Browsing by Subject "Ihmis- ja kaupunkimaantiede ja alueellinen suunnittelu"

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  • Myllys, Jasmiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Short-term rental platforms have become widely popular in recent years, but their growth has left cities to face a variety of problems. Studies have shown, for example, that short-term rentals have led to an increase in long-term rental prices. When more and more apartments are used as short-term rentals, the supply of long-term rentals decreases. This causes more pressure on the long-term rental market and leads to increased prices. In this study I examine the possible impacts of Airbnb, the biggest and most popular short-term rental platform, on the rental market of Helsinki. First, I analyse how many apartments have been removed from the long-term rental market to the Airbnb market, and second, how likely it is that the number of Airbnb rentals rises in the future. Presumably, renting through Airbnb becomes more popular when the potential income from Airbnb rentals is larger than from long-term rentals. In Neil Smith’s terms, this difference between actual and potential rental income constitutes a rent gap. Therefore, I also analyse whether renting short-term in Helsinki is more profitable than renting long-term. In addition, I discuss the current city and tourism policies of the city of Helsinki in the light of the results of the above research questions and give recommendations on issues to be taken into account in the future. This study uses AirDNA’s data of Airbnb rentals in Helsinki and long-term rental price data from KTI Property Information Ltd, and it focuses on data from year 2019. Data analysis is conducted using statistical and geospatial methods. The results of this study show that in 2019 there were a significant number of professional Airbnb rentals in Helsinki, 863 in total. However, their number varied substantially between the districts of Helsinki. There was a large amount of professional Airbnb rentals especially in the city centre and Kallio area. On the scale of the whole of Helsinki, professional Airbnb rentals comprise approximately 0,5 % of all rental apartments whereas in some districts in the city centre the percentage was considerably higher, in the Kamppi district as much as 3,9 %. Based on the results, the number of Airbnb rentals will likely grow in the future because Airbnb rental income was, on average, greater than long-term rental income in each of the study areas. In most areas, the rent gap was substantial. However, the size of the rent gap varied significantly, between 50 and 1350 euros, based on the location and amount of rooms of the apartment. Some policy recommendations can be made based on the results of this study. When designing future policies, it is important to acknowledge that a sizeable part of the Airbnb rentals in Helsinki is professional and that the number of professional rentals will probably continue to increase. Since the number of professional rentals is still quite small on the city level, the impacts of short-term rentals in Helsinki are presumably not yet significant. Nevertheless, in the future problems can arise especially in the city centre and Kallio area, as these areas have a lot of professional Airbnb rentals. Since only professional Airbnb rentals are disadvantageous for the long-term rental market, assigning certain restrictions would be justifiable in order to prevent future problems and to promote sustainable tourism. Restricting Airbnb activity could be done by enforcing current regulations more rigorously or setting a yearly renting limit like many other European cities have done. This would help to inhibit activity that is against the current legislation and to support the real sharing economy.
  • Aroalho, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Africa has recently increased its share of the global market, and the continent’s potential has been recognized globally. The continent has experienced a lot of oppression and forced changes in history, and it is currently developing its new identity with relatively young states and its fast-growing population. African Union (AU) is calling pan-African ideology to bring together the African people in their blueprint and master plan Agenda 2063, where the cultural heritage is at the core. Culture is also at the core of the creative economy, and the creative economy's share of the global economy is growing. Due to globalization and digitalization, the knowledge from other cultures is spreading rapidly, which is the basis of a cultural shift both at local and global levels. This research investigated the culture and the creative economy as builders of society in Kenya. Kenya has been very successful in the field of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), the state takes its cultural heritage seriously in its development programs and their focus is especially on the potential of the youth in the creative economy. Kenya has a vast cultural diversity in the state with its officially recognized 44 tribes. This cultural diversity plays a significant role in the creative economy. According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, 2020), the creative economy has no single meaning, as the concept is constantly evolving. The basic elements of the concept are from human creativity, ideas, and intellectual property, knowledge and technology. The creative industries include such as music, film, video, arts and crafts and performing arts. These elements are the basis of the creative economy, in addition, they have a significant commercial and cultural value. The research was conducted in Kenya during January and February 2021, and the data was collected from two main geographical research areas, the city of Nairobi and Taita-Taveta County. The geographical research areas were chosen by their cultural diversity, the creative economy and their urban and rural statuses. Nairobi has a classification of a creative city where the digital creative economy is booming, and the city is attracting people around East Africa. Taita-Taveta respectively is a rural county near the Kenyan coast, where the creative economy is mainly in the traditional form, for example, crafting and basket making. The research combined the elements from the ethnographical, hermeneutical and critical approaches by using unstructured, structured interviews and observation, as the methods combined qualitative methods with numerical data. The results show that the culture and the creative economy do build the society in Kenya. It is seen in each level of society, for example, among the families, tribes, counties and even the government. Each level influences and controls the way culture and the creative economy build the society in Kenya. The meaning of the community arose in culture and the creative economy shifts, as they provide help in the mitigation and adaptation into new situations. With the exponential population growth, the share of the youth is rising, culture and the creative economy have the potential to provide jobs for the youth in the future. There are challenges with culture and the creative economy in Kenya. First, to preserve the cultural diversity in Kenya among the youth. Second, to target the governmental policies to the right actions and towards the right groups, which would then support the sector itself. Due to attitude shifts, the role of the youth is a significant point to consider. Furthermore, there is a vast gap between the government and the community, which causes a lot of harm to the creative economy, as the policies do not support the creative sector. If these significant points are solved, there is a vast potential for the culture and the creative economy to continue building the society in Kenya.
  • Edvinsson, Pontus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Socio-economic segregation has been increasing in Helsinki for decades and the relation between socioeconomic factors and educational outcomes have been discussed frequently recently and have been an important topic for politicians and researchers. An increasing segregation and dwindling school results in the more disadvantaged areas of Finland have been connected in various reports. The main objective in this master’s thesis is firstly to investigate the spatial socio-economic differences between school catchment areas of the 26 municipalities in the Uusimaa region. And secondly, the relationship between educational outcomes and socio-spatial segregation in Uusimaa, as the former research evidence has only documented the socio-spatial differentiation within the municipalitan core of the region. The aim is to analyze the relationship of the four different socio-economic variables of basic level education, higher education, unemployment and low income households in each school catchment area and present them with help of four different maps created in GIS. Lastly data consisting of educational outcomes from first year pupils (N=1 920) from 41 different schools in the Uusimaa region provided by Kansallinen koulutuksen arviointikeskus were analysed. The data consisted of two standardized tests, one regarding mathematics and one about the finnish language. These two tests were part of a longitudinal evaluation which started in the fall of 2018. The core finding of this study is that Helsinki is by far the area with the largest socio-economic differences between the school catchment areas in the Uusimaa region, where eastern Helsinki often displayed low socio-economic levels and where western Helsinki and southern Espoo often presented a high socio-economic level compared to the rest of the Uusimaa region. And that the educational results regarding the Finnish language had a stronger correlation with the socio-economic data compared to the mathematical educational outcomes. These findings offer new insights for Finnish educational policies and demonstrate the need for supporting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods in different types of urban and rural areas.
  • Rönnberg, Oskar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Segregation is usually treated as a place-based phenomenon based on residential locations, but during the last ten years more emphasis has been put on understanding segregation as a multi-contextual phenomenon, where mobility in urban space affects the individual’s exposure to segregation. Such research has not yet been done in Helsinki, where socio-economic and ethnic segregation has been on the rise since the 1990’s, but there is anecdotal evidence of for example young people from disadvantaged neighbourhoods not being as mobile in the urban space as others. The aim of this study is to find out how socioeconomic differences and experiences from the past are linked to how people move around and use urban space in Helsinki. A survey study was carried out (N=1 266) in spring 2020 for the purposes of this research. The study is based on a self-selected sample, so the results cannot be generalized for the whole population. Spatial mobility is analyzed with four measures: which parts of the city the respondent usually moves around in, how often they visit the city center, how many of their everyday activities are located near their home, in the city center and in other neighbourhoods and municipalities, and how many of the listed places in the survey they had visited during the last year. The main research methods are linear regression, correlation analyses and statistical tests. Spatial mobility varies based on education, age, family background and mobility practices in the youth. These factors explain at most a quarter of the variance in mobility. Cultural and economic capital also correlates with mobility, but their explanatory power diminishes when education and age are controlled for. The spatial mobility is low for them who had small activity spaces in their youth, and especially for them who still live in the same neighbourhood. Those who live in the outer suburbs are among the least mobile and many of the respondents in Northeastern and Eastern Helsinki do not regularly visit Southern Helsinki. Even though there are many different factors that influence the level of mobility that are not ad-dressed in this study, the results confirm that family background and past experiences affect the individuals’ mobility practices. The results indicate that people who live in disadvantaged neighbourhoods risk exposure to segregation in different contexts of everyday life as a result of low mobility. As people with low education are underrepresented in the study, it is possible that there are some kind of immobilities in the city that have not been covered in this study. The results underline the need for more research in multi-contextual segregation and the experiences and conceptions of the city, especially regarding children and young people.
  • Kokkonen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    European Union is a notable political actor that strives for governing and producing EU territory through spatial policies and planning. So far, spatial planning has been a technology to govern the terrestrial environment, but now marine space is seen as the new frontier of spatial planning. In 2014, EU has given a directive of maritime spatial planning (MSP), which aims to that every coastal member state had established spatial planning practices to their national marine areas by 2021 according to EU’s spatial agendas. The MSP has been looked at as a managerial tool helping to enhance the ecological condition of the seas, but not as a policy that produces spatiality. In this research, EU’s MSP policy is used as to research Europeanization of space in ‘EU’rope. The aim of this research is to interpret how understanding of ’EU’rope as a territorial entity is shaped through the structure of the maritime spatial planning policy and the meanings attached to it, in order to create a perception of the future development of EU and marine areas in general. The research is conducted from a social constructionist approach as an interpretive policy analysis. The concept of policy integration is in-built to MSP and is used as an indicator to Europeanization in this study. The policy integration effort is seen to steer social networks of actors that create the MSP in practice. Therefore, semi-structured theme interviews were conducted to the actors carrying out the MSP process in Finland. These actors’ understanding of the Finnish MSP is seen to construct ‘EU’ropean space in and through the domestic MSP process. Accordance with the hermeneutic traditions, comprehensive contextualization is conducted in this research in order to understand the maritime spatial planning policy. The research suggests that the spatiality and territoriality of marine areas produces different kind of planning practices than is seen in the terrestrial environment. The EU’s MSP policy is a policy tool for the EU territory, but at the same time, it is used as a tool to carry out domestic regional objectives as well. In Finland, the coastal Regions have benefitted from MSP and gained more power over the Finnish marine territories and the MSP may be used as to reinforce Regional planning. By adopting MSP policy, EU has changed the spatial governance structure of marine Europe. It has transformed heterogenic marine areas in Europe into single entity in order to be spatially governable by EU. These spaces have therefore been submitted under larger decision-making processes than before and EU is able to harness the national marine territories for the benefit of the whole Europe, and mainly due increasing economic growth in the territory. By means of policy integration efforts, the MSP creates new kinds of socio-spatial dimensions to Europe in where political bargaining over domestic marine spaces becomes a norm for the domestic maritime spatial planners. The research suggests that the territorial policy integration efforts reinforce the objectives of the EU directive in transnational collaboration, and this new platform of negotiation can be predicted to unify neighbouring domestic planning practices and goals in some extent.
  • Dok, Matilda Carol (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Abstract This thesis explores the everyday spatial practices in the gentrified and micro-segregated Eastleigh, Nairobi. Gentrification is one of the most important aspects of urban studies, as well as social geography contributing to significant socioeconomic changes in many metropolitan cities in the world. Although the emerging empirical studies indicate socioeconomic impacts of gentrification, less research has been conducted to examine social and economic interaction in gentrified spaces in the Global South. Additionally, there are limited studies on how cultural diversity influences gentrification. In the case of a diversified neighbourhood, such as Eastleigh, assessing the effects of culture on gentrification is significant. Therefore, this study aimed to see by observing and interviewing residents, whether the developments in Eastleigh can be analysed and interpreted through the theoretical framework of gentrification and micro-segregation. The study used descriptive research to build on literature and graphics to collect data on gentrification indicators and socioeconomic interactions. The qualitative part of the study entailed observation, questionnaire survey, and key Informant interviews, while quantitative analysis was based on the graphical presentation of data. The outcomes of the study strongly suggest that an increase in the housing variables, the influx of wealthy population, increased employment, and shift in consumption trends are the significant indicators of ongoing gentrification in Eastleigh. The empirical studies indicate that social interactions in gentrified spaces appear to be marginalized due to cultural differences that have a strong impact on social and economic agents. The review made similar observations regarding social interactions between the new-comers and the long-time residents. The results of the study also found out that the reason for social and economic inequalities among the residents and the gentrifies was cultural differences which hindered access to social and economic services. However, since this study is one of the initial studies on gentrification in Eastleigh, Nairobi, more and in-depth studies are recommended
  • Sallasmaa, Christa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The topic of this thesis is participatory budgeting and its connection to the discussion between neoliberalism and participatory governance in the context of city development. Helsinki started its own model of participatory budgeting in 2018 and has pledged to continue the concept in the future. I examine whether Helsinki’s participatory budgeting has the potential to support the ideologies of neoliberalism or participatory governance. In practice, I am exploring the views from the city government and active members of Helsinki’s neighborhood associations. Neighborhood associations had a significant role in the original participatory budgeting of Porto Alegre. I used interview and qualitative survey to collect my data. Neoliberalism has influenced the inequality between regions and the so-called crisis of democracy. Direct involvement of citizens is seen as a solution to these problems. Neoliberalism and participation have a paradoxical relationship: they have received similar criticism. In participatory governance participation means deliberative decision-making based on exchange of knowledge, but in neoliberalism participation can be a rhetoric tool to cover up actual decision-making or a city branding technique. Porto Alegre’s original model of participatory budgeting is seen as a part of participatory governance, but many of the international models seem to be more compatible with neoliberal ideology. The city government has not reserved enough resources to the participatory budgeting. The execution was rushed and showed signs of rationalization. According to the interview and the qualitative survey, inequality between regions might be the downfall of Helsinki’s participatory model. The active members of neighborhood associations see the benefits of participation budgeting but only from the perspective of certain regions. Currently, Helsinki’s participatory budgeting works better as a branding technique than as a method of decision-making. It seems to be more compatible with neoliberalism than participatory governance.
  • Mäntymaa, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis aims to examine the current regional identity of Jätkäsaari, a district of Helsinki, halfway of its construction phase. In the thesis I aim to find out, what are the most important factors in creating a regional identity for Jätkäsaari from the perspective of both the urban planners of the region and its residents. Moreover, I also sought to find out, how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been shaped in the planning phase of the district, and how the regional identity of Jätkäsaari has been modified by means of branding. In addition, the aim of the thesis is to find out how the residents of Jätkäsaari experience the identity of the area, and what factors make up regional identity. I interviewed three key experts for the thesis, who were substantially involved in the planning work of Jätkäsaari. In addition, I surveyed the opinions of Jätkäsaari residents on the topic by using a questionnaire published on Facebook. 80 people responded to the survey. The data was collected in the spring of 2019. The answers to the expert interviews and resident surveys are compared and used to find out, how the views of the residents and the planners relate to each other, and to determine the most important features of Jätkäsaari's regional identity. The results of the questionnaire show, that Jätkäsaari has clearly started to develop a distinctive identity. Maritimeity and the port's presence are important factors of the identity. However, Jätkäsaari is also designed as a clear extension to the city center of Helsinki. On the other hand, some residents of the area also perceive Jätkäsaari as its own territory and as an island that clearly stands out from the city center. Community spirit of Jätkäsaari has started to develop already from the early stage. Resident evenings have been popular from the beginning and there has been active discussion between the residents and the planners about the development of Jätkäsaari area.
  • Bergström, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    School environments have become increasingly challenging due to segregation in cities, escalating social problems and multiculturisation. The challenges do not emerge only in classrooms but are also reflected more widely to the school communities and surrounding areas. The growing challenges raise a question whether a school’s role could be extended from an educational institution to a more versatile node of services that supports not only children’s learning but also all residents’ wellbeing and lifelong learning in the neighbourhood. In this study I examine a school’s local role in increasing social capital, sense of community, inclusion and trust in its neighbourhood and I analyse how a community building, where the school is placed, could take a supportive role in it. The thesis is a case study of a Finnish multicultural urban neighbourhood where a new community building was opened a few years ago. The community building houses a school, daycare, library, youth centre and social- and health services. I take an institutional approach in the study and I interview five institutional actors representing the school and the city. The study material consists of these interviews and of a recording given to me by one of my interviewee who had interviewed other school representatives before my study. In the analysis part, I use a case analysis method, which sheds light not only on the policies and functional practices of the school and the community building but also on the challenges they face. Even as one case study, the knowledge gained from it can be viewed in a wider context in order to understand the functioning of school communities and to take part in discussing the operational school environments. The main results of the study indicate that the interviewed school and city representatives perceive the school as a larger local actor rather than only as an educational institution. The representatives see that the school is an important actor in building sense of community, inclusion and trust in the wider neighbourhood and also believe that it reflects its conventions and values to the whole community. Central finding in the thesis is also the interviewees’ common view that the community building and its versatile services strongly support the school in delivering education, wellbeing and assistance for children, families and all residents of the community. The school and community building are also regarded as important domains of integration for the people with an immigrant background to the Finnish society. A school represents one the most central institutions of the society and it reaches whole families due to compulsory education. Therefore, it works as a natural platform for integrating services and assistance not only for children but also for adults. The main challenges that the school and community building face in its functioning and in creating a wider local role were mentioned to be segregation with its negative side effects and policies made in the city level that do not fit as such to the neighbourhood’s local context. This study takes part in the discussion of segregation in cities and growing spatial inequality with their negative impacts on people’s wellbeing and on equal opportunities. This negative trajectory will also lead to malfunctioning of cities and the wider society. The results of this study provide insights to the question, whether a community building as a concept could be a solution in school and spatial development and in urban neighborhood improvement. A community building that supports a school in taking a stronger local role and working as a node of services for education, hobbies, leisure and assistance can possibly improve people’s everyday lives and wellbeing in the whole society.
  • Karhu, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Suomea pidetään ensisijaisesti luontomatkailun kohteena. Luonnon vetovoiman merkitys kuitenkin vaihtelee niin tutkimusten kuin kansallisuuksien ja yksilöidenkin välillä. Matkailun vetovoimakohtaista kysyntää on tutkittu muun muassa haastattelututkimuksin, mutta perinteisillä tutkimusmenetelmillä tarkasteltuna vetovoiman kysynnän ja tarjonnan spatiaalista kohtaamista ei ole voitu selvittää. Uudet, suuriin tietomassoihin perustuvat tutkimusmenetelmät mahdollistavat kokonaan uudenlaisen tutkimuksen. Matkaviestinten käytöstä syntyvät lokitiedot muodostavat tietolähteen, johon perustuen matkaviestinlaitteen käyttäjiä voidaan jäljittää sekä ajassa että paikassa. Matkaviestimet toimivat potentiaalisena aineistolähteenä matkailututkimukselle erityisesti matkailijoiden reittien ja preferenssien esiin tuojana. Matkailun kokemukset luovat ihmisille mielihyvää ja tyytyväisyyden tunnetta. Kokemus nähdään matkailussa arvon tuottajana. Arvon yhdessä luonnin teorian mukaan hyödykkeen arvo on asiakkaan siitä saama käyttöarvo. Arvontuottoon vaikuttaa asiakkaan motivaatio, joka matkailussa vertautuu ihmisen henkilökohtaisiin tarpeisiin ja näkyy kiinnostuksena matkakohteeseen. Kohteen valinta omien mielenkiinnon kohteiden perusteella edesauttaa arvonluonnissa. Millä tavalla matkailijoiden todelliset reitit ja vetovoimatekijät kohtaavat? Voiko reittivalinnoista nähdä, että ihmiset matkustavat omien mielenkiinnonkohteidensa mukaisesti? Tutkimuksessa analysoidaan ulkomaisten matkailijoiden käyttämiä matkareittejä Suomessa suhteessa matkailun vetovoimatekijöihin. Vetovoimatekijöiden luokitus perustuu Suomen matkailun aluerakennetutkimukseen. Visit Finlandin matkailijasegmentointi tuo esiin matkailijoiden mielenkiinnon kohteet. Matkailijoiden reitit pohjautuvat DNA Oyj:n matkaviestinaineistoihin. Analyysin perusteella matkailijoiden reitit kohtaavat luonnonvetovoimaisimmat kohteet heikosti, mikä johtuu pääosin matkailun kaupunkikeskeisyydestä. Kohtaavuus reittien ja muiden vetovoimaluokkien välillä on luonnonvetovoimaa parempi. Tulosten perusteella on syytä pohtia, onnistuuko matkailumarkkinointi viestimään ja kohdistamaan viestinsä oikein, ja ymmärretäänkö viesti oikein. Heikko kohtaavuus henkilökohtaisten toiveiden ja todellisuudessa tapahtuneen matkailun välillä indikoi heikkoa arvontuottoa ja sitä kautta matalaa todennäköisyyttä suositella Suomea matkakohteena tai matkustaa uudelleen Suomeen.
  • Oikarinen, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In recent decades there has been a revival of customs and traditions among several indigenous Amazonian peoples, one feature of which is the strengthening of many shamanic practices repressed and partially abandoned under colonial rule. For the Yawanawa people of Acre, Brazil, annual cultural festivals have become a prominent symbol of cultural revitalization. Festivals enable an international audience to experience a live tradition in the form of song, dance, games, art and crafts as well as shamanic rituals and substances. In the context of shamanic ritual, the terms medicine and healing are some of the prominent discourses through which shamanic networks connect and alliances are created between visitors and the Yawanawa. The present study looks at the understandings of health and wellbeing of non-indigenous persons participating in contemporary shamanic networks in Amazonia. The aim of the study is to describe how knowledge of Yawanawa shamanic practices affects understandings of health, sickness and healing. My research questions are: 1) What are the meanings assigned to health and illness in Amazonian sociophilosophies and those of the Yawanawa people? 2) How do Western people practicing Amazonian shamanism perceive health and illness, and how do their understandings relate to those present in Yawanawa shamanism? 3) What constitute the main elements of healing in Yawanawa shamanism? My primary research data consists of six thematic interviews with non-indigenous people practicing and studying Yawanawa shamanism. I will employ two theoretical approaches to frame the analysis. The study locates in medical anthropology which examines concepts around health, illness and healing and their cultural and social diversity. I will refer to the framework of subjective theories of health by Schmid (2010, 2011) to view individual health-related understandings as subjective meaning-making frameworks that resemble but are not reduced to scientific medical theories. Indigenous relational philosophies of health comprise the second theoretical framework, through which the Yawanawa medical system and shamanism will be understood as consisting of the creation and management of harmonious relationships with both human and nonhuman actors. Literature review represents Amazonian shamanism as an interconnected world with a visible and invisible side. Health for indigenous peoples is based on a relational cosmovision where principles of right relationship and reciprocity are recreated at social, ecological and cosmological levels. Wellbeing is a co-created, shared resource as well as the result of successful negotiation with nonhuman beings with potentially conflicting interests. For the Yawanawa, health is defined through the balanced relations of bodies and souls that constitute a human person, as well as creating a distinct Yawanawa identity through embodied means. Traditional Yawanawa shamanism equally relies on the transformation of the body and its different capacities through removal and adding of substances. More recently, the changes occurring in Amazonian shamanic practices have been characterized by increased interconnectedness and exchange on a global level with an increase in shamanic tourism and neo-shamanic movements alongside the practice of indigenous shamanism. Non-local neo-shamanic activities, such as the ritual consumption of ayahuasca for self-healing, have been criticized as reflecting a western, individualistic worldview that does not recognize the relational, intersubjective dimensions of shamanism. Similarly, the elements of Amazonian shamanism undergo a translation that includes the medicalization and commercialization of ayahuasca as well as a tendency to psychologize shamanic experiences with nonhumans. Analysis of the interview data shows that the understandings of health of shamanic practitioners reflect a relational worldview that shares several elements with indigenous socio-philosophies of health. For the study participants, shamanism offers an alternative worldview and framework for understanding wellbeing compared to that of biomedicine characterized by scientific reductionism. A central effect of maintaining relational conceptions of health can be seen in an expanded view of the determinants of health. Individual wellbeing is defined holistically as the balance between the physical, psychological, social and spiritual dimensions of a person. At the same time consideration of elements and actors affecting health is spread horizontally to include relations between individual and their social and intergenerational ties, as well as ecological ties to the nonhuman world which includes other species as well as invisible beings of the spirit world. There is an individualistic orientation present whereby individual responsibility and autonomy are considered as important determinants of wellbeing. Interviewees also recognize some differences between their views and those of the Yawanawa regarding the agency of nonhuman beings. However, the study concludes that practicing and studying shamanism is not merely an egoistic pursuit for the study participants, but increased understanding of the principles of Amazonian shamanism and worldviews shows in an expanded awareness of relational ties in both shamanic cosmology as well as in interpersonal ties with the Yawanawa and Amazonian peoples. This is also reflected in the way the elements of healing in shamanism are understood as containing both subjective and intersubjective elements.
  • Piispa, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The signs of growing segregation between urban schools have shaken the perception of school equity in Helsinki during the last two decades and raised the question of whether school choices made by families are deepening the differences between schools. At the same time, recent observations have brought up concerns whether especially schools located geographically close to each other can be found segregated in Helsinki as well. The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of school choice mechanisms and to examine pupils’ school choices in a more limited small-scale area, rather than the whole city. In addition to this, the study seeks to highlight the importance of the local school markets, which has so far received relatively little attention in the Finnish debate. The study concentrates on pupils attending upper comprehensive schools in northern and north-eastern Helsinki, whose school choices have been studied using questionnaire data collected for the MetrOP-project (2010-2013). A total of 794 students who attended upper comprehensive school in northern or north-eastern Helsinki and lived in the area could be extracted from the MetrOP data. The school choices made by the pupils have been studied with statistical methods which made it possible to examine the directions of school choice flows in the research area. Moreover, the study concentrates to analyse whether school choices are guided by the socio-economic characteristics of school’s enrollment area. Socio-economic indicators have been examined using data from Statistics Finland's grid database. The results of the study showed upper comprehensive schools in northern and north-eastern Helsinki were divided into those that attracted students much more strongly and to those that were less popular in the local school market. In addition, identifiable school choice flows from one neighborhood to another could be found in the research area, confirming the assumption of greater attractiveness of some schools in respect to other ones in the vicinity. Socio-economic variables would often seem to explain the popularity of some schools, but the relative wellbeing or disadvantage of school’s enrollment area did not explain all school choices made in northern and north-eastern Helsinki. Therefore, it can be assumed that there is a more multifaceted set of factors influencing the local school markets and the choices made by local families.
  • Saastamoinen, Uula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examines cross-sectoral interaction, the role of large actors and its implications to citizens as well as the institutional factors shaping the functioning of the planning sector in Helsinki. The aim is to understand the local planning climate and how it has been shaped by global ideas. Helsinki was chosen because the combination of municipal planning monopoly and vast land ownership makes it a unique case study. Research on large actors (referred to as planning machines and global intelligence corps) has illustrated that large actors and the traveling planning ideas introduced by them affect local planning climates. The resources of planning machines can exclude smaller actors from the field, and complicate the efforts of citizens to resist projects executed by them. International planning ideas on the other hand are adopted by planning officials and local politicians, resulting in a more managerial and entrepreneurial role of planning departments and city councils. Ecological planning is an example of a traveling planning idea discussed in the thesis. Both planning machines and traveling planning ideas have been associated with a post-political climate in which alternatives to current development are marginalised, having direct consequences for democracy. A total of nine professionals from public and private sectors were interviewed, and the semi-structured interviews were coded and analysed using computer assisted qualitative data analysis software. Figures and tables of the 20 most frequent codes and three codes with a highest co-occurrence with each of these codes were chosen for the analysis, as well as other codes with relevance to the research questions. The analysis shows that institutional factors place Helsinki in a strong position to negotiate with the private sector. In cross-sectoral cooperation the role of the public sector has become more managerial and the city has advanced its strategic goals concerning the attractiveness and competitiveness of the city region. However, the city has protected its interests in themes such as social mixing, slowing down negative development witnessed elsewhere. New forms of partnerships such as Allianssi model are examples of successful cross-sectoral cooperation where the power relations between sectors are more equal, but seem to favour large actors due to their resource-heavy nature. Procurement legislation also favours large actors for the same reason. Recommendations for further spatial, temporal and scalar research are proposed.
  • Pöllänen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis attempts to examine views on Finland’s security environment among Finnish security experts and analyse these views through the framework of critical geopolitics. Theoretically, the thesis draws both from earlier literature on perceived state security threats to Finland and the research on security-geopolitics relationship within critical geopolitics. The thesis utilizes Q methodology, a relatively little-known approach with a long history and an active userbase in social sciences. The purpose of the methodology is to study personal viewpoints, in other words, subjectivities, among a selected group of people, the participants of the study. Q methodology employs both qualitative and quantitative methods, and the result of a Q methodological research is a number of discourses, which can be further analysed. The group of participants whose views were examined consisted of nine geopolitical experts and policymakers, all of whom were civil servants of the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Finnish Defence Forces. Three separate discourse were distinguished in this group, on top of which there was a consensus in some issues examined. One of the resulting discourses, which was especially widespread among participants from the Defence Forces, viewed Russia as Finland’s geopolitical Other. According to this discourse, Finland’s security would be highly dependent on this Other, even though it may not be a realistic security threat at the moment. This view is in line with a traditional geopolitical discourse in Finland. Another discourse, which was common among the participants from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, emphasized internal security threats and democracy’s role for security, while it seemingly downplayed Russia’s role. A third discourse, on the other hand, highlighted non-state security issues, such as terrorism. The consensus discourse among the group of participants viewed the European Union strongly as the primary geopolitical framework of Finland. Even though two of the three individual discourses did not highlight Russia’s role, there was an indirectly implied consensus that Finland should not seek close cooperation with Russia in important security matters, such as cybersecurity
  • Ikonen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Understanding local people’s perceptions towards tourism is important to minimize the negative impacts of tourism and to promote sustainable tourism. This thesis researches residents’ perceptions towards tourism, tourism development and tourism impacts in the city of Pokhara in Nepal. The thesis utilises Doxey’s irritation index and social exchange theory as the theoretical framework of the research. Based on Doxey’s irritation index, local people’s attitudes towards tourism shift from positive to negative as the time goes by and tourism develops. Based on the social exchange theory used in tourism studies, local people’s perceptions towards tourism are more positive the more the locals benefit from tourism and interact with tourists and tourism. This thesis aims to also understand what kind of place image local people have of Pokhara and how residents’ place image is connected to the perceptions they have towards tourism in Pokhara. As earlier tourism research has suggested, local people’s place image and perceptions towards tourism are connected and the more positive place image locals have, the more positive their perceptions towards tourism are. This thesis research is based on qualitative methods. The research data was collected with a qualitative questionnaire distributed online for the residents of Pokhara. Open-ended questions were used in the questionnaire, so that the participants could express their place image and perceptions towards tourism with their own words. The data was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. The results of this research indicate that the majority of the participants is satisfied with the tourism situation in Pokhara. The participants are especially content that tourism creates employment and earning opportunities for local people in Pokhara. However, a few participants expressed some irritation towards tourism situation in Pokhara due to different reasons. Despite some of the more negative perceptions towards tourism, almost all of the participants supported future tourism development in the area. Similarly, almost all of the participants thought that positive tourism impacts in the area are greater than the negative impacts, even though the participants also identified several negative tourism impacts, mainly regarding the environmental degradation and westernisation of local culture, habits, and values. On the contrary to the suggestions of the Doxey’s index, locals’ attitudes towards tourism have remained mostly positive even though tourism has developed in Pokhara in the past decades. Also, the results regarding local people’s involvement with tourism and tourists compared to their perceptions towards tourism are not completely in line with the earlier tourism research using the social exchange theory. The results of this research indicate that participants’ perceptions towards tourism are not always more positive the more residents benefit from tourism and interact with tourism or tourists. On the contrary, the perceptions towards tourism might be even more often negative among the participants who have contact with tourism and tourists than those who have not. The results also indicate that the participants have mostly a positive place image of Pokhara. Even though approximately half of the participants had both positive place image and positive perceptions towards tourism, positive place image will not always automatically result in positive perceptions towards tourism among the local people.
  • Dristig, Amica (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the EU's top priorities for climate goals as it is for Helsinki. Emissions from heating alone stand for over half of the total emissions in Helsinki, presenting smart heating as an excellent opportunity to reduce both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Smart heating has gained attention as a means for reducing energy consumption due to its increased energy efficiency and automatic function. Previous studies confirm users having a more significant impact on residential heating consumption than previously considered. However, there is less understanding of what factors influences the user while using smart heating and how smart heating impacts the user. This study aims to contribute to better understand the different influencing factors by focusing on heating behavior and user experience with smart heating thermostats in a residential apartment building in Lauttasaari, Helsinki. A modified version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) is used as a base. The model uses the original categories along with two added categories. Instead of using the traditional questionnaire as a method, this research uses semi-structured interviews to get a deeper perspective on the experiences in the post-implementation stage. The results indicate the most evident user experience influences to be information, trust, and the use of itself. Each user's life situation has an impact on the indoor temperature and the heating schedule. The smart thermostat increases control over indoor temperatures and individual heating possibilities due to more setting options. By gaining more control, the smart thermostat enabled the user to disregard the heating by letting the smart thermostat work in the background. Even with an increase of control, some of the participants experienced difficulties using the mobile application. Since this study is limited due to short follow-up time and small sample size, more comprehensive and in-depth research is required for the results to apply to a general population. This study shows a new point of view for influences towards the use of smart thermostats and brings up the potential benefits it can have for the city of Helsinki.
  • Saksa, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines gendered vulnerability to natural disasters. Due to pre-existing gender inequalities in societies, vulnerability of women and other marginalized groups is heightened during and after disasters. The main purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the structural root causes of gendered vulnerability. Secondly, the purpose is to analyse how these root causes lead to gendered vulnerability before, during and after disasters. Gendered immobility has been identified as a relevant dimension of gendered vulnerability. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is also to examine gendered immobility in the context of disasters. Thirdly, the aim is to discuss how humanitarian work can reduce disaster-related vulnerability. The topic is approached from the point of view of intersectional feminist geography and feminist political ecology. The data for this thesis consists of 19 research reports, with a focus on gendered vulnerability and the experiences of vulnerable people in Global South countries. Additionally, two humanitarian experts were interviewed from Finnish development and humanitarian organizations. The data was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed three main root causes of vulnerability. These are: 1) gender roles 2) patriarchal cultural and religious practices and norms 3) limited access to resources. These root causes lead to lack of disaster preparedness, immobility during evacuation and rescue phase, vulnerability during response and recovery phases and lastly, to post-disaster immobility. Humanitarian work can improve the status of vulnerable groups during and after disasters. However, through disaster risk reduction, humanitarian work can also tackle the root causes of vulnerability. By integrating immobility in the context of environmental risks to the research of gendered vulnerability, the results highlight the importance of analysing immobility as a part of gendered vulnerability. In addition, the results point out that vulnerability should be approached as a structural issue, highlighting the need for intersectional feminist approach in vulnerability research and in humanitarian work.
  • Potinkara, Maija; Potinkara, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    While waste is becoming an increasingly contested issue on a global level due to sustainability concerns, informal waste management, or waste picking, has been a major livelihood around the world for decades. In urban areas of the Global South, the informal sector accounts for 50 to 100 percent of all waste collection. In Kenya, virtually all recycling is done by the informal sector. Despite the significance of the work the informal sector is doing, they are usually stigmatized by the public and disregarded by policymakers. Due to this contradiction, this thesis concentrates on analyzing the construction of the problem of informality in Kenyan waste management policies. The thesis utilizes the ‘What’s the Problem Represented to Be?’ -approach by Carol Bacchi in its analysis. The WPR-approach is a poststructuralist approach to critical policy analysis. Within the context of the approach, the word ‘problem’ does not carry the negative connotations it usually does, as it is merely used to refer to what is intended to be changed through policymaking. The approach consists of six questions that are applied to uncover how we are governed through the way issues are problematized through policy discourse. The WPR-approach views power as productive, and concentrates on how practices and relations produce subjects, objects and places. These practices become explicit through policy analysis. Additional data was retrieved from Kenyan media outlets, as media is another position of power in the context of the WPR-approach. Another additional data source was an individual interview done with a key informant. The theoretical framework of this thesis is based on critical geography, and particularly on the concept of primitive accumulation, originally coined by Karl Marx, and its latter conceptualizations. Through this critical framework, the thesis interrogates how primitive accumulation is sometimes reproduced by the state, through governing (e.g. policymaking), and how the global ideal of development may sometimes be utilized to accommodate market interests. Within this framework, waste is conceptualized as a form of urban commons under contestation. The results of this research indicate that privatization is seen as a solution to inefficiency and sustainability issues in waste management, while informal waste management is not a priority within the political agenda, though the policies include some notions of integrating waste pickers into formal waste management services. The position of waste pickers in the policies is constructed through the problem representations of poor livelihoods, adverse health effects and inefficiency, despite the fact that most recycling in the country is done by the informal sector. Simultaneously, the policies present waste as an underutilized resource in the generation of employment and wealth, especially through incentivizing private sector involvement. The research found some contestations of the position of waste pickers as marginalization in the media in narratives that emphasized the livelihood as a viable option, but the sector is rarely covered by the media. Within the critical framework of this thesis, these results are discussed as a form of primitive accumulation, or accumulation by dispossession, reproduced by the state through policymaking. The underpinnings of this discussion also include the notion of how the global ideal of development is sometimes utilized, in spite of local conditions, to reproduce primitive accumulation, e.g. through appropriating waste as a form of urban commons and creating extremely low-cost idle labor power, while noncapitalist systems and skills are disregarded. Jätehuollosta ja uusiomateriaalista on tulossa enenevässä määrin kiistanalainen aihe globaalilla tasolla kestävyyshaasteiden takia. Samanaikaisesti epävirallinen kierrätys on ollut pitkään merkittävä elinkeino ympäri maailmaa. Globaalin etelän kaupunkialueilla 50-100 prosenttia jätehuollosta toteutetaan epävirallisen sektorin toimesta. Keniassa käytännössä kaikki kierrätys tapahtuu epävirallisen sektorin toimesta. Työn merkittävyydestä huolimatta epäviralliseen jätteiden keräämisen elinkeinoon liitetään usein vahva stigma sekä yhteiskunnan että päättäjien toimesta. Tämän ristiriidan vuoksi tutkielmassa tarkastellaan epävirallisen kierrätyksen elinkeinon ongelmallisuuden diskurssia Kenian jätehuoltopolitiikassa kriittisen analyysin avulla. Tutkielman metodologinen viitekehys perustuu Carol Bacchin kehittämään poststrukturalistiseen diskurssianalyyttiseen lähestymistapaan. Lähestymistapa koostuu kuudesta kysymyksestä, joiden avulla tarkastellaan sitä, miten politiikan kautta rakennetaan ’ongelmia’ ja näiden ongelmien rakentumiseen käytettyjä diskursseja. Lähestymistavan yhteydessä sanaan ’ongelma’ ei liitetä sen tavanomaista kielteistä merkitystä, vaan sillä viitataan asioihin, joita politiikan kautta yritetään muuttaa. Bacchin lähestymistapa näkee vallan toimintana, jonka tarkoituksena on politiikan kautta rakentaa hallitsevaa tietoa, merkityksiä ja subjekteja. Lähestymistavan tarkoituksena on kyseenalaistaa ja purkaa näitä rakennelmia. Politiikkadokumenttien lisäksi tutkielmassa käytettiin lähteinä kenialaisia medialähteitä sekä yhtä avaininformanttihaastattelua. Tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys perustuu kriittiseen maantieteeseen. Viitekehyksen kautta elinkeinon rakentumista politiikkadokumenteissa tarkastellaan erityisesti Karl Marxin alun perin kehittämään primitiivisen akkumulaation käsitteeseen liittyvien nykyteorioiden kautta. Viitekehyksen kautta tarkastellaan myös käsityksiä siitä, miten valtio ja valta tuottavat primitiivistä akkumulaatiota esimerkiksi politiikan kautta. Lisäksi tarkastellaan sitä, miten käsitystä globaalin kehityksen ihanteesta käytetään joskus markkinoiden hyödyksi. Tutkielman tulosten perusteella on selvää, että politiikan pyrkimyksenä on modernisoida Kenian jätehuolto erityisesti yksityistämisen kautta. Tällä hetkellä lähes kaikki kierrätys Keniassa tapahtuu epävirallisen tahon toimesta, mutta tahon huomioiminen politiikassa on vähäistä, vaikkakin politiikkadokumenteissa on myös viitteitä aikomuksista integroida epävirallinen sektori osaksi virallista jätehuoltojärjestelmää. Vaikka kierrätys Keniassa perustuu epävirallisen sektorin toiminnalle, elinkeino näyttäytyy politiikassa marginalisoitujen ihmisten pienimuotoisena toimintana. Ongelman rakentumista perustellaan politiikassa kehnon elinkeinon, haitallisten terveysvaikutusten ja tehottomuuden diskurssien kautta. Samanaikaisesti jätehuolto ja kierrätys näyttäytyvät politiikkadokumenteissa mahdollisuutena vaurastumiseen ja työllisyyden parantamiseen, ennen kaikkea yksityisen sektorin sitouttamisen kautta. Kenialaisessa mediassa epävirallisen kierrätyksen elinkeinosta puhutaan hyvin vähän, vaikkakin mediassa korostui myös elinkeinon mahdollisuudet toimeentulon kannalta. Tuloksia pohditaan tutkielman kriittisen viitekehyksen kautta primitiivisen akkumulaation muotona, jota valtio tuottaa politiikanteon kautta. Pohdintaa tukee myös käsitys kehityksen globaalista ihanteesta, jota voidaan hyödyntää primitiivisen akkumulaation edistämisessä esimerkiksi yhteiskäytössä olevien resurssien taltiointiin. Samalla prosessi sivuuttaa ei-kapitalistisia taitoja ja järjestelmiä, ja luo reservissä olevaa halpaa työvoimaa.
  • Hemminki, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Social and economic inequalities are growing in Europe in local, regional and national scales while they are decreasing between member states of the European union (EU). Inequalities are visible in geographical space, which can be one factor explaining these differences between places and people. Spatial disparities and growing inequalities are source of political and social tensions, which can be menace for European countries as well for the EU’s legitimacy. These issues are addressed by the EU’s territorial cohesion policy. Spatial awakening in policymaking and establishment of territorial cohesion as the third objective of the EU’s cohesion policy in 2009 by the Lisbon Treaty has increased awareness of territorial approach in the EU policymaking. The Territorial Agenda of the EU (TAEU) was published in 2007 as a guideline for achieving territorial cohesion. However, studies show that results of this non-binding and open-method-of-coordination based policy have been relatively modest despite its usefulness and ambitious policy objectives of reducing inequalities and increasing overall competitiveness of Europe. Moreover, many meanings of territorial cohesion and lack of a proper definition has been topic of political and academic debates. The key document of territorial cohesion, the Territorial Agenda of the EU was recently renewed by the European network of regional development policymakers and spatial planners. At this context of policy renewal, I am studying what kind of role the Territorial Agenda of the EU has in achieving territorial cohesion, which is the main objective of the agenda. Territorial cohesion is known as a slightly contradictory policy goal, due to its sometimes (but not always) conflicting spatial realities of the two policy objectives: reducing inequalities and increasing competitiveness. Moreover, elusiveness and many meanings of the concept have been seen as the central challenges of the agenda. Meanings of territorial cohesion and associated imaginaries to the EU territoriality are investigated in this thesis. Additional research questions are linked to a policy evaluation, where aspects of effectiveness, impacts and utility are studied. The study is based on an online survey, which targets the Network of the Territorial Cohesion Contact Points (NTCCP) members and other relevant stakeholders from different geographical scales and levels of governance. The survey is composed by quantitative and qualitative questions which are analysed by mixed methods. Theoretical background originates from social constructionism, Europeanisation and critical geopolitics. The results show that the Territorial Agenda of the EU has a strong role in achieving of territorial cohesion and stakeholders have high expectations of its impact, effectiveness and utility. Overall, the agenda is perceived as a useful guideline with lot of potential for achieving territorial cohesion in Europe. However, some of the stakeholders acknowledge well weaknesses of the agenda and are more realistic about its role, effectiveness, impacts and utility. Moreover, stakeholders share a relatively common understanding of the EU territoriality as networked and relational space. They associate similar meanings to territorial cohesion as a concept, even the concept remains still quite vague. The central finding is that the environmental and social dimensions of territorial cohesion are emphasized over the economic dimension and that strong impacts are expected in environmental related themes. The results illustrate how the EU’s soft power works and how even a non-binding low policy of the EU, which is operationalized voluntary by different level stakeholders, can be effective for creating the EU territoriality and achieving territorial cohesion. Processes of Europeanisation and soft practices such as sharing good practice, policy harmonisation, coordination and cooperation are main means to achieve territorial cohesion. Nevertheless, some stakeholders remain realistic and acknowledge the obstacles of non-binding policy implementation and prefer to wait if ‘what is ought to be done’ ‘is actually done’ during the next ten years. In addition, the study outlines some policy recommendations to improve the agenda and implementation. For example, stronger engagement of stakeholders, participation of citizens and the third sector and increase of willingness to work as the EU’s agency are suggestions to be enforced.
  • Holkkola, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In this thesis I will theorise girls’ Instagram selfies, their spatialities and their agencies to create a sexed subject. Theory and onto-epistemology are in a big part of this thesis with a non-representational theory (NRT) perspective. This post-humanist theory of human geography is discussed with post-humanist feminist thinking, that also Noora Pyyry and Rachel Colls have combined. With this feminist perspective the non-representational subject will not be universal: it will contain sexuality with all its bodily, material, performative and societal aspects. In this thesis I will focus on girls’ practices by which and assemblages in which the selfies are created and published. Instagram’s spatialities and agencies will be also discussed. Instagram is an everchanging, affective and everyday social media app that many young people use. Traditionally humanist social media researchers have studied profile work, which contains one’s behaviour on their Instagram account, as rational, independent and intentional activities that a humanist individual does. By selective self-presentation that social media makes possible, an individual is traditionally perceived to be able to decide which parts of them they want to share to their audience on apps. The social media audience is present as imagined audience in taking a selfie and publishing a selfie. However, the post-humanist onto-epistemology of NRT questions the independency, rationality and intentionality of the “self” that the common understanding of profile work presumes. Instead, in NRT the subject and its agency are seen as a part of an assemblage, whose agencies are always relational. Also the concept of representation as a representative replica of the “symbol world” is challenged in NRT, and instead representations are perceived as active acts that have agency. Because the world is affective and constantly on the move it is impossible to be able to represent. So instead of social constructions NRT and post-human feminism concentrate on action, real world materiality and the bodies. The data used in this thesis has been produced with two student groups of 9 th grader girls in Helsinki. The methods were semi-structured focus group interviews and participative mind-map. The results suggest that Instagram’s spatialities are multiple and constantly on the move, and that Instagram is emerging with other social media apps. The girls told in the interviews that some of the selfies in Instagram have originally been taken in another photo app, Snapchat. This means that Instagram and Snapchat are creating each other, emerging with and haunting in each other. Instagram seems to be also a very physical, inseparable and everyday space of young people’s lives. In addition, there are also capitalist and neoliberal practices and affects present in Instagram’s spatialities. This means for example individual accounts competing for likes, comments, followers, and being tagged to photos. Selfies are performative acts that can materialize differently according to subject’s sex and its emerging. Selfies can produce girl subjects and different ways to perform girlhood. An example of girl subject is an interesting and problematically viewed “catfish” subject. Despite the performativity present in the assemblage of selfie-taking, it may be that even more affective moment is when a selfie is on its way to be published in Instagram. The subject that is emerging with the selfie can sense the gazes of the imagined audience, which brings future horizons present to the present moment. In this thesis I will also perceive Instagram selfies as events, that have the potential of changing the future horizons. Instagram selfies gather Instagram users together to comment or to be tagged in the selfie, which makes new starts, for example new acquaintances and new stories, possible.