Browsing by Subject "IUCN"

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  • Shirey, Vaughn; Seppälä, Sini; Branco, Vasco Veiga; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Conservation assessments of hyperdiverse groups of organisms are often challenging and limited by the availability of occurrence data needed to calculate assessment metrics such as extent of occurrence (EOO). Spiders represent one such diverse group and have historically been assessed using primary literature with retrospective georeferencing. Here we demonstrate the differences in estimations of EOO and hypothetical IUCN Red List classifications for two extensive spider datasets comprising 479 species in total. The EOO were estimated and compared using literature-based assessments, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)-based assessments and combined data assessments. We found that although few changes to hypothetical IUCN Red List classifications occurred with the addition of GBIF data, some species (3.3%) which could previously not be classified could now be assessed with the addition of GBIF data. In addition, the hypothetical classification changed for others (1.5%). On the other hand, GBIF data alone did not provide enough data for 88.7% of species. These results demonstrate the potential of GBIF data to serve as an additional source of information for conservation assessments, complementing literature data, but not particularly useful on its own as it stands right now for spiders.
  • Seppälä, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Not much attention is paid on the conservation of invertebrates despite their importance to the ecosystems in general and their benefits and ecosystem services to us, humans. This study is part of a project aiming to start the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI) for spiders. The IUCN Red List Index (RLI) is used for measuring the overall extinction risk of groups of species and the sampled approach is a way to evaluate the trajectory towards extinction of megadiverse groups without the need to assess every species of the whole group of interest. A random sample of 200 spider species were selected from the global checklist and assessed according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Given the availability of data, I was able to calculate the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy for 80 species, of which 70 species had an EOO above 20000 km² and 75 species an AOO above 2000 km², the thresholds below which species can be considered threatened. The trends in EOO and AOO were assumed to be stable for most species (49 species) given the inexistence of monitoring data for any taxon. Evidence of decline was found for only 10 species, usually inferred from habitat loss. Habitat data was collected for 118 species. The most common habitat type was forest (73 species), followed by grasslands (24 species) and artificial habitats (22 species). For 44 species the habitat trend was inferred to be stable, only declining, according to available knowledge, for 14 species and increasing for one species. For the remaining 141 species the habitat trend could not be inferred and was thus assumed to be unknown. The most commonly mentioned threat types were agriculture (11 species), fires (7 species) and logging (6 species). For 39 species there were no known threats and for the rest of the 132 species the threats were unknown. Conservation actions in place were observed for 104 species, most commonly site and area protection (100 species) and resource and habitat protection (88 species). Conservation actions such as education and awareness (8 species), resource and habitat protection (7 species) and site and area management (6 species) were to take into consideration. All the 200 species were estimated to be in need of further basic research especially on threats (143 species and distribution (140 species), but also on life history and ecology (135 species). Due to several knowledge shortfalls, including the Wallacean (distribution of species), Prestonian (population trends) and Hutchinsonian (response to environmental change), no threat category could be reached for the vast majority of the species. The results show that an IUCN category could be reached for only 59 species, of which 55 were assessed as Least Concern and a threatened category was reached for only 4 species (t as Critically Endangered and one as Vulnerable). The baseline SRLI at this first point in time was 0.95 (in a 0-1 scale, where 0 means all species are extinct and 1 for all species are Least Concern). We hypothesize however that among the 141 Data Deficient species there should be a higher proportion of threatened species than among the 59 evaluated. This would be due to two reasons. First, the scarcity of information on many species might in part be due to their rarity. Second, widespread species were often the only for which an assessment could be reached, creating a bias in the dataset towards a large base SRLI value. The strategy currently imposed by IUCN is therefore clearly inadequate for taxa with scarce information, which represent the vast majority of species. I propose the future use of a different, non-random, approach to the selection of species in the SRLI and its adoption for other taxa which represent in fact most extant and threatened species.
  • Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Mammola, Stefano; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Legal and illegal wildlife trade is a multibillion dollar industry that is driving several species toward extinction. Even though wildlife trade permeates the Tree of Life, most analyses to date focused on the trade of a small selection of charismatic vertebrate species. Given that vertebrate taxa represent only 3% of described species, this is a significant bias that prevents the development of comprehensive conservation strategies. In this short contribution, we discuss the significance of global wildlife trade considering the full diversity of organisms for which data are available in the IUCN database. We emphasize the importance of being fast and effective in filling the knowledge gaps about non-vertebrate life forms, in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of global trading patterns across the full canopy of the Tree of Life, and not just its most appealing twig.
  • Cardoso, Pedro; Shirey, Vaughn; Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J. (2019)
    Background Data on 200 species of spiders were collected to assess the global threat status of the group worldwide. To supplement existing digital occurrence records from GBIF, a dataset of new occurrence records was compiled for all species using published literature or online sources, from which geographic coordinates were extracted or interpreted from locality description data. New information A total of 5,104 occurrence records were obtained, of which 2,378 were from literature or online sources other than GBIF. Of these, 2,308 had coordinate data. Reporting years ranged from 1834 to 2017. Most records were from North America and Europe, with Brazil, China, India and Australia also well represented.
  • Bland, Lucie M.; Nicholson, Emily; Miller, Rebecca M.; Andrade, Angela; Carré, Aurélien; Etter, Andres; Herrera, Bernar; Kontula, Tytti; Lindgaard, Arild; Pliscoff, Patricio; Skowno, Andrew; Valderrábano, Marcos; Zager, Irene; Keith, David A. (The Society for Conservation Biology, 2019)
    Conservation Letters 2019; 12: e12666
    In 2014, the International Union for Conservation of Nature adopted the Red List of Ecosystems (RLE) criteria as the global standard for assessing risks to terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems. Five years on, it is timely to ask what impact this new initiative has had on ecosystem management and conservation. In this policy perspective, we use an impact evaluation framework to distinguish the outputs, outcomes, and impacts of the RLE since its inception. To date, 2,821 ecosystems in 100 countries have been assessed following the RLE protocol. Systematic assessments are complete or underway in 21 countries and two continental regions (the Americas and Europe). Countries with established ecosystem policy infrastructure have already used the RLE to inform legislation, land-use planning, protected area management, monitoring and reporting, and ecosystem management. Impacts are still emerging due to varying pace and commitment to implementation across different countries. In the future, RLE indices based on systematic assessments have high potential to inform global biodiversity reporting. Expanding the coverage of RLE assessments, building capacity and political will to undertake them, and establishing stronger policy instruments to manage red-listed ecosystems will be key to maximizing conservation impacts over the coming decades.
  • Kääriä, Petra (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Ihmisvaikutuksen myötä maailman luonnon monimuotoisuus vähenee kiihtyvällä tahdilla. Rajallisten suojeluresurssien vuoksi lajien uhanalaisuusaste on tärkeää määrittää, jotta suojelutoimet voidaan kohdistaa eniten suojelua tarvitseviin lajeihin. Lajien uhanalaisuuden määrittämiseen käytetään yhä enenevissä määrin kansainvälisen luonnonsuojeluliiton (IUCN) maailmanlaajuista uhanalaisuuden luokittelumenetelmää. Luokittelumenetelmä ei sellaisenaan huomioi lajien luokitteluun liittyvää epävarmuutta, mutta Bayes-menetelmien avulla epävarmuutta voidaan esittää ja tarkastella todennäköisyysmuodossa. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli kuvata IUCN:n uhanalaisuusluokittelumenetelmän logiikka ja luokittelukriteerit Bayes-verkkojen avulla ja tarkastella uhanalaisuusluokitteluun liittyvän epävarmuuden esittämistä ja sen vaikutuksia lajien luokitteluun. Bayes-verkot ovat matemaattisia, verkkokaavioiden avulla kuvattavia malleja, joiden avulla voidaan mallintaa epävarmaa tietoa todennäköisyysjakaumien avulla. Tutkimuksen myötä rakennettiin neljä erilaista eri laskentaperiaatteisiin perustuvaa IUCN:n luokittelumenetelmää kuvaavaa todennäköisyysmallia. Mallien toimivuutta tarkasteltiin haastattelemalla Suomen vuoden 2010 uhanalaisuusarvioinnissa mukana olleita eri lajityöryhmien edustajia. Asiantuntijahaastattelujen tarkoituksena oli mm. tarkastella uhanalaisiin lajeihin liittyvän epävarmuuden esittämistä mallien avulla todellisen uhanalaisuusaineiston ja asiantuntijatiedon avulla ja vertailla haastatteluissa saatavia luokittelutuloksia vuoden 2010 arvioinnin tuloksiin. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että uhanalaisuusluokitteluun liittyvän epävarmuuden ilmaiseminen on tärkeää ja vaikuttaa luokittelutuloksiin. Keskeinen havainto oli, että kun uhanalaisuusluokitteluun liittyvää epävarmuutta oli mahdollista ilmaista todennäköisyysmallien avulla, luokiteltavien lajien uhanalaisuusluokka muuttui useissa tapauksissa. Kaikissa näissä tapauksissa muutos oli luokan nouseminen aiempaa uhanalaisemmaksi. Epävarmuuden ilmaisemisen tärkeyttä korostavat myös asiantuntijahaastattelujen tulokset, joiden mukaan suurin osa lajien luokitteluun liittyvästä tiedosta on jollakin tasolla epävarmaa. Tutkimuksessa ilmeni, että Bayes-verkkojen käyttö uhanalaisuusluokittelussa epävarman tiedon tarkastelussa on hyödyllistä, sillä malleja käytettäessä uhanalaisuuden luokittelukriteereihin liittyvä epävarmuuden aste välittyy selvästi todennäköisyysmuodossa ja luokittelukriteerien keskinäisten vaikutussuhteiden hahmottaminen on selkeää. Lisäksi luokittelua kuvaavien graafisten mallien tarkastelu auttaa hahmottamaan ja ymmärtämään kriteerien avulla tapahtuvaa luokittelukäytäntöä. Uhanalaisuusmallien käyttö lisää myös luokittelun järjestelmällisyyttä ja selkeyttää ja yhdenmukaistaa käytännön luokittelutyötä, esim. luokitteluehtojen toteutuminen voidaan aiempaa paremmin varmistaa mallien avulla. Bayes-verkkojen käyttäminen uhanalaisuusluokittelussa on hyödyllistä myös siksi, että menetelmän käyttö saattaa mahdollistaa uusien lajien tarkastelun ja arvioimisen. Haastatteluihin osallistuneiden asiantuntijoiden suhtautuminen todennäköisyysmallinnukseen oli positiivista, joten menetelmää olisi hyödyllistä soveltaa ja kehittää edelleen niin, että sitä voitaisiin jatkossa hyödyntää epävarman tiedon tarkastelussa käytännön luokittelutyössä.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the second in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 45 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Gnaphosidae and Nemesiidae, which encompassed Gnaphosidae, ldiopidae, Linyphiidae, Liocranidae, Lycosidae, Micropholcommatidae, Mysmenidae and Nemesiidae.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group-the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the third in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognized species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level, and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 58 species belonging to the famillies alphabetically arranged between Oecobiidae and Salticidae, which encompassed Oecobiidae, Oonopidae, Orsolobidae, Oxyopidae, Palpimanidae, Philodromidae, Pholcidae, Pisauridae, Prodidomidae and Salticidae.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, S.S.; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T; Gomez, Luz A; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the final in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The selected species were classified taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 50 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Scytodidae and Zoropsidae, which encompassed Scytodidae, Selenopidae, Sicariidae, Sparassidae, Tetrablemmidae, Tetragnathidae, Theraphosidae, Theridiidae, Theridiosomatidae, Thomisidae, Trochanteriidae, Zodariidae and Zoropsidae.
  • Vieira Borges, Paulo Alexandre; Lamelas-Lopez, Lucas; Amorim, Isabel R.; Danielczak, Anja; Boieiro, Mario; Rego, Carla; Wallon, Sophie; Nunes, Rui; Cardoso, Pedro; Hochkirch, Axel (2019)
    Background Azorean volcanic cave biodiversity is under considerable pressure due to ongoing threats of pollution, land use change, touristic activities or climate change. In this contribution, we present the IUCN Red List profiles of 15 cave-adapted arthropod species, endemic to the Azorean archipelago, including species belonging to the speciose genus Trechus (Carabidae), which is represented in Azores by seven species. The objective of this paper is to assess all endemic Azorean cave-adapted species and advise on possible future research and conservation actions critical for the long-term survival of the most endangered species. New information Most species have a restricted distribution (i.e. occur in one or two caves), very small extent of occurrence (EOO) and a small area of occupancy (AOO). A continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is inferred from the ongoing cave habitat degradation. The two troglobitic species of the homopteran genus Cixius are in great danger of extinction due to major land-use changes in epigean habitats above their known localities. We suggest, as future measures of conservation, the regular monitoring of the species (every five years), the creation of additional protected caves, the limitation of several aggressive activities around the caves (e.g. decreasing pasture intensification) and in some cases the creation of fences in the entrance of the most important caves.
  • Branco, Vasco Veiga; Henriques, Sergio; Rego, Carla; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Background The Iberian Peninsula is a diverse region that contains several different bioclimatic areas within one confined space, leading to high biodiversity. Portugal distinguishes itself in this regard by having a high count of spider species (829) and a remarkable number of endemic spider species (42) for its size (approximately 88,890 km2). However, only one non-endemic species (Macrothele calpeiana) is currently protected by the Natura 2000 network and no endemic spider species (aside from Anapistula ataecina) has been assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria. The objective of this paper is to assess all non-assessed endemic species (41) as well as M. calpeiana. New information The 43 assessed species belong to 15 families, the richest being Zodariidae, Dysderidae, Linyphiidae and Gnaphosidae. In general and despite the lack of information on more than half the species, general patterns and trends could be found. Only 18 species (including M. calpeiana and A. ataecina) had enough data to allow their EOO (extent of occurrence) and AOO (area of occurrence) to be quantified. Of these, we modelled the distribution of 14 epigean species, eight of which were found to be widespread. The remaining six fulfilled at least one of the criteria for threatened species. Four species are troglobiont, all of which meet the EOO and AOO thresholds for threatened species. The remaining 25 Portuguese endemics had no reliable information on their range. Only nine species out of the 43 are estimated to be in decline and 11 are stable, with the majority of species having no information on trends (23 species). Forest areas, sand dunes, shrublands and caves host the majority of species. As such, the threats to Portuguese endemics reflect the diversity of habitats they occupy. Urbanisation and climate change seem to be the most important threats to these species, although other factors are also important and represented across the data. A considerable proportion of the currently known Portuguese endemic species can be found in national protected areas, with higher prominence to the Serras de Aire e Candeeiros, Douro Internacional, Vale do Guadiana, Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina and Arrabida Natural Parks. These correspond mostly to areas that have been particularly well sampled during the last two decades.
  • Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Mendoza, Jorge Ivan; West, Rick C.; Longhorn, Stuart; Rivera, Emmanuel; Cooper, Ernst W. T.; Henaut, Yann; Henriques, Sergio; Cardoso, Pedro (2019)
    Background CITES is an international agreement between governments to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. Regarding spiders, all species listed in CITES are tarantulas. They are included in Appendix II, meaning that they are species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that they may become so unless trade is closely controlled. Many tarantulas are legally and illegally traded in the pet market and they are one of the most traded invertebrate groups. Originally, the CITES list published in 1995 included all the current species of the genus Brachypelma Simon, 1891 plus Aphonopelma pallidum (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897) and the so-called Aphonopelma albiceps (Pocock, 1903). After that, some taxonomic changes were done, as well as descriptions of new species in the genus Brachypelma. The objective of this paper is to assess the 21 taxonomically valid spider species listed on CITES according to the IUCN criteria, study the general patterns and trends and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Amongst all 21 species assessed, 16 had sufficient data on their distribution, ecology and threats to properly understand their current status and suggest possible conservation measures. A decline in the area of occupancy (AOO) and extent of occurrence (EOO) was inferred to almost all species, caused mostly by human activities (urbanisation, roads, agricultural and touristic activities), which often lead to the complete loss of subpopulations across their range. Hurricanes and frequent rising water, which are increasing in frequency due to climate change, can cause decline in habitat quality and consequent change in EOO and AOO of some species and should also be considered when planning conservation actions. Severe fragmentation was detected in 13 species and is therefore one of the most relevant threats to the most endangered Brachypelma species and should be made a priority aspect to deal with when proposing conservation actions for the group. Regarding the loss of individuals in wild populations, the main cause seems to be the overharvesting to meet the illegal trade. The most important conservation actions identified across species include preserving their natural habitat through protected areas, establishing management plans for both the species and their habitats and undertaking systematic monitoring to provide information about population recovery and species re-introduction programmes. In general, we propose to prioritise and support research on the population trends and distribution, as well as on the impact of land use and habitat degradation. Special attention regarding conservation actions and research plans has to be given to the central Pacific coastal area of Mexico, particularly around Guerrero State where five species of Brachypelma occur. Critically, for some of the most endangered species, such as B. baumgarteni and B. hamorii, there is no official protected area in their range of occurrence. It would therefore be highly recommended to establish at least one conservation unit which focuses on protecting each of these species in situ. In some cases, basic taxonomic research is needed before development of any appropriate conservation action can be proposed.
  • Milano, Filippo; Borio, Luca; Komposch, Christian; Mammola, Stefano; Pantini, Paolo; Pavlek, Martina; Isaia, Marco (2022)
    Background The genus Troglohyphantes Joseph, 1882 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) includes 131 species, mainly distributed across the main European mountain ranges. The Alps and the north-western Dinarides account for 66 species, most of them showing narrow or even point-like distributions. The majority of Troglohyphantes spiders dwell in subterranean habitats including caves, mines, soil litter, rocky debris and other moist and shaded retreats. Despite being intensively studied from taxonomic, ecological and biogeographic standpoints, knowledge on the status of conservation and on the potential risk of extinction of these spiders is lagging. To date, only three species have been included in the global IUCN Red List, but their status has not been updated ever since their last assessment in 1996. The aim of this contribution is to assess the Alpine and north-western Dinaric species of the genus Troglohyphantes and to re-assess the species previously evaluated, according to the last version of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. New information Amongst the 66 species here considered, 62 had sufficient data to allow the quantification of their Extent Of Occurrence (EOO) and Area Of Occupancy (AOO). Most of the species have a narrow distribution range, with an estimated EOO < 20,000 km2 and AOO < 2,000 km2, meeting the thresholds for the inclusion in the threatened categories. Five species have a more widespread distribution (EOO > 20,000 km2), extending across multiple countries. The quality of the data on distribution of four species was not sufficient to provide a reliable estimation of the distribution range. A continuing decline in EOO, AOO and habitat quality was inferred for 30 species. The majority of them were subterranean specialised species, with a reduced thermal tolerance and a low dispersal ability. Accordingly, changes in subterranean microclimatic conditions due to climate change represent a major threat for these species. Land-use change and habitat alteration were identified as additional relevant threats for several species. A considerable proportion of the species here assessed was found in protected areas and in sites of the Natura 2000 network. In addition, 14 species are formally protected by national and sub-national legislation. At present, 25 species are listed in the regional Red Lists. Long-term monitoring programmes, management plans for both the species and their habitats, expansion of the extant protected areas and designation of new ones, should be considered as the most effective approaches to species conservation.
  • Milano, Filippo; Blick, Theo; Cardoso, Pedro; Chatzaki, Maria; Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Gajdoš, Peter; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Henriques, Sergio; Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Mammola, Stefano; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Nolan, Myles; Pétillon, Julien; Polchaninova, Nina; Řezáč, Milan; Sandstrom, Jonas; Smith, Helen; Wiśniewski, Konrad; Isaia, Marco (2021)
    Despite their ecological importance and diversity, spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) are underrepresented in conservation policies in comparison to other groups. We review all extant conservation tools focusing on spiders in Europe, highlighting general patterns, limitations, gaps, and future directions. We assembled a comprehensive online database reporting all available information concerning the legal protection and conservation status of 4,154 spider species. Existing international legislation has limited coverage, with only one species listed in the Bern Convention and EU Habitats Directive. At the national and subnational levels, 178 species are formally mentioned in the legislation of 19 European countries. Moreover, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) includes assessments for 301 species worldwide, 164 of these threatened and eight native to Europe. In addition, spiders are mentioned in Regional Red Lists and Red Books in 28 out of 42 European countries considered in this review. Northern and Central European countries have the highest percentage of species assessed at the regional level in Red Lists and Red Books. The Mediterranean basin has the highest spider diversities in Europe but conservation efforts are lacking, both in terms of assessments and national or subnational legislation. Among European species, Dolomedes plantarius, Argyroneta aquatica and Eresus kollari are the most frequently mentioned in European conservation measures, possibly due to their ecological traits and their strict association with declining habitats. Considering the current threats to spiders in Europe, the protection of large areas of suitable habitat should be considered as the most effective approach to spider conservation.
  • Uhanalaisten lajien II seurantaryhmä (Ympäristöministeriö & Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2001)
  • Rassi, Pertti; Hyvärinen, Esko; Juslén, Aino; Mannerkoski, Ilpo (Ympäristöministeriö & Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2010)
    Julkaisussa esitellään Kansainvälisen luonnonsuojeluliiton (IUCN) lajien alueellisen uhanalaisuusarvioinnin kriteerit, jotka perustuvat lajien havaittuun, arvioituun, pääteltyyn tai ennustettuun populaatioiden pienenemiseen, levinneisyys- tai esiintymisalueen kokoon, pieneen ja jatkuvasti taantuvaan tai hyvin pieneen populaatioon tai kvantitatiiviseen analyysiin. Lisäksi Suomessa on dokumentoitu lajien elinympäristöt sekä uhanalaisuuden syyt ja uhkatekijät. Suomen lajimääräksi arvioidaan nykyään vähintään 45 000. Riittävät tiedot uhanalaisuusarviointiin oli 21 398 lajista tai alemmasta taksonista, mikä on noin 47 % lajistosta. Uhanalaisiksi luokiteltiin 2 247 lajia tai alempaa taksonia eli noin 10,5 %. Punaisen listan lajeja, joihin kuuluvat uhanalaisten lisäksi hävinneet, silmälläpidettävät ja puutteellisesti tunnetut on yhteensä 4 960 (23,2 %). Arvioiduista lajeista äärimmäisen uhanalaisia (CR) on 313, erittäin uhanalaisia (EN) 726, vaarantuneita (VU) 1208, silmälläpidettäviä (NT) 1867, puutteellisesti tunnettuja (DD) 514, hävinneitä (RE) 332 ja elinvoimaisia 16 438 (LC). Lisäksi punkeista, harvajalkaisista, sokkojuoksiaisista, limasienistä ja eräistä kärpäsryhmistä luetteloitiin selvästi elinvoimaiset lajit, yhteensä 1 039 lajia, mutta vaillinaisen arvioinnin vuoksi niitä ei ole laskettu mukaan arvioitujen lajien määrään. Enemmistö uhanalaisista lajeista elää metsissä (36,2 %) ja perinneympäristöissä sekä muissa ihmisen luomissa ympäristöissä (22,3 %). Näiden elinympäristöjen lajiston uhanalaistumisvauhti on hieman hidastunut edelliseen arviointiin verrattuna, kun taas soiden, kallioiden, rantojen ja tunturipaljakoiden lajiston uhanalaistuminen on lisääntynyt huomattavasti. Uhanalaisten lajien määrä on korkein hemiboreaalisella ja eteläboreaalisella vyöhykkeellä Etelä-Suomessa. Arvioinnin tulosten lisäksi kirjassa kuvataan edellisen arvioinnin jälkeisiä merkittävimpiä lajien suojeluun vaikuttavia hallinnollisia ja lainsäädännöllisiä toimenpiteitä sekä tutkimusta ja seurantaa. Punaisessa kirjan liitteessä on eliölajien uhanalaisuuden arvioinnin ohjausryhmän (LAUHA) arvioinnin tuloksiin perustuva ehdotus luonnonsuojelulain mukaisista uhanalaisista ja erityisesti suojeltavista lajeista. Eliölajien uhanalaisuuden arvioinnin ohjausryhmä (LAUHA) esittää 12 toimenpide-ehdotusta uhanalaisten lajien suojelun, hoidon, tutkimuksen ja seurannan järjestämiseksi ja rahoittamiseksi. Arvioinnista vastanneiden eliötyöryhmien työn tulokset esitellään 34 eliöryhmäkohtaisessa luvussa.
  • Hyvärinen, Esko; Juslén, Aino; Kemppainen, Eija; Uddström, Annika; Liukko, Ulla-Maija (Ympäristöministeriö & Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2019)
    This publication describes the fifth assessment of Finnish threatened species. The current estimated number of species in Finland is at least 48,000. Sufficient information was available for the evaluation of 22,418 species or lower taxa, which is approximately 47% of all species. In total, 2,667 species or lower taxa (11.9%) were assessed as threatened. The red-listed species, which, in addition to threatened species, include the species classified as Regionally Extinct, Near Threatened, and Data Deficient, total 6,683 (29.8%). Of the species evaluated, 489 were classified as Critically Endangered (CR), 918 as Endangered (EN), 1,260 as Vulnerable (VU), 1,912 as Near Threatened (NT), 1,792 as Data Deficient (DD), 312 as Regionally Extinct (RE), and 15,735 as of Least Concern (LC). The assessment was carried out in accordance with guidelines and criteria issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and applied in assessments at the regional level. These criteria are based on observed, estimated, inferred, or projected population size reduction; the extent of occurrence or area of occupancy; continuing decline in a small population or a very small size of population; or a quantitative analysis. In addition, species’ habitats, as well as causes of threat and threat factors, were documented in the Finnish evaluation. The majority of threatened species live in forests (31%) and in rural biotopes and other cultural habitats (24%). Of the species assessed the proportion of threatened species is highest in Alpine habitats (37.9%). The number of threatened species is highest in the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones in southern Finland. The results of the assessment are compared to the previous assessment 2010 for example with the Red List Index. In addition, proceedings of the proposals given by the steering group of the previous assessment are evaluated. The steering group of this assessment made 13 proposals for measures for the arrangement and financing of the conservation, management, research, and monitoring of threatened species. The results of the work of the expert groups responsible for the evaluation are presented in 39 organism group -specific sections.
  • Tiainen, Juha; Mikkola-Roos, Markku; Below, Antti; Jukarainen, Aili; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Lehtiniemi, Teemu; Pessa, Jorma; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Rintala, Jukka; Sirkiä, Päivi; Valkama, Jari (Ympäristöministeriö, 2016)
    Suomen lintujen uhanalaisuustarkastelu tehtiin vuonna 2015 samoilla Kansainvälisen luonnonsuojeluliiton (IUCN) kriteereillä kuin vuosien 2010 ja 2000 tarkastelut. Tarkasteltavina oli 248 lajia, joista uhanalai-suusarvio tehtiin 244 lajille. Suosirrin kaksi alalajia tarkasteltiin erikseen, joten tarkasteltavia taksoneita oli 249. Suosirrin alalajit rinnastettiin lajeihin tarkastelussa. Arvioiduista 245 lajista 87 (36 % arvioiduista) on uhanalaisia, 23 (9 %) silmälläpidettäviä ja 135 (55 %) elinvoimaisia. Uhanalaisista lajeista on 13 (5 %) äärimmäisen ja 36 (16 %) erittäin uhanalaisia sekä 38 (16 %) vaarantuneita. Uhanalaiset ja silmälläpidettävät lajit muodostavat yhdessä punaisen listan, jolla on siis 110 lajia (45 % arvioiduista). Edellisessä arvioinnissa uhanalaisia oli 59 (24 %), silmälläpidettäviä 30 (13 %) ja elinvoimaisia 152 (63 %) ja punaisen listan lajeja 89 (37 %). Uhanalaisuus jakautuu lintulahkojen kesken epätasaisesti. Erityisesti sorsalinnuissa, päiväpetolinnuissa ja kahlaajalinnuissa on uhanalaisia ja punaisen listan lajeja enemmän kuin koko lajistossa keskimäärin, kun taas pöllölinnuissa ja varpuslinnuissa osuudet ovat pienempiä. Pääelinympäristötyypeittäin tarkasteltuna rantojen, avotunturin, Itämeren ja sisävesien linnustossa on enemmän uhanalaisia lajeja kuin koko lajistossa; soiden linnustossa punaisen listan lajeja on enemmän, mutta uhanalaisten osuus on koko lajistoa vastaava. Metsien lajistossa uhanalaisten ja punaisen listan lajien osuudet olivat selvästi pienemmät kuin koko lajistossa. Uhanalaisuutta aiheuttavista tekijöistä elinympäristön muutokset niin pesimäalueilla kuin muuttoreittien varrella ja talvehtimisalueilla ovat tärkeimpiä. Myös pyynti ja metsästys ovat tärkeitä uhanalaisuutta ai-heuttavia tekijöitä, mutta ei niinkään meillä kuin muuttoreittien varrella ja talvehtimisalueilla. Metsästys meilläkin voi olla uhkatekijä, mutta siihen on aina mahdollista reagoida metsästyslainsäädännön mukaisilla rauhoituksilla. Arviointi tehtiin myös kahden Itämerellä talvehtivan lajin talvikannoille, allille (elinvoimainen) ja allihaah-kalle (äärimmäisen uhanalainen). Muiden itämerellä talvehtivien lajien talvikannat ovat kasvussa, eikä muuta arviointia tehty niiden osalta. Arvioinnin yhteydessä päivitettiin alueellinen uhanalaistarkastelu, joka tehtiin nyt (samoin kuin aiemmin-kin) metsäkasvillisuusvyöhykkeittäin.
  • Liukko, Ulla-Maija; Henttonen, Heikki; Hanski, Ilpo.K; Kauhala, Kaarina; Kojola, Ilpo; Kyheröinen, Eeva-Maria; Pitkänen, Janne (Ympäristöministeriö, 2016)
    Julkaisussa esitellään Suomen nisäkäslajien viidennen uhanalaisuusarvioinnin tulokset. Arviointi tehtiin Kansainvälisen luonnonsuojeluliiton IUCN:n arviointikriteerien mukaisesti, noudattaen IUCN:n kehittämää uhanalaisuusluokittelua. Arvioinnin toteutti ympäristöministeriön pyynnöstä Suomen Nisäkästieteellisen seuran kokoama työryhmä. Työtä ohjasi ja sen hyväksyi Lajien uhanalaisuuden arvioinnin ohjausryhmä (LAUHA). Suomen nisäkkäiden punaisella listalla 2015 on kaksikymmentä lajia eli kaksi lajia vähemmän kuin vuonna 2010. Uhanalaisia lajeja on seitsemän, mikä on neljä lajia vähemmän kuin aiemmin. Arvioinnissa oli mukana 75 Suomessa esiintyvää lajia tai alalajia. Luokka säilyi ennallaan 67 lajilla. Niistä viisi on hävinneitä (RE), yksi puutteellisesti tunnettu (DD) ja kuusitoista arviointiin soveltumatonta lajia (NA, vieraslajit, satunnaisesti esiintyvät). Kahdeksan lajin luokka muuttui vähemmän uhanalaiseksi, mutta yhdenkään lajin luokka ei muuttunut uhanalaisemmaksi. Uhanalaisia lajeja ovat ripsisiippa Myotis nattereri (EN), pikkulepakko Pipistrellus nathusi (VU), susi Canis lupus (EN), naali Vulpes lagopus (CR), hilleri Mustela putorius (VU), ahma Gulo gulo (EN) ja saimaannorppa Pusa hispida saimensis (EN). Silmälläpidettäviä lajeja (NT) ovat liito-orava Pteromys volans, euroopanmajava Castor fiber, kenttämyyrä Microtus arvalis, karhu Ursus arctos, ilves Lynx lynx, itämerennorppa Pusa hispida botnica ja metsäpeura Rangifer tarandus fennicus. Punaiselta listalta poistui kaksi lajia, metsäjänis Lepus timidus (LC) ja saukko Lutra lutra (LC). Yleisimmät nisäkkäiden uhanalaisuuden syyt ja uhkatekijät ovat pyynti (laillinen ja laiton metsästys sekä sivusaaliskuolleisuus) sekä satunnaistekijät, jotka liittyvät pieniin populaatioihin. Ilmastonmuutos vaikuttaa naalin, metsäjäniksen sekä itämeren- ja saimaannorppien menestymiseen. Metsien käytön ja metsärakenteen muutoksen katsotaan olevan vain kahden lajin, liito-oravan ja metsäpeuran uhkatekijänä. Häirintä, kilpailu, risteytyminen, geneettiset ongelmat, saalistus ja kemikalisoituminen ovat muita yksittäisiä nisäkäslajien uhkatekijöitä.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Riccardi, Nicoletta; Prie, Vincent; Correia, Ricardo A.; Cardoso, Pedro; Lopes-Lima, Manuel; Sousa, Ronaldo (2020)
    Through the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) and the financial investments of the LIFE projects, Europe has become an experimental arena for biological conservation. With an estimated annual budget of euro20 billion, the EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2030 has set an ambitious goal of classifying 30% of its land and sea territory as Protected Areas and ensuring no deterioration in conservation trends and the status of protected species. We analysed LIFE projects focused on animals from 1992 to 2018 and found that investment in vertebrates was six times higher than that for invertebrates (euro970 versus euro150 million), with birds and mammals alone accounting for 72% of species and 75% of the total budget. In relative terms, investment per species towards vertebrates has been 468 times higher than that for invertebrates. Using a trait-based approach, we show that conservation effort is primarily explained by species' popularity rather than extinction risk or body size. Therefore, we propose a roadmap to achieve unbiased conservation targets for 2030 and beyond.