Browsing by Subject "Image"

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  • Havu, Katri Annikki (2019)
    This article analyses EU case law concerning damages liability for non-material harm. The focus here is on recent case law, most of which concerns EU liability. The contribution first provides an overview of cases that deal with non-material damage. Secondly, it explores important themes that emerge from the case law, such as the necessity of monetary reparation, the conditions for harm and causation, and the amounts of compensation granted. Particular attention is paid to the topical notion of reputational harm. Claims concerning damage to reputation or image have frequently emerged in EU liability cases, but compensation has not been readily awarded. The European Court of Justice has, however, relatively recently upheld a decision awarding damages for unjustified and prolonged inclusion on a “sanctions list” (Safa Nicu (C-45/15 P)). The problem of distinguishing between non-material and economic harm under EU law is also discussed.
  • Hiippala, Tuomo; Bateman, John A. (2022)
    In this article, we argue for the benefits of combining large-scale analyses of visual materials currently pursued within digital humanities with insights from multimodality research, which is an emerging discipline that studies how human communication relies on appropriate combinations of expressive resources. We show that concepts developed within the field of multimodality research provide appropriate metadata schemes for various modes of expression in large corpora and datasets. We illustrate the proposed approach using a common mode of expression, diagrams, and analyse two recent multimodal diagram corpora using statistical and computational methods. Our results suggest that multimodally-motivated metadata schemes can provide a robust foundation for computational analyses of large corpora and datasets. Even if a corpus or dataset is not designed to support full-blown analyses of multimodal communication, our results imply that multimodality theory can still be used to impose tighter analytical control over a variety of visual materials.