Browsing by Subject "Ideology"

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  • Outinen, Sami (2020)
    In this article will be deconstructed the ideological development of the Swedish Social Democratic Party (SAP) and the Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP). The SDP and SAP favoured democratic rational regulation of the economy by the state and worker organisations to optimise societal production costs from the 1920s onwards. This was in line with their identity of democratic socialism. It did not only mean a reformist relationship to capitalism, but also adapting to Kautskyanism, Austro-Marxism, “functional socialism” and logical empiricism. These ideas were complemented with a positive attitude towards the “mixed economy” and “markets” in the 1980s. The postmodern fragmenting of labour’s identity was compatible with the rise of faith in the market and the abandonment of Marxism by the SAP and the SDP by the end of the 20th Century. This happened after they had failed to introduce a New International Economic Order based on Keynesian democratic economic regulation.
  • Isotalo, Veikko; Mattila, Mikko; von Schoultz, Åsa (2020)
    Political candidates' ideological positions have been used to explain success in inter-party competition, but little is known about how they impact success in intra-party competition. Here, candidates' positions on the Left-Right and GAL-TAN dimensions are analysed in three Finnish parliamentary elections (2011, 2015, 2019). Candidates' ideological positions are measured in terms of their ideological distance from their own party's median candidate. Absolute ideological distances between candidates and their party's median candidate decrease candidates' preference votes. Furthermore, the effects are contingent on the general ideological position of the candidate's party. However, these interactions do not follow any clear pattern, as more rightist candidates in right-wing parties and more green-alternative-libertarian candidates in traditional-authoritarian-nationalist parties all experience a decrease in their preference votes. This effect is large enough to be a decisive factor in intra-party competition between the last candidate that was elected and the first one that was not.
  • Terzic, Ibrahim (2008)
    The thesis provided an analysis of online media coverage of terrorist bombings in London in 2005. As the consequence of the attacks, the controversy over the link between Islam and Islamist terrorism loomed large in the mass media, effectively creating a number of media discourses. It was argued that media discourses have effects on socio-cultural and discourse practices of the readership. Thus, the discourse practice of media text production was the primary focus of analysis in the thesis. The data for the research was sourced from the online versions of Telegraph and The Guardian. The keywords for the search were Al-Qaeda. Each of the texts was published in the last three weeks of July 2005. The texts selected for the analysis included extensive reference to Islam and war, as the themes of religion and war were followed in the analysis. The research was carried out in the form of critical discourse analysis (CDA), with the focus on the concept of ideology as common sense, the majority-minority relations, the abuse of social power, manipulation, discrimination, inequality and cultural racism. The proponents of CDA state as their aim the uncovering of the connections between the use of language and the exercise of power, or how language works in the socio-cultural and discourse practices. The work of Norman Fairclough provided the main methodological and theoretical tenets for the thesis. In the data analysis, one of the primary aims was in the identification of the ‘ideational’, ‘interpersonal’ and ‘textual’ functions of the text: how the world and events were represented, how social subjects and the relationships between them were constructed and the sequential structure of the texts. The attention was also given to the presence of traces of ideological “common sense” assumptions, the employment of manipulative discourses, the intertextual use of other texts whereby a shared knowledge between the text producer and the text consumer was presupposed in the construction of the intertextual context. The results of the analysis pointed out to a sharp distinction between the texts from The Guardian and those from Telegraph. The Telegraph texts featured discursive strategies whereby the problem of terrorism was constructed chiefly in the domain of religion and the responsibility for the attacks was seemingly allocated to wider Muslim communities. The discursive subjects and the inter-subject relationships were also constructed along the lines of religion. The subject relationships suggested high degrees of demonization of the Other. The ‘war on terrorism’ was generally viewed as preventive against terrorism. The discursive strategies of the Telegraph authors also contained attempts at ideological common sense construction and suggestions of unequal power relations on the ethnic majority-minority level. The texts sourced from The Guardian generally constructed terrorism in the domain of religious extremism, effectively allocating the responsibility for the attacks to the smaller groups of extremists within the Muslim world. The ‘war o terror’ was generally constructed as the motivating factor for the Islamist terrorist groups. The construction of subjects and inter-group relations in the texts tended to be made mainly along the lines of citizenship and did not suggest demonization of the Other or any support for differential treatment of minorities.
  • Saunders, Nicholas J.; Frolík, Jan; Heyd, Volker (2019)
    The discovery of a tenth-century AD high-status burial at Prague Castle in 1928 led to multiple identifications in the context of two world wars and the Cold War. Recognised variously as both a Viking and Slavonic warrior according to Nazi and Soviet ideologies, interpretation of the interred individual and associated material culture were also entangled with the story of the burial's excavator, the remains and commemorative monuments of two Czech Unknown Soldiers and the creation of the Czechoslovak state. This epic narrative reflects the circumstances of Czechoslovakia and Central Europe across the twentieth century.
  • Hiltunen, Juri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    By utilizing the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan, Slavoj Žižek adds an analysis of unconscious desire to the theory of ideology. By analyzing the terrain of unconsciously structured desires, Žižek attempts to bring the concept of ideology back into contemporary debates and argue that people in fact more ideological than it seems. This thesis analyzes Žižek’s theory of ideology and contains a critical account on it. The aims of this thesis are threefold. Firstly, this thesis contains an analytical framework for analyzing Žižek’s theory of ideology. Secondly, this thesis introduces Žižek’s theory of ideology in a clear manner by employing multiple everyday examples and by minimizing the number of technical concepts. Thirdly, this thesis provides a critical evaluation on his account of ideology criticism in his theory of ideology. In the first main chapter, the framework for analyzing theories of ideology is introduced. The chapter argues that ideologies in general can be analyzed by asking five different questions, which are 1. what is ideology, 2. is ideology good or bad, 3. who is ideological, 4. how and why do ideologies cause things, and 5. what is ideology’s context. This framework is combined from various introductory works on ideology and provides a roadmap where different theories of ideology can be placed on, Žižek’s theory included. This is done in order to analyze Žižek’s theory of ideology in more lucid manner than usually conducted in the commentary literature. In the second main chapter, Žižek’s theory of ideology is introduced. According to Žižek, ideology is an illusion of the completeness of the big Other that takes place in subject’s unconsciously structured fantasies. The main bulk of the chapter unpacks this technical-sounding definition. At the end of the second main chapter, the analysis returns to the framework of ideology analysis laid down in the first chapter and places Žižek’s theory of ideology within this framework in order to summarize his theory of ideology in a condensed, clear, and analytical fashion. The third critical chapter provides an evaluation on the question if Žižek’s theory constitutes a credible critical theory of ideology. The novelty of the chapter is the systematization of criticisms against his immanent account of ideology critique. On the one hand, his theory of ideology strives to set up a possibility of immanent critique of ideology; on the other hand, his theory does not fulfill the criteria required for it. This chapter elaborates on three criteria of immanent critique and argues that Žižek fails all three criteria because of three reasons. Firstly, his theory lacks a robust epistemological justification. Secondly, his theory strikes as a self-undermining theory. Thirdly, he does not provide any normative criterion why some ideologies would be better than others. Lastly, the thesis suggests a possible Žižekian answer to the criticisms and points out a direction for future research.