Browsing by Subject "In-hospital cardiac arrest"

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  • Tirkkonen, Joonas; Hellevuo, Heidi; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Hoppu, Sanna (2016)
    Aim: Aetiology of in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) on general wards has not been studied. We aimed to determine the underlying causes for IHCAs by the means of autopsy records and clinical judgement of the treating consultants. Furthermore, we investigated whether aetiology and preceding vital dysfunctions are associated with long-term survival. Design and setting: Prospective observational study between 2009-2011 including 279 adult IHCA patients attended by medical emergency team in a Finnish university hospital's general wards. Results: The median age of the patients was 72 (64, 80) years, 185 (66%) were male, 178 (64%) of events were monitored/witnessed, first rhythm was shockable in 42 (15%) cases and 53 (19%) patients survived six months. Aetiology was determined as cardiac in 141 events, 73 of which were due to acute myocardial infarction. There were 138 non-cardiac IHCAs; most common causes were pneumonia (39) and exsanguination (16). No statistical difference was observed in the incidence of objective vital dysfunctions preceding the event between the cardiac and non-cardiac groups (40% vs. 44%, p = 0.448). Subjective antecedents were more common in the cardiac cohort (47% vs. 32%, p = 0.022), chest pain being an example (11% vs. 0.7%, p <0.001). Reviewing all 279 IHCAs, only shockable primary rhythm, monitored/witnessed event and low comorbidity score were independently associated with 180-day survival. Conclusions: Cardiac aetiology underlies half of the IHCAs on general wards. Both objective and subjective antecedents are common. However, neither the cardiac aetiology nor the absence of preceding deterioration of vital signs were factors independently associated with a favourable outcome. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Penketh, J. A.; Nolan, J. P.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Rylander, C.; Frenell; Tirkkonen, J.; Reynolds, E. C.; Parr, M. J. A.; Aneman, A. (2020)
    Aim: To determine the type of airway devices used during in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) resuscitation attempts. Methods: International multicentre retrospective observational study of in-patients aged over 18 years who received chest compressions for cardiac arrest from April 2016 to September 2018. Patients were identified from resuscitation registries and rapid response system databases. Data were collected through review of resuscitation records and hospital notes. Airway devices used during cardiac arrest were recorded as basic (adjuncts or bag-mask), or advanced, including supraglottic airway devices, tracheal tubes or tracheostomies. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression modelling were used for data analysis. Results: The final analysis included 598 patients. No airway management occurred in 36 (6%), basic airway device use occurred at any time in 562 (94%), basic airway device use without an advanced airway device in 182 (30%), tracheal intubation in 301 (50%), supraglottic airway in 102 (17%), and tracheostomy in 1 (0.2%). There was significant variation in airway device use between centres. The intubation rate ranged between 21% and 90% while supraglottic airway use varied between 1% and 45%. The choice of tracheal intubation vs. supraglottic airway as the second advanced airway device was not associated with immediate survival from the resuscitation attempt (odds ratio 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.35-1.8). Conclusion: There is wide variation in airway device use during resuscitation after IHCA. Only half of patients are intubated before return of spontaneous circulation and many are managed without an advanced airway. Further investigation is needed to determine optimal airway device management strategies during resuscitation following IHCA.
  • Tirkkonen, Joonas; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Parr, Michael; Tamminen, Tero; Aneman, Anders (2020)
    Aim: To investigate in-hospital cardiac arrests (IHCAs) according to the Ustein template in hospitals with mature systems utilizing rapid response teams (RRTs), with a special reference to preceding RRT factors and factors associated with a favourable neurological outcome (cerebral performance category (CPC) 1-2) at hospital discharge. Methods: Multicentre, retrospective cohort study between 2017-2018 including two Finnish and one Australian university affiliated tertiary hospitals. Results: A total 309 IHCAs occurred with an incidence of 0.78 arrests per 1000 hospital admissions. The median age of the patients was 72 years, 63% were male and 73% had previously lived a fully independent life with a median Charlson comorbidity index of two. Before the IHCA, 16% of the patients had been reviewed by RRTs and 26% of the patients fulfilled RRT activation criteria in the preceding 8 h of the IHCA. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 53% of the patients and 28% were discharged from hospital with CPC 1-2. In a multivariable model, younger age, no pre-arrest RRT criteria, arrest in normal work hours, witnessed arrest and shockable initial rhythm were independently associated with CPC 1-2 at hospital discharge. Conclusions: In hospitals with mature rapid response systems most IHCA patients live a fully independent life with low burden of comorbid diseases before their hospital admission, the IHCA incidence is low and outcome better than traditionally believed. Deterioration before IHCA is present in a significant number of patients and improved monitoring and earlier interventions may further improve outcomes.