Browsing by Subject "ISOPRENE EMISSIONS"

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  • Rantala, Pekka; Järvi, Leena; Taipale, Risto; Laurila, Terhi K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Kajos, Maija K.; Kurppa, Mona; Haapanala, Sami; Siivola, Erkki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2016)
    We measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) at an urban background site near the city centre of Helsinki, Finland, northern Europe. The VOC and CO2 measurements were obtained between January 2013 and September 2014 whereas for CO a shorter measurement campaign in April-May 2014 was conducted. Both anthropogenic and biogenic sources were identified for VOCs in the study. Strong correlations between VOC fluxes and CO fluxes and traffic rates indicated anthropogenic source of many VOCs. The VOC with the highest emission rate to the atmosphere was methanol, which originated mostly from traffic and other anthropogenic sources. The traffic was also a major source for aromatic compounds in all seasons whereas isoprene was mostly emitted from biogenic sources during summer. Some amount of traffic-related isoprene emissions were detected during other seasons but this might have also been an instrumental contamination from cycloalkane products. Generally, the observed VOC fluxes were found to be small in comparison with previous urban VOC flux studies. However, the differences were probably caused by lower anthropogenic activities as the CO2 fluxes were also relatively small at the site.
  • Back, J.; Aalto, J.; Hemmilä, Marja S; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M. (2012)
  • Rantala, Pekka; Taipale, Risto; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija K.; Patokoski, Johanna; Ruuskanen, Taina M.; Rinne, Janne (2014)
  • Wu, Kai; Yang, Xianyu; Chen, Dean; Gu, Shan; Lu, Yaqiong; Jiang, Qi; Wang, Kun; Ou, Yihan; Qian, Yan; Shao, Ping; Lu, Shihua (2020)
    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) play an important role in global environmental chemistry and climate. In the present work, biogenic emissions from China in 2017 were estimated based on the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). The effects of BVOC emissions on ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation were investigated using the WRF-CMAQ modeling system. Three parallel scenarios were developed to assess the impact of BVOC emissions on China's ozone and SOA formation in July 2017. Biogenic emissions were estimated at 23.54 Tg/yr, with a peak in the summer and decreasing from southern to northern China. The high BVOC emissions across eastern and southwestern China increased the surface ozone levels, particularly in the BTH (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei), SCB (Sichuan Basin), YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and central PRD (Pearl River Delta) regions, with increases of up to 47 μg m−3 due to the sensitivity of VOC-limited urban areas. In summer, most SOA concentrations formed over China are from biogenic sources (national average of 70%). And SOA concentrations in YRD and SCB regions are generally higher than other regions. Excluding anthropogenic emissions while keeping biogenic emissions unchanged results that SOA concentrations reduce by 60% over China, which indicates that anthropogenic emissions can interact with biogenic emissions then facilitate biogenic SOA formation. It is suggested that controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.
  • Arneth, Almut; Makkonen, Risto; Olin, Stefan; Paasonen, Pauli; Holst, Thomas; Kajos, Maija K.; Kulmala, Markku; Maximov, Trofim; Miller, Paul A.; Schurgers, Guy (2016)
    Disproportional warming in the northern high latitudes and large carbon stocks in boreal and (sub)arctic ecosystems have raised concerns as to whether substantial positive climate feedbacks from biogeochemical process responses should be expected. Such feedbacks occur when increasing temperatures lead, for example, to a net release of CO2 or CH4. However, temperature-enhanced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been shown to contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which is known to have a negative radiative climate effect. Combining measurements in Eastern Siberia with model-based estimates of vegetation and permafrost dynamics, BVOC emissions, and aerosol growth, we assess here possible future changes in ecosystem CO2 balance and BVOC-SOA interactions and discuss these changes in terms of possible climate effects. Globally, the effects of changes in Siberian ecosystem CO2 balance and SOA formation are small, but when concentrating on Siberia and the Northern Hemisphere the negative forcing from changed aerosol direct and indirect effects become notable - even though the associated temperature response would not necessarily follow a similar spatial pattern. While our analysis does not include other important processes that are of relevance for the climate system, the CO2 and BVOC-SOA interplay serves as an example for the complexity of the interactions between emissions and vegetation dynamics that underlie individual terrestrial processes and highlights the importance of addressing ecosystem-climate feedbacks in consistent, process-based model frameworks.
  • Liu, Yang; Schallhart, Simon; Taipale, Ditte; Tykkä, Toni; Räsänen, Matti; Merbold, Lutz; Hellén, Heidi; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    The East African lowland and highland areas consist of water-limited and humid ecosystems. The magnitude and seasonality of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions and concentrations from these functionally contrasting ecosystems are limited due to a scarcity of direct observations. We measured mixing ratios of BVOCs from two contrasting ecosystems, humid highlands with agroforestry and dry lowlands with bushland, grassland, and agriculture mosaics, during both the rainy and dry seasons of 2019 in southern Kenya. We present the diurnal and seasonal characteristics of BVOC mixing ratios and their reactivity and estimated emission factors (EFs) for certain BVOCs from the African lowland ecosystem based on field measurements. The most abundant BVOCs were isoprene and monoterpenoids (MTs), with isoprene contributing > 70 % of the total BVOC mixing ratio during daytime, while MTs accounted for > 50 % of the total BVOC mixing ratio during nighttime at both sites. The contributions of BVOCs to the local atmospheric chemistry were estimated by calculating the reactivity towards the hydroxyl radical (OH), ozone (O-3), and the nitrate radical (NO3). Isoprene and MTs contributed the most to the reactivity of OH and NO3, while sesquiterpenes dominated the contribution of organic compounds to the reactivity of O-3. The mixing ratio of isoprene measured in this study was lower than that measured in the relevant ecosystems in western and southern Africa, while that of monoterpenoids was similar. Isoprene mixing ratios peaked daily between 16:00 and 20:00 (all times are given as East Africa Time, UTC+3), with a maximum mixing ratio of 809 pptv (parts per trillion by volume) and 156 pptv in the highlands and 115 and 25 pptv in the lowlands during the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. MT mixing ratios reached their daily maximum between midnight and early morning (usually 04:00 to 08:00), with mixing ratios of 254 and 56 pptv in the highlands and 89 and 7 pptv in the lowlands in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The dominant species within the MT group were limonene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene. EFs for isoprene, MTs, and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were estimated using an inverse modeling approach. The estimated EFs for isoprene and beta-pinene agreed very well with what is currently assumed in the world's most extensively used biogenic emissions model, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for warm C-4 grass, but the estimated EFs for MBO, alpha-pinene, and especially limonene were significantly higher than that assumed in MEGAN for the relevant plant functional type. Additionally, our results indicate that the EF for limonene might be seasonally dependent in savanna ecosystems.
  • Liu, Yang; Tang, Zhipeng; Abera, Temesgen; Zhang, Xuezhen; Hakola, Hannele; Pellikka, Petri; Maeda, Eduardo (2020)
    Understanding the local sources of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO) is a key step in accurately determining the inversion of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). This study aims to clarify the main sources and emission patterns of local total HCHO column densities over Ethiopia and Kenya. Between 2005 and 2015, the total monthly HCHO varied from 3.7 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2) to 7.7 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2). Monthly HCHO showed a strong seasonal pattern with annual peaks on March, July (small peak) and October, which well matched with the rainy seasons in Ethiopia and Kenya. Natural sources contributed 36% to the total HCHO in the study area. Grassland and savannas showed high column densities in the long rainy season starting from March, with the monthly average emission value of 5.6 x 10(15) molecules/cm(2). Multiple regression result showed that vegetation contributed 3.5 x 10(13) molecules/cm(2) to monthly HCHO, with grassland and forest in eastern Kenya and the boundary of Ethiopia and Kenya were the main contributors in these regions. Biomass burning and methane contributed to HCHO emission in the western and northern Ethiopia with a magnitude of 1.4 x 10(14) molecules/cm(2) and 6.2 x 10(16) molecules/cm(2) per month, respectively. Economic activities showed negative response to HCHO columns, except over the two small-scale regions of Addis Ababa City and Nairobi City. This study quantified the HCHO from various sources and suggested that natural sources produce more HCHO than anthropogenic sources over Ethiopia and Kenya.