these lines were compared to the corresponding parameters in L1544. The data for L1544 were obtained from literature or publicly available surveys, and they were analysed using the same procedure as adopted for L183. An astrochemical model, previously developed for the interpretation of organic molecule emissions towards the methanol peak of L1544, was used to interpret the combined data. Results. Our analysis reveals clear chemical differences between the two PSCs. While L1544 is richer in carbon-bearing species, in particular carbon chains, oxygen-containing species are generally more abundant in L183. The results are well-reproduced by our chemical model. Conclusions. The observed chemical differentiation between the two PSCs is caused by the different environmental conditions: the core of L183 is deeply buried in the surrounding cloud, whereas L1544 lies close to the edge of the Taurus Molecular Cloud. The obscuration of L183 from the interstellar radiation field (ISRF) allows the carbon atoms to be locked in carbon monoxide, which ultimately leads to a large abundance of O-bearing species. In contrast, L1544, being more affected by the ISRF, can keep a fraction of carbon in atomic form, which is needed for the production of carbon chains.
  • Redaelli, E.; Bizzocchi, L.; Caselli, P.; Harju, J.; Chacon-Tanarro, A.; Leonardo, E.; Dore, L. (2018)
    Context. The N-15 fractionation has been observed to show large variations among astrophysical sources, depending both on the type of target and on the molecular tracer used. These variations cannot be reproduced by the current chemical models. Aims. Until now, the N-14/N-15 ratio in N2H+ has been accurately measured in only one prestellar source, L1544, where strong levels of fractionation, with depletion in N-15, are found (N-14/N-15 approximate to 1000). In this paper, we extend the sample to three more bona fide prestellar cores, in order to understand if the antifractionation in N2H+ is a common feature of this kind of source. Methods. We observed N2H+, (NNH+)-N-15, and (NNH+)-N-15 in L183, L429, and L694-2 with the IRAM 30m telescope. We modelled the emission with a non-local radiative transfer code in order to obtain accurate estimates of the molecular column densities, including the one for the optically thick N2H+. We used the most recent collisional rate coefficients available, and with these we also re-analysed the L1544 spectra previously published. Results. The obtained isotopic ratios are in the range 580-770 and significantly differ with the value, predicted by the most recent chemical models, of approximate to 440, close to the protosolar value. Our prestellar core sample shows a high level of depletion of N-15 in diazenylium, as previously found in L1544. A revision of the N chemical networks is needed in order to explain these results.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Poutanen, T.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Tuovinen, J.; Valiviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.; Grenman, T.; Mäkelä, M. M.; Persson, C. M. (2017)
    Context. The Carina nebula hosts a large number of globulettes. An optical study of these tiny molecular clouds shows that the majority are of planetary mass, but there are also those with masses of several tens up to a few hundred Jupiter masses. Aims. We seek to search for, and hopefully detect, molecular line emission from some of the more massive objects; in case of successful detection we aim to map their motion in the Carina nebula complex and derive certain physical properties. Methods. We carried out radio observations of molecular line emission in (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 (2-1) and (3-2) of 12 globulettes in addition to positions in adjacent shell structures using APEX. Results. All selected objects were detected with radial velocities shifted relative to the emission from related shell structures and background molecular clouds. Globulettes along the western part of an extended dust shell show a small spread in velocity with small velocity shifts relative to the shell. This system of globulettes and shell structures in the foreground of the bright nebulosity surrounding the cluster Trumpler 14 is expanding with a few km s(-1) relative to the cluster. A couple of isolated globulettes in the area move at similar speed. Compared to similar studies of the molecular line emission from globulettes in the Rosette nebula, we find that the integrated line intensity ratios and line widths are very different. The results show that the Carina objects have a different density/temperature structure than those in the Rosette nebula. In comparison the apparent size of the Carina globulettes is smaller, owing to the larger distance, and the corresponding beam filling factors are small. For this reason we were unable to carry out a more detailed modelling of the structure of the Carina objects in the way as performed for the Rosette objects. Conclusions. The Carina globulettes observed are compact and denser than objects of similar mass in the Rosette nebula. The distribution and velocities of these globulettes suggest that they have originated from eroding shells and elephant trunks. Some globulettes in the Trumpler 14 region are quite isolated and located far from any shell structures. These objects move at a similar speed as the globulettes along the shell, suggesting that they once formed from cloud fragments related to the same foreground shell.
  • Sipilae, O.; Harju, J.; Caselli, P. (2017)
    Aims. We study whether or not rotational excitation can make a large difference to chemical models of the abundances of the H-3(+) isotopologs, including spin states, in physical conditions corresponding to starless cores and protostellar envelopes. Methods. We developed a new rate coefficient set for the chemistry of the H-3(+) isotopologs, allowing for rotational excitation, using previously published state-to-state rate coefficients. These new so-called species-to-species rate coefficients are compared with previously-used ground-state-to-species rate coefficients by calculating chemical evolution in variable physical conditions using a pseudo-time-dependent chemical code. Results. We find that the new species-to-species model produces different results to the ground state-to-species model at high density and toward increasing temperatures (T > 10 K). The most prominent difference is that the species-to-species model predicts a lower H-3(+) deuteration degree at high density owing to an increase of the rate coefficients of endothermic reactions that tend to decrease deuteration. For example at 20 K, the ground-state-to-species model overestimates the abundance of H2D+ by a factor of about two, while the abundance of D-3(+) can differ by up to an order of magnitude between the models. The spin-state abundance ratios of the various H-3(+) isotopologs are also a ffected, and the new model better reproduces recent observations of the abundances of ortho and para H2D+ and D2H+. The main caveat is that the applicability regime of the new rate coefficients depends on the critical densities of the various rotational transitions which vary with the abundances of the species and the temperature in dense clouds. Conclusions. The difference in the abundances of the H-3(+) isotopologs predicted by the species-to-species and ground state-to-species models is negligible at 10K corresponding to physical conditions in starless cores, but inclusion of the excited states is very important in studies of deuteration at higher temperatures, for example in protostellar envelopes. The species-to-species rate coefficients provide a more realistic approach to the chemistry of the H-3(+) isotopologs than the ground-state-to-species rate coefficients do, and so the former should be adopted in chemical models describing the chemistry of the H-3(+)+H-2 reacting system.
  • Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Redaelli, E.; Juvela, M.; Bizzocchi, L. (2019)
    We carried out a parameter-space exploration of the ammonia abundance in the pre-stellar core L1544, where it has been observed to increase toward the centre of the core with no signs of freeze-out onto grain surfaces. We considered static and dynamical physical models coupled with elaborate chemical and radiative transfer calculations, and explored the effects of varying model parameters on the (ortho + para) ammonia abundance profile. None of our models are able to reproduce the inward-increasing tendency in the observed profile; ammonia depletion always occurs in the centre of the core. In particular, our study shows that including the chemical desorption process, where exothermic association reactions on the grain surface can result in the immediate desorption of the product molecule, leads to ammonia abundances that are over an order of magnitude above the observed level in the innermost 15 000 au of the core - at least when one employs a constant efficiency for the chemical desorption process, irrespective of the ice composition. Our results seemingly constrain the chemical desorption efficiency of ammonia on water ice to below 1 per cent. It is increasingly evident that time-dependent effects must be considered so that the results of chemical models can be reconciled with observations.