Browsing by Subject "India"

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  • Saul, Alana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Far and wide, multilateral cooperation is championed as a principal response to a volatile global landscape characterized by transnational challenges, complexity, and turbulent great power relations. At the same time, many lament multilateralism to be amidst a paramount crisis of identity. New actors and powers are keen and increasingly capable of challenging the norms underpinning the traditionally Western-led, liberal international order and multilateralism adhering to it. Some argue that an era of unipolarity, and thus U.S. hegemony, is drawing to a close. China has come to depict itself as a fundamentally multilateral actor and is actively envisioning the design of multilateralism from its own normative stances. Rising powers, such as India, are increasingly eager to convey their views on how cooperation ought to be compiled and whom it should benefit. This thesis analyses the strategic narratives on multilateralism and the international order as put forth by China’s and India’s foreign policy statements. Three research questions were posed to direct and frame the analysis: How are the concepts of international order and multilateral cooperation described in foreign policy statements delivered by China and India? What kind of values or norms emerge as salient for China’s and India’s strategic narratives on multilateralism and the international order? How are these values and norms connected to China’s and India’s historical narratives of themselves on the international arena? Strategic narratives (Miskimmon et. al, 2013) provide a lens through which to examine how political actors construct shared meanings of the past, present, and future of international politics, in order to sculpt the behaviour of domestic and international actors. Examining the research questions via the lens of strategic narratives enables scrutiny into the themes of intentionality, communication as persuasive power, and the role strategically reconstructed concepts can exert on reality. In the case of China, three strategic narratives were identified: 1) a narrative of China’s origin story, depicted as a basis for both its future glory and its benevolence as a partner 2) a vision of “true” multilateralism, compiled of the three pillars of the existence of distinct civilizations, hegemony as antithetical to multilateralism, and sovereignty as a key value in multilateralism 3) a narrative of China being “ahead of times” and “on the right side of history”. In the case of India, three strategic narratives were identified, as well: 1) the narrative of insiders and outsiders, entailing an interplay of domestic and foreign policy 2) a vision of “temporal balance”, depicted as unique and inherent to the Indian civilization 3) a vision of the desirability of the diffusion of power, viewed to lead to justice and greater democracy in international relations. While the analysis primarily illuminates upon the strategic narratives on multilateralism and the international order as posed by China’s and India’s foreign policy, the results of this thesis also expand into future research themes such as emerging conceptualizations of democracy on the level of international relations, the persuasive power of fuzzy concepts, as well as the manner in which concepts may travel and assume novel, localized versions.
  • Parekh, Utsav; Chariot, Patrick; Dang, Catherine; Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Druid, Henrik; Sajantila, Antti (2020)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has forced forensic practitioners to consider how we perform our normal duties, especially when those duties involve humans. The potential for contracting the virus from working in close contact with living sufferers is high, and we have yet to fully determine the risk of infection from the deceased. In an attempt to support the community, the Journal of Forensic & Legal Medicine has drawn together three articles which underline the importance of continued forensic medical practice during the pandemic and highlight some factors to consider in a Roadmap towards safe practice. Our Roadmap has intentionally taken an international perspective and supports other work we have published in the Journal on our collective response to the COVID-19 crisis.
  • Sallinen, Maarit (2008)
    General objective of the study is try to understand and explain as of why the child labour persists in India amidst the high economic growth rates experienced in the post-1991 economic reform era. The examination has a dual focus. At first, the nature of economic growth in the post-1991 reform period is studied in terms of its ability to reduce the supply and demand factors that cause child labour. Poverty reduction, economic inequalities, social sector expenditure and changes in the production structure of the economy are in the main focus. Second, the aim is to analyse the impact of Indian social structure in the post-1991 reform period on the persistence of child labour. Finally, a case study of Karur district in Tamil is used to compliment the analysis. The methods of qualitative research are applied and as such the thesis will not attempt to provide accurate quantitative interrelationships between factors that cause child labour in India but rather to provide explanations and proposals as of why this might be. The study and the case study shows that in terms of its impact on eradication of child labour, the impact of ten years of gradualist economic reforms sends a mixed picture. Poverty reduction has been uneven with great disparities between states and regions, in particular the disparities between rural and urban areas persist. Even as economy has been booming, many public services have worsened. In some sectors there has been impressive progress made but the differences in terms access to these services along caste and regional lines are remarkable. The development in provision of public services such as education and health care also suffer from regional and sectoral bias. In terms of education, for a developing country India still spends far more money on tertiary education than on primary education. The growth of industrial production requires educated labour force, therefore improving the quality of education would be essential for the future of India.The economic growth in India has in particular fuelled the capital-intensive sectors, at the expense of the labour-intensive industries which would bring employment and incomes for the poor. Agricultural sector has suffered from lack of government investments. In addition to these factors, and probably in part behind all these factors are the social and cultural factors. Most of the child workers of India belong to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or to the Muslim community. Despite the fact that economic growth in India proceeds, caste-based discrimination continues in India and access to education and social status are still determined by the individuals caste status. The case study of rural Karur district confirms many of these notions.
  • Quiñónez Montiel, Juan Pablo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    India is a fast growing economy with a high rate of gross domestic product that has improved the local spending power and has turned the country into a potential player in the global economy. In terms of wood products, India has been a net importer and currently is one the largest consumers of hardwood sawnwood in the world. The demand for sawnwood is rapidly growing in India and due to this situation, the country is a potential destination for Finnish and foreign exporters able to reach this market. The research attempted to increase the understanding of the importance of the demand for sawnwood in India. Thus, the purposes of this study are to: 1) provide a general description about the market environment of sawnwood in India and its situation at global level; 2) model and estimate potential factors impacting the demand level for Indian imports of sawnwood; 3) draw general conclusions about key opportunities and challenges for Finnish and major foreign exporters of sawnwood in the Indian market. Despite there is valuable information published about India’s wood market, empirical research on the Indian sawnwood market is scarce and unreliable. Hence, based on descriptive and explanatory methods, this study gathered secondary data from official and international sources for background and statistical information. The purpose was to analyze the sawnwood market through empirical modelling. Thus, econometric time-series modeling, for the period of 1992-2013, was used to explain the demand for imports of sawnwood in the Indian market by testing the conventional demand model, for income and price variables, and ad hoc models, for several explanatory variables. In addition, Engle and Granger, MacKinnon and Johansen methods were used to test cointegration among variables. The results suggest that the demand for imports of sawnwood is positively related to consumer income and negatively to prices. In addition, it depends on other factors such as population density, unemployment and economic openness. However, based on the elasticity estimates, the Indian sawnwood demand seems to be income and price elastic. The knowledge obtained in this study provides a valuable tool for foreign wood-based industries searching for market prospects to export their products as well as for public authorities involved in formulating forest and economic policies. However, further modelling is left for future research in this area.
  • Koutaniemi, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This is a study on the changing practices of kinship in Northern India. The change in kinship arrangements, and particularly in intermarriage processes, is traced by analysing the reception of Hindi popular cinema. Films and their role and meaning in people´s lives in India was the object of my research. Films also provided me with a methodology for approaching my other subject-matters: family, marriage and love. Through my discussion of cultural change, the persistence of family as a core value and locus of identity, and the movie discourses depicting this dialogue, I have looked for a possibility of compromise and reconciliation in an Indian context. As the primary form of Indian public culture, cinema has the ability to take part in discourses about Indian identity and cultural change, and alleviate the conflicts that emerge within these discourses. Hindi popular films do this, I argue, by incorporating different familiar cultural narratives in a resourceful way, thus creating something new out of the old elements. The final word, however, is the one of the spectator. The 'new' must come from within the culture. The Indian modernity must be imaginable and distinctively Indian. The social imagination is not a 'Wild West' where new ideas enter the void and start living a life of their own. The way the young women in Dehra Dun interpreted family dramas and romantic movies highlights the importance of family and continuity in kinship arrangements. The institution of arranged marriage has changed its appearance and gained new alternative modes such as love cum arranged marriage. It nevertheless remains arranged by the parents. In my thesis I have offered a social description of a cultural reality in which movies act as a built-in part. Movies do not work as a distinct realm, but instead intertwine with the social realities of people as a part of a continuum. The social imagination is rooted in the everyday realities of people, as are the movies, in an ontological and categorical sense. According to my research, the links between imagination and social life were not so much what Arjun Appadurai would call global and deterritorialised, but instead local and conventional.
  • Roy, Dajabati (Routledge, 2018)
    In comparison to other social groups, India’s rural poor – and particularly Adivasis and Dalits - have seen little benefit from the country’s economic growth over the last three decades. Though economists and statisticians are able to model the form and extent of this inequality, their work is rarely concerned with identifying possible causes. Employment, Poverty and Rights in India analyses unemployment in India and explains why the issues of employment and unemployment should be the appropriate prism to understand the status of wellbeing in India. The author provides a historical analysis of policy interventions on behalf of the colonial and postcolonial state with regard to the alleviation of unemployment and poverty in India and in West Bengal in particular. Arguing that, as long as poverty - either as a concept or as an empirical condition - remains as a technical issue to be managed by governmental technologies, the ‘poor’ will be held responsible for their own fate and the extent of poverty will continue to increase. The book contends that rural unemployment in India is not just an economic issue but a political process that has consistently been shaped by various socio-economic, political and cultural factors since the colonial period. The analysis which depends mainly on ethnography extends to the implementation of the ‘New Rights Agenda’, such as the MGNREGA, at the rural margin. Challenging the dominant approach to poverty, this book will be of interest to scholars working in the fields of South Asian studies, Indian Political Economy, contemporary political theories, poverty studies, neo-liberalism, sociology and social anthropology as well as development studies.
  • Salmi, Jelena (2019)
    This paper ethnographically explores the repercussions of the large-scale displacement and resettlement of slum-dwellers in the city of Ahmedabad, India, where state-sponsored urban development aimed at the creation of a slum-free world-class city is strongly personified around the figure of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Based on ten months’ fieldwork in the slum resettlement site of Sadbhavna Nagar in 2015–2016, I explore the intricacies of betrayal resulting from world-class city making. First, I sug-gest that infrastructure interventions and futuristic imaginaries invoked dreams of a better future among the poor, but resulted in a sense of having been betrayed by both Modi and the state when people were physically and discursively excluded from the world-class city. Second, I demonstrate how resettled people have engaged in micro-level practices of betrayal by mobilizing middle-class “nuisance talk” (Ghertner 2012) to denigrate their new, unwanted neighbors. I argue that the perceived betrayal by the state trickles down and translates into a betrayal of neighbors in the resettlement site, reinforcing the pre-existing inequalities of caste and religion among the urban poor.
  • Akhlaq, Ahmad (2005)
    This work is linked to studies on the role of social networks in gaining access to the labour market. The aim was to explore the various ways in which the immigrants of this study had entered the job market and the extent to which their personal networks had helped them to locate and obtain employment opportunities during their stay in Finland. The data for the study was collected in two ways. First, the participant-observation method was used in order to obtain first-hand experience of the employment situation of non-nationals in the Finnish labour market. The scope of their opportunities was explored through job information located via impersonal sources such as newspapers and the national employment agency. This objective was realised by answering 400 job advertisements and going through all the processes that a job seeker generally encounters in applying for a particular post. Secondly, 40 semi-structured interviews of an ethnographic and exploratory nature were conducted among immigrants originating from the Indian subcontinent residing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim was to chart the entire occupational histories of the immigrants from the time of their arrival in Finland to the present. The findings of this study show that, despite the nationwide well-established system of public employment agencies in Finland, and the relatively easy access this formal channel offers to job seekers regarding information about new vacancies, social networks still constitute a substantial source of job information and employment opportunities for immigrants in the Finnish labour market. The significance of these networks is particularly strong for non-nationals who, because of having originated from outside the social system, may find access to employment opportunities rather restricted in the host society. The findings reveal that for the majority of the immigrants included in this study the transmission of job information had occurred through informal channels and reliance on such personal means had persisted throughout most of their occupational careers. In particular, their ethnic friends and kin had often acted as transmitters of job information. Moreover, the role of the immigrants' networks had also been quite significant in securing jobs themselves, as half of the informants' entire employment spells had been obtained with the direct assistance of their social ties. This practical assistance in the provision of job information and in the acquisition of employment had been crucial for the immigrants especially at the beginning of their careers as it had helped get their feet on the ground in the new sociocultural reality. The findings also point to the dual role that social networks can potentially play in the occupational-attainment process. On the one hand, they acted as a crucial resource-opportunity structure in providing employment opportunities for the immigrants, and on the other hand they operated as constraining factors by channelling them into low-prestige sectors of the labour market. However, notwithstanding the important role of personal networks in landing the immigrants in occupations of low human-capital requirements, the findings also suggest the need to consider the interplay of other factors such as human-capital attributes and structural constraints – including discrimination and internal labour-market regulations in various sectors – that may also introduce mobility restrictions and thereby affect the life chances of non-nationals in the host society. Explanation of the prevalence of informal job-search methods among the informants was sought in the fact that jobs are social phenomena arising in a labour market that is socioculturally constructed. By virtue of their sociocultural embeddedness, these phenomena tend to evade the notions according to which the acquisition of jobs is solely a function of human-capital attributes. Based on the empirical evidence, it was argued that such notions are inadequate in understanding the complex nature of the job-finding process. It was therefore contended that the idea of a labour market in which the actors sell and hire labour according to the objective, rational rules of supply and demand is rather open to doubt. Instead, it was suggested that the concept of the labour market could be more fruitfully studied as a socially and culturally constructed rather than an undifferentiated and competitive space in which the rules of supply and demand are shaped by a particular sociocultural reality. In this context, it was also argued that the hiring process driven by abstract or impersonal criteria is much less prevalent than claimed by certain conceptual paradigms geared to the understanding of the economic structure and differential outcomes in the labour market.
  • Gisselquist, Rachel; Kundu, Anustup (UNU-Wider, 2020)
    WIDER Working Paper
    A growing body of research shows that COVID-19 both reflects and exacerbates existing inequalities. However, there are significant gaps in this research area with respect to ‘horizontal’ or group-based inequalities in Global South countries. Lack of group-disaggregated data often contributes. In this paper, we use available data to explore how horizontal inequality in India may influence COVID-19’s impact through the differential impact of lockdown policies across caste and religious groups, as well as across states and urban-rural areas. In so doing, we build upon Egger et al. (2020)’s lockdown readiness index. India, the second most populous country in the world, is a relevant case for such analysis not only because it has pronounced horizontal inequality, but also because it adopted an especially stringent lockdown policy. Our analysis illustrates stark differences in lockdown readiness across groups, which in turn could exacerbate existing horizontal inequalities.
  • Romeo, Simone (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The thesis is intended to be like a snapshot on a particular aspect of China, India and Iran that has not yet received much scholarly attention: the perceptions of their Generation Y, or “Millennials”, populations. It aims to describe what Generation Y is like in China, India, and Iran, what they think and how they describe their own countries, why they developed in this way, and how that is connected to their home country’s historical, religious, and political context. The work aims to avoid the common research mistake of being Western-centric, and instead, points out Millennials’ reciprocal similarities and differences in each country. You will find three sections. The first section is a general introduction about Millennials in the three countries, a review of the existing literature on the topic. The second section is about how the government has been using religion in order to strengthen nationalism a unite these countries. I will be analysing the development of Asian values in China, Hindu nationalism in India and political Islam in Iran, and I will review these countries’ history to explain how the three movements developed like they did. Finally, I will show the output of my interviews in the last section. I have been interviewing around sixty young people divided by country and social attributes and I let them speak about their home countries. The section will point out the main themes that came up during the interviews and we will see how they are connected to the concepts we discussed before.
  • Kuusela, Kullervo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Glebova, Ksenia (2008)
    This thesis critically examines securitisation of migration from Bangladesh to the Northeast Indian state of Assam in the regional English-medium press. The study aims to establish how Bangladeshi migrants are constructed as a security threat to the Assamese identity and how the linkages between migration, security and identity are expressed. The thesis also seeks to identify frames and linguistic devices by means of which securitisation is enacted in the press and assess the possibility of desecuritising the migration discourse. The empirical data consists of 264 articles dealing with Bangladeshi migration published in the ten selected newspapers from the Northeast India between 2005 and 2007. The linkages between migration and security are explored through the lens of the Copenhagen School of security studies and its concept of securitisation. Wodak’s discourse-historical approach to critical discourse analysis integrates historical background of Bangladeshi migration and Assamese identity, which is necessary to critically assess the narrow and static identity construction that characterises the discourse. Bangladeshi migration to Assam is constructed as a security threat by means of identified discursive strategies of positive self and negative Other representation. The discriminatory utterances are expressed in explicit terms and intensified through various linguistic devices. The securitisation is successful as the grammar of security is deeply ingrained in the migration discourse that shifts the issue from the domain of 'normal' politics to legitimise extraordinary measures such as discrimination and exclusion. The implications of securitisation are tangible and severe, especially for the Bangladeshi migrants and the Assamese Muslim minority. Securitisation acts to reduce the complexity of Bangladeshi migration to a simplified security frame and in doing so it greatly limits potential solutions. Once examined from a historical perspective, Assamese identity is a lot more complex than its construction in the process of securitisation. Desecuritisation is not feasible within the current securitisation framework that excludes other conceptualisations of Bangladeshi migration such as migrant labour and humanitarian crisis frames. The thesis devises practical guidelines for desecuritising the migration discourse in the media.
  • Kulathinal, Sangita; Joseph, Bijoy; Säävälä, Minna (2019)
    Background: Researchers and activists have expressed concerns over the lack of availability and nonuse of reversible, modern, contraceptive methods in India for decades. New attempts to increase access, availability, and acceptance of reversible contraceptives need to be developed, instead of relying solely on female sterilization. Mobile health (mHealth) initiatives may offer one way to serve underprivileged populations who face challenges in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in countries such as India. Objective: This study aimed to examine the outcome of an mHealth intervention for enhancing knowledge of, and practices related to, reversible contraceptives in rural Western India. Methods: We implemented a nonrandomized controlled trial (before-and-after study in an intervention area and a control area) in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The intervention in this case was a mobile-based SRH helpline provided by a nongovernmental organization (NGO). Baseline and follow-up surveys were carried out in two government-run primary health center areas, one each in the intervention and control area, and 405 respondents were surveyed in the two rounds. An interview-based structured questionnaire suitable for a low-literacy environment was used to collect data. The effect of the intervention was estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, by calculating robust standard errors to take into account the clustering of individuals by the area (intervention or control). In each regression model, the effect of intervention was estimated by including a term for interaction between the intervention area and the period before and after the intervention. The exponent of the regression coefficient of the interaction term corresponding to the period after the intervention, along with the 95% CI, is reported here. The odds ratio for the control village multiplied by this exponent gives the odds ratio for the intervention village. Calls received in the intervention were recorded and their topics analyzed. Results: The current use of reversible contraception (18% increase in intervention area vs 2% increase in control area; 95% CI) has seen changes. The proportion of respondents who had heard of contraception methods from an NGO rose in the intervention area by 23% whereas it decreased in the control area by 1% (95% CI). However, the general level of awareness of reversible contraception, shown by the first contraceptive method that came to respondents' mind, did not improve. Demand for wider SRH information beyond contraception was high. Men and adolescents, in addition to married women, made use of the helpline. Conclusions: A mobile helpline that one can confidentially approach at a time most convenient to the client can help provide necessary information and support to those who need reversible contraception or other sexual health information. Services that integrate mHealth in a context-sensitive way to other face-to-face health care services add value to SRH services in rural India
  • Kundu, Anustup; Sen, Kunal (UNU-Wider, 2021)
    WIDER working papers
    Most studies of intergenerational mobility focus on adjacent generations, and there is limited knowledge about multigenerational mobility that is, status transmission across three generations. We examine multigenerational educational and occupational mobility in India, using a nationally representative data-set the Indian Human Development Survey which contains information about education and occupation for three generations. We find that mobility has increased over generations for education, but not for occupation. We also find that there are stark differences across social groups, with individuals belonging to socially disadvantaged communities in India lagging behind in social progress. Multigenerational mobility for Muslims in education and occupation have decreased in comparison to Hindus over the three generations. While we find that there is an increase in educational mobility for other disadvantaged groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes compared to General Castes, we do not find evidence of increased occupational mobility over the three generations.
  • Sebastian, Mathew; Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Kumar, Vasudevan Anil; Jose, Sandhya; Babu, S. Suresh; Pandithurai, Govindan; Singh, Sachchidanand; Hooda, Rakesh K.; Soni, Vijay K.; Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Vakkari, Ville; Asmi, Eija; Westervelt, Daniel M.; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Kanawade, Vijay P. (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a crucial process driving aerosol number concentrations in the atmosphere; it can significantly impact the evolution of atmospheric aerosol and cloud processes. This study analyses at least 1 year of asynchronous particle number size distributions from six different locations in India. We also analyze the frequency of NPF and its contribution to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. We found that the NPF frequency has a considerable seasonal variability. At the measurement sites analyzed in this study, NPF frequently occurs in March–May (pre-monsoon, about 21 % of the days) and is the least common in October–November (post-monsoon, about 7 % of the days). Considering the NPF events in all locations, the particle formation rate (JSDS) varied by more than 2 orders of magnitude (0.001–0.6 cm−3s−1) and the growth rate between the smallest detectable size and 25 nm (GRSDS-25 nm) by about 3 orders of magnitude (0.2–17.2 nm h−1). We found that JSDS was higher by nearly 1 order of magnitude during NPF events in urban areas than mountain sites. GRSDS did not show a systematic difference. Our results showed that NPF events could significantly modulate the shape of particle number size distributions and CCN concentrations in India. The contribution of a given NPF event to CCN concentrations was the highest in urban locations (4.3 × 103cm−3 per event and 1.2 × 103cm−3 per event for 50 and 100 nm, respectively) as compared to mountain background sites (2.7 × 103cm−3 per event and 1.0 × 103cm−3 per event, respectively). We emphasize that the physical and chemical pathways responsible for NPF and factors that control its contribution to CCN production require in situ field observations using recent advances in aerosol and its precursor gaseous measurement techniques.
  • Arora, G. P.; Åkerlund, M.; Brons, C.; Moen, G-H; Wasenius, N. S.; Sommer, C.; Jenum, A. K.; Almgren, P.; Thaman, R. G.; Orho-Melander, M.; Eriksson, J.; Qvigstad, E.; Birkeland, K.; Berntorp, K.; Vaag, A. A.; Groop, L.; Prasad, R. B. (2019)
    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a transient form of diabetes characterized by impaired insulin secretion and action during pregnancy. Population-based differences in prevalence exist which could be explained by phenotypic and genetic differences. The aim of this study was to examine these differences in pregnant women from Punjab, India and Scandinavia. Methods Eighty-five GDM/T2D loci in European and/or Indian populations from previous studies were assessed for association with GDM based on Swedish GDM criteria in 4018 Punjabi Indian and 507 Swedish pregnant women. Selected loci were replicated in Scandinavian cohorts, Radiel (N = 398, Finnish) and STORK/STORK-G (N = 780, Norwegian). Results Punjabi Indian women had higher GDM prevalence, lower insulin secretion and better insulin sensitivity than Swedish women. There were significant frequency differences of GDM/T2D risk alleles between both populations. rs7178572 at HMG20A, previously associated with GDM in South Indian and European women, was replicated in North Indian women. The T2D risk SNP rs11605924 in the CRY2 gene was associated with increased GDM risk in Scandinavian but decreased GDM risk in Punjabi Indian women. No other overlap was seen between GDM loci in both populations. Conclusions Gestational diabetes mellitus is more common in Indian than Swedish women, which partially can be attributed to differences in insulin secretion and action. There was marked heterogeneity in the GDM phenotypes between the populations which could only partially be explained by genetic differences.
  • Tiwari, A; Soni, VK; Jena, C; Kumar, A; Bist,S; Kouznetsov, Rostislav (Longdom Group SA, 2022)
    Journal of pollution effects and journal
    A pre-operational validation of the System for Integrated Modeling of Atmospheric Composition (SILAM) model for Indian application has been presented in this paper. The model configuration has been adjusted according to the atmospheric and emissive conditions of India. India is one of the most desired regions for Air Quality (AQ) research around the globe. The region is composed of different atmospheric and man-made pollution activities. The weather system of India is favorable for the deposition of particulate pollutants in the Indo-Gangetic plains; the northern part of the country. Stubble burning and lower planetary boundary layer height are significant factors that deteriorate the AQ of Delhi-NCR in post-monsoon and winter seasons. India Meteorological Department (IMD) is continuously monitoring the AQ of Delhi-NCR along with central pollution control board and state pollution control committees with stationary ambient air quality monitoring stations. This joint effort of all the agencies relies upon Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP); an initiative by the Government of India (GOI) for pollution control in the Delhi-NCR region. An accurate AQ forecasting system is needed for GOI to implement a decision support system in order to make citizens aware of their surroundings for outdoor activities. We have successfully deployed Indian application of SILAM model in collaboration with Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) in Environment Monitoring and Research Center, IMD. One month observations of coarse and fine mode particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) over Delhi have been compared with SILAM forecast f or December 2020. The modeled and observed values are reasonably correlated in general and model has successfully captured the pollution events throughout the time period. It is found that PM 10 forecasts over Delhi are fairly overestimated and PM 2.5 forecasts are slightly overestimated with a positive correlation of 0.7. Further research in surface emissions and extreme pollution events is needed to make the predictions more accurate.
  • Dsilva, Keshia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    There exists an extensive body of research on homosexuality, yet only a few studies address local meanings of homosexuality and still fewer attempt to understand the processes that construct these meanings and the values and beliefs of the people that share these meanings. Such studies would be particularly relevant in India as a developing and highly pluralistic country where the legal status of homosexuality has been in a state of flux. The unique history and religious diversity in India have shaped the way in which different communities come to understand homosexuality. Influences of both colonization and tradition are salient and constantly interacting, yet in many ways conflicting with each other. To explore these influences and intersections in relation to conceptions of homosexuality, the social representation theory was used as a methodological framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangalore with six families from the urban middle class representing the major religions of Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Out of these six families, two families from each of the three religions participated. For each family, one member belonged to the youngest generation (18+ years of age), one to the middle generation and one to the grandparents’ generation. As Bangalore is the second fastest growing metropolis in India, it provided a good background to explore potential influences of modernisation. The inter-generational and inter-religious approach helped to provide insights on how these categories, in addition to their national identity as Indians, entwine and frame these participants’ representations of homosexuality. Across religions and generations, three representations of homosexuality were identified: nature, nurture and culture. In the first, homosexuality was categorized in terms of what is ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’, in the second in terms of ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ and in the third, in terms of ‘deviant’ and ‘non-deviant’. Despite these convergent primary categorizations, participants’ ages, religions and gendered perceptions of what constitutes homosexuality intersected in diverse yet specific and patterned ways. My analysis sheds light on the functions served by these representations, local practices and customs, as well as social change in India with respect to meanings, understandings and practices of homosexuality.
  • Prasad, Rashmi B.; Asplund, Olof; Shukla, Sharvari R.; Wagh, Rucha; Kunte, Pooja; Bhat, Dattatrey; Parekh, Malay; Shah, Meet; Phatak, Sanat; Karajamaki, Annemari; Datta, Anupam; Kakati, Sanjeeb; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Saboo, Banshi; Ahlqvist, Emma; Groop, Leif; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S. (2022)
    Aim/hypothesis Five subgroups were described in European diabetes patients using a data driven machine learning approach on commonly measured variables. We aimed to test the applicability of this phenotyping in Indian individuals with young-onset type 2 diabetes. Methods We applied the European-derived centroids to Indian individuals with type 2 diabetes diagnosed before 45 years of age from the WellGen cohort (n = 1612). We also applied de novo k-means clustering to the WellGen cohort to validate the subgroups. We then compared clinical and metabolic-endocrine characteristics and the complication rates between the subgroups. We also compared characteristics of the WellGen subgroups with those of two young European cohorts, ANDIS (n = 962) and DIREVA (n = 420). Subgroups were also assessed in two other Indian cohorts, Ahmedabad (n = 187) and PHENOEINDY-2 (n = 205). Results Both Indian and European young-onset type 2 diabetes patients were predominantly classified into severe insulin-deficient (SIDD) and mild obesity-related (MOD) subgroups, while the severe insulin-resistant (SIRD) and mild age-related (MARD) subgroups were rare. In WellGen, SIDD (53%) was more common than MOD (38%), contrary to findings in Europeans (Swedish 26% vs 68%, Finnish 24% vs 71%, respectively). A higher proportion of SIDD compared with MOD was also seen in Ahmedabad (57% vs 33%) and in PHENOEINDY-2 (67% vs 23%). Both in Indians and Europeans, the SIDD subgroup was characterised by insulin deficiency and hyperglycaemia, MOD by obesity, SIRD by severe insulin resistance and MARD by mild metabolic-endocrine disturbances. In WellGen, nephropathy and retinopathy were more prevalent in SIDD compared with MOD while the latter had higher prevalence of neuropathy. Conclusions /interpretation Our data identified insulin deficiency as the major driver of type 2 diabetes in young Indians, unlike in young European individuals in whom obesity and insulin resistance predominate. Our results provide useful clues to pathophysiological mechanisms and susceptibility to complications in type 2 diabetes in the young Indian population and suggest a need to review management strategies.