Browsing by Subject "Immunity"

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  • Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyoty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo (2016)
    The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Institut Pasteur.
  • Joura, Elmar A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Bosch, Francisco X.; Kesic, Vesna; Nieminen, Pekka; Redman, Charles W. E.; Gultekin, Murat (2019)
    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available in Europe since 2006. They have been highly effective in preventing infection and disease caused by the vaccine types. Clinical efficacy data are available for cervical, vulvovaginal and anal precancer and invasive cervical cancer. Disease reduction is best with early vaccination and a coverage of more than 70%. Gender-neutral vaccination provides direct protection for all men and improves the coverage. A good coverage is followed by herd protection of the unvaccinated men and women. School-based programs appear to be most effective; under the age of 15 years, two doses with an interval of 6-12 months are sufficient. From the age of 15 years, the standard regimen with three doses is recommended. A broad catch-up program for young adult women and men improves the effectiveness. The vaccines are also effective in sexually active women and men with previous but cleared infections. Vaccination in addition to local treatment of HPV-related disease appears to reduce recurrent or subsequent HPV-related disease. Combination of HPV vaccination and screening with HPV testing is the most effective approach to prevention of cervical cancer. The screening intervals may increase in the vaccinated cohorts. The upper age limit for vaccination remains to be evaluated, is country specific and depends on cost-effectiveness. The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology and the European Federation for Colposcopy strongly support gender-neutral vaccination programs for children and young adolescents, with a catch-up program for young adults. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Koivisto, Karoliina; Puhakka, Laura; Lappalainen, Maija; Blomqvist, Soile; Saxen, Harri; Nieminen, Tea (2017)
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) pose a risk to themselves and their patients if not protected against vaccine preventable diseases. Alarmingly, lacking immunity has been reported in several studies. We assessed the immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in 157 pediatric HCWs in Helsinki Children's Hospital. The HCWs enrolled answered a questionnaire and gave a serum sample. Antibodies were measured with EIA against MMR-diseases, tetanus and diphtheria toxins, Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis A (HAV), varicella zoster and pertussis toxin. Neutralizing antibodies against poliovirus 1, 2 and 3 were measured. All of the HCWs had antibodies against tetanus and 89.8% against diphtheria. All had measurable levels of polio antibodies to all three polioviruses. 41% had suboptimal levels of antibodies against at least one of the antigens tested: MMR-viruses, diphtheria, HBV or polio. Measles, mumps and rubella antibodies were detectable in 81.5%, 89.2% and 93%, respectively. Only one HCW had no varicella-antibodies. Hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb) were detected in 89.8% of the nurses. 67.5% had HAV-antibodies. A poor correlation between detected antibody levels and reported vaccination history was noticed, indicating a need for a universal record system for registering the vaccines given to each individual. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Helve, Otto; Viljakainen, Heli; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Rosendahl, Jenni; Hauta-alus, Helena; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Valkama, Saara; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Hytinantti, Timo; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture (2017)
    Background: Vitamin D is important for bone mass accrual during growth. Additionally, it is considered a requirement for a multitude of processes associated with, for example, the development of immunity. Many countries apply vitamin D supplementation strategies in infants, but the guidelines are not based on scientific evidence and aim at prevention of rickets. It remains unclear whether the recommended doses are sufficient for the wide array of other effects of vitamin D. The VIDI trial performed in Finland is the first large randomised controlled study for evaluation of the effects of different vitamin D supplemental doses in infancy on: 1. bone strength 2. infections and immunity 3. allergy, atopy and asthma 4. cognitive development 5. genetic regulation of mineral homeostasis Methods/Design: VIDI, a randomised controlled double-blinded single-centre intervention study is conducted in infants from the age of 2 weeks to 24 months. Participants, recruited at Helsinki Maternity Hospital, are randomised to receive daily either 10 mu g (400 IU) or 30 mu g (1 200 IU) of vitamin D3 supplementation. Both groups are assessed at 6 months of age for calcium homeostasis, and at 12 and 24 months of age for parameters associated with bone strength, growth, developmental milestones, infections, immunity, atopy-related diseases, and genetic factors involved in these functions. Discussion: The study enables evaluation of short and long term effects of supplemental vitamin D on growth, immune functions and skeletal and developmental parameters in infants, and the effects of genetic factors therein. The results enable institution of evidence-based guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in infancy.
  • Helve, Otto; Viljakainen, Heli; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa; Rosendahl, Jenni; Hauta-alus, Helena; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Valkama, Saara; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Hytinantti, Timo; Mäkitie, Outi; Andersson, Sture (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Vitamin D is important for bone mass accrual during growth. Additionally, it is considered a requirement for a multitude of processes associated with, for example, the development of immunity. Many countries apply vitamin D supplementation strategies in infants, but the guidelines are not based on scientific evidence and aim at prevention of rickets. It remains unclear whether the recommended doses are sufficient for the wide array of other effects of vitamin D. The VIDI trial performed in Finland is the first large randomised controlled study for evaluation of the effects of different vitamin D supplemental doses in infancy on: 1. bone strength 2. infections and immunity 3. allergy, atopy and asthma 4. cognitive development 5. genetic regulation of mineral homeostasis Methods/Design VIDI, a randomised controlled double-blinded single-centre intervention study is conducted in infants from the age of 2 weeks to 24 months. Participants, recruited at Helsinki Maternity Hospital, are randomised to receive daily either 10 μg (400 IU) or 30 μg (1 200 IU) of vitamin D3 supplementation. Both groups are assessed at 6 months of age for calcium homeostasis, and at 12 and 24 months of age for parameters associated with bone strength, growth, developmental milestones, infections, immunity, atopy-related diseases, and genetic factors involved in these functions. Discussion The study enables evaluation of short and long term effects of supplemental vitamin D on growth, immune functions and skeletal and developmental parameters in infants, and the effects of genetic factors therein. The results enable institution of evidence-based guidelines for vitamin D supplementation in infancy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01723852 , registration date 6.11.2012.
  • Savonius, Okko; Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Viljakainen, Heli; Andersson, Sture; Fernandez, Josefina; Peltola, Heikki; Helve, Otto (2018)
    Aim Vitamin D deficiency impairs the immunological system and has been associated with worse outcomes of infectious diseases, but its role in bacterial meningitis remains unknown. We investigated whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations related to disease outcomes and to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cathelicidin concentrations in childhood bacterial meningitis. Methods Results All consecutively enrolled patients in a clinical trial on childhood bacterial meningitis in Latin America in 1996-2003 were considered, and 142 children, with a median age of seven months who had a confirmed bacterial aetiology and frozen serum available for further analyses, were included in this study. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were determined with a chemiluminescence immunoassay analyser, while CSF cathelicidin was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 96 (range 19-251) nmol/L. No relationship was found with patient survival, but children with any neurological sequelae had lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels than children without sequelae. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was unrelated to cathelicidin concentrations in CSF. Conclusion Although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in children with bacterial meningitis was not associated with survival or CSF cathelicidin concentrations, its relationship with more detailed disease outcomes warrants further study.