Browsing by Subject "India"

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  • Sallinen, Maarit (2008)
    General objective of the study is try to understand and explain as of why the child labour persists in India amidst the high economic growth rates experienced in the post-1991 economic reform era. The examination has a dual focus. At first, the nature of economic growth in the post-1991 reform period is studied in terms of its ability to reduce the supply and demand factors that cause child labour. Poverty reduction, economic inequalities, social sector expenditure and changes in the production structure of the economy are in the main focus. Second, the aim is to analyse the impact of Indian social structure in the post-1991 reform period on the persistence of child labour. Finally, a case study of Karur district in Tamil is used to compliment the analysis. The methods of qualitative research are applied and as such the thesis will not attempt to provide accurate quantitative interrelationships between factors that cause child labour in India but rather to provide explanations and proposals as of why this might be. The study and the case study shows that in terms of its impact on eradication of child labour, the impact of ten years of gradualist economic reforms sends a mixed picture. Poverty reduction has been uneven with great disparities between states and regions, in particular the disparities between rural and urban areas persist. Even as economy has been booming, many public services have worsened. In some sectors there has been impressive progress made but the differences in terms access to these services along caste and regional lines are remarkable. The development in provision of public services such as education and health care also suffer from regional and sectoral bias. In terms of education, for a developing country India still spends far more money on tertiary education than on primary education. The growth of industrial production requires educated labour force, therefore improving the quality of education would be essential for the future of India.The economic growth in India has in particular fuelled the capital-intensive sectors, at the expense of the labour-intensive industries which would bring employment and incomes for the poor. Agricultural sector has suffered from lack of government investments. In addition to these factors, and probably in part behind all these factors are the social and cultural factors. Most of the child workers of India belong to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes or to the Muslim community. Despite the fact that economic growth in India proceeds, caste-based discrimination continues in India and access to education and social status are still determined by the individuals caste status. The case study of rural Karur district confirms many of these notions.
  • Quiñónez Montiel, Juan Pablo (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    India is a fast growing economy with a high rate of gross domestic product that has improved the local spending power and has turned the country into a potential player in the global economy. In terms of wood products, India has been a net importer and currently is one the largest consumers of hardwood sawnwood in the world. The demand for sawnwood is rapidly growing in India and due to this situation, the country is a potential destination for Finnish and foreign exporters able to reach this market. The research attempted to increase the understanding of the importance of the demand for sawnwood in India. Thus, the purposes of this study are to: 1) provide a general description about the market environment of sawnwood in India and its situation at global level; 2) model and estimate potential factors impacting the demand level for Indian imports of sawnwood; 3) draw general conclusions about key opportunities and challenges for Finnish and major foreign exporters of sawnwood in the Indian market. Despite there is valuable information published about India’s wood market, empirical research on the Indian sawnwood market is scarce and unreliable. Hence, based on descriptive and explanatory methods, this study gathered secondary data from official and international sources for background and statistical information. The purpose was to analyze the sawnwood market through empirical modelling. Thus, econometric time-series modeling, for the period of 1992-2013, was used to explain the demand for imports of sawnwood in the Indian market by testing the conventional demand model, for income and price variables, and ad hoc models, for several explanatory variables. In addition, Engle and Granger, MacKinnon and Johansen methods were used to test cointegration among variables. The results suggest that the demand for imports of sawnwood is positively related to consumer income and negatively to prices. In addition, it depends on other factors such as population density, unemployment and economic openness. However, based on the elasticity estimates, the Indian sawnwood demand seems to be income and price elastic. The knowledge obtained in this study provides a valuable tool for foreign wood-based industries searching for market prospects to export their products as well as for public authorities involved in formulating forest and economic policies. However, further modelling is left for future research in this area.
  • Koutaniemi, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    This is a study on the changing practices of kinship in Northern India. The change in kinship arrangements, and particularly in intermarriage processes, is traced by analysing the reception of Hindi popular cinema. Films and their role and meaning in people´s lives in India was the object of my research. Films also provided me with a methodology for approaching my other subject-matters: family, marriage and love. Through my discussion of cultural change, the persistence of family as a core value and locus of identity, and the movie discourses depicting this dialogue, I have looked for a possibility of compromise and reconciliation in an Indian context. As the primary form of Indian public culture, cinema has the ability to take part in discourses about Indian identity and cultural change, and alleviate the conflicts that emerge within these discourses. Hindi popular films do this, I argue, by incorporating different familiar cultural narratives in a resourceful way, thus creating something new out of the old elements. The final word, however, is the one of the spectator. The 'new' must come from within the culture. The Indian modernity must be imaginable and distinctively Indian. The social imagination is not a 'Wild West' where new ideas enter the void and start living a life of their own. The way the young women in Dehra Dun interpreted family dramas and romantic movies highlights the importance of family and continuity in kinship arrangements. The institution of arranged marriage has changed its appearance and gained new alternative modes such as love cum arranged marriage. It nevertheless remains arranged by the parents. In my thesis I have offered a social description of a cultural reality in which movies act as a built-in part. Movies do not work as a distinct realm, but instead intertwine with the social realities of people as a part of a continuum. The social imagination is rooted in the everyday realities of people, as are the movies, in an ontological and categorical sense. According to my research, the links between imagination and social life were not so much what Arjun Appadurai would call global and deterritorialised, but instead local and conventional.
  • Roy, Dajabati (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    In comparison to other social groups, India’s rural poor – and particularly Adivasis and Dalits - have seen little benefit from the country’s economic growth over the last three decades. Though economists and statisticians are able to model the form and extent of this inequality, their work is rarely concerned with identifying possible causes. Employment, Poverty and Rights in India analyses unemployment in India and explains why the issues of employment and unemployment should be the appropriate prism to understand the status of wellbeing in India. The author provides a historical analysis of policy interventions on behalf of the colonial and postcolonial state with regard to the alleviation of unemployment and poverty in India and in West Bengal in particular. Arguing that, as long as poverty - either as a concept or as an empirical condition - remains as a technical issue to be managed by governmental technologies, the ‘poor’ will be held responsible for their own fate and the extent of poverty will continue to increase. The book contends that rural unemployment in India is not just an economic issue but a political process that has consistently been shaped by various socio-economic, political and cultural factors since the colonial period. The analysis which depends mainly on ethnography extends to the implementation of the ‘New Rights Agenda’, such as the MGNREGA, at the rural margin. Challenging the dominant approach to poverty, this book will be of interest to scholars working in the fields of South Asian studies, Indian Political Economy, contemporary political theories, poverty studies, neo-liberalism, sociology and social anthropology as well as development studies.
  • Salmi, Jelena (2019)
    This paper ethnographically explores the repercussions of the large-scale displacement and resettlement of slum-dwellers in the city of Ahmedabad, India, where state-sponsored urban development aimed at the creation of a slum-free world-class city is strongly personified around the figure of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Based on ten months’ fieldwork in the slum resettlement site of Sadbhavna Nagar in 2015–2016, I explore the intricacies of betrayal resulting from world-class city making. First, I sug-gest that infrastructure interventions and futuristic imaginaries invoked dreams of a better future among the poor, but resulted in a sense of having been betrayed by both Modi and the state when people were physically and discursively excluded from the world-class city. Second, I demonstrate how resettled people have engaged in micro-level practices of betrayal by mobilizing middle-class “nuisance talk” (Ghertner 2012) to denigrate their new, unwanted neighbors. I argue that the perceived betrayal by the state trickles down and translates into a betrayal of neighbors in the resettlement site, reinforcing the pre-existing inequalities of caste and religion among the urban poor.
  • Akhlaq, Ahmad (2005)
    This work is linked to studies on the role of social networks in gaining access to the labour market. The aim was to explore the various ways in which the immigrants of this study had entered the job market and the extent to which their personal networks had helped them to locate and obtain employment opportunities during their stay in Finland. The data for the study was collected in two ways. First, the participant-observation method was used in order to obtain first-hand experience of the employment situation of non-nationals in the Finnish labour market. The scope of their opportunities was explored through job information located via impersonal sources such as newspapers and the national employment agency. This objective was realised by answering 400 job advertisements and going through all the processes that a job seeker generally encounters in applying for a particular post. Secondly, 40 semi-structured interviews of an ethnographic and exploratory nature were conducted among immigrants originating from the Indian subcontinent residing in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The aim was to chart the entire occupational histories of the immigrants from the time of their arrival in Finland to the present. The findings of this study show that, despite the nationwide well-established system of public employment agencies in Finland, and the relatively easy access this formal channel offers to job seekers regarding information about new vacancies, social networks still constitute a substantial source of job information and employment opportunities for immigrants in the Finnish labour market. The significance of these networks is particularly strong for non-nationals who, because of having originated from outside the social system, may find access to employment opportunities rather restricted in the host society. The findings reveal that for the majority of the immigrants included in this study the transmission of job information had occurred through informal channels and reliance on such personal means had persisted throughout most of their occupational careers. In particular, their ethnic friends and kin had often acted as transmitters of job information. Moreover, the role of the immigrants' networks had also been quite significant in securing jobs themselves, as half of the informants' entire employment spells had been obtained with the direct assistance of their social ties. This practical assistance in the provision of job information and in the acquisition of employment had been crucial for the immigrants especially at the beginning of their careers as it had helped get their feet on the ground in the new sociocultural reality. The findings also point to the dual role that social networks can potentially play in the occupational-attainment process. On the one hand, they acted as a crucial resource-opportunity structure in providing employment opportunities for the immigrants, and on the other hand they operated as constraining factors by channelling them into low-prestige sectors of the labour market. However, notwithstanding the important role of personal networks in landing the immigrants in occupations of low human-capital requirements, the findings also suggest the need to consider the interplay of other factors such as human-capital attributes and structural constraints – including discrimination and internal labour-market regulations in various sectors – that may also introduce mobility restrictions and thereby affect the life chances of non-nationals in the host society. Explanation of the prevalence of informal job-search methods among the informants was sought in the fact that jobs are social phenomena arising in a labour market that is socioculturally constructed. By virtue of their sociocultural embeddedness, these phenomena tend to evade the notions according to which the acquisition of jobs is solely a function of human-capital attributes. Based on the empirical evidence, it was argued that such notions are inadequate in understanding the complex nature of the job-finding process. It was therefore contended that the idea of a labour market in which the actors sell and hire labour according to the objective, rational rules of supply and demand is rather open to doubt. Instead, it was suggested that the concept of the labour market could be more fruitfully studied as a socially and culturally constructed rather than an undifferentiated and competitive space in which the rules of supply and demand are shaped by a particular sociocultural reality. In this context, it was also argued that the hiring process driven by abstract or impersonal criteria is much less prevalent than claimed by certain conceptual paradigms geared to the understanding of the economic structure and differential outcomes in the labour market.
  • Gisselquist, Rachel; Kundu, Anustup (UNU-Wider, 2020)
    WIDER Working Paper
    A growing body of research shows that COVID-19 both reflects and exacerbates existing inequalities. However, there are significant gaps in this research area with respect to ‘horizontal’ or group-based inequalities in Global South countries. Lack of group-disaggregated data often contributes. In this paper, we use available data to explore how horizontal inequality in India may influence COVID-19’s impact through the differential impact of lockdown policies across caste and religious groups, as well as across states and urban-rural areas. In so doing, we build upon Egger et al. (2020)’s lockdown readiness index. India, the second most populous country in the world, is a relevant case for such analysis not only because it has pronounced horizontal inequality, but also because it adopted an especially stringent lockdown policy. Our analysis illustrates stark differences in lockdown readiness across groups, which in turn could exacerbate existing horizontal inequalities.
  • Romeo, Simone (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The thesis is intended to be like a snapshot on a particular aspect of China, India and Iran that has not yet received much scholarly attention: the perceptions of their Generation Y, or “Millennials”, populations. It aims to describe what Generation Y is like in China, India, and Iran, what they think and how they describe their own countries, why they developed in this way, and how that is connected to their home country’s historical, religious, and political context. The work aims to avoid the common research mistake of being Western-centric, and instead, points out Millennials’ reciprocal similarities and differences in each country. You will find three sections. The first section is a general introduction about Millennials in the three countries, a review of the existing literature on the topic. The second section is about how the government has been using religion in order to strengthen nationalism a unite these countries. I will be analysing the development of Asian values in China, Hindu nationalism in India and political Islam in Iran, and I will review these countries’ history to explain how the three movements developed like they did. Finally, I will show the output of my interviews in the last section. I have been interviewing around sixty young people divided by country and social attributes and I let them speak about their home countries. The section will point out the main themes that came up during the interviews and we will see how they are connected to the concepts we discussed before.
  • Kuusela, Kullervo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1959)
  • Glebova, Ksenia (2008)
    This thesis critically examines securitisation of migration from Bangladesh to the Northeast Indian state of Assam in the regional English-medium press. The study aims to establish how Bangladeshi migrants are constructed as a security threat to the Assamese identity and how the linkages between migration, security and identity are expressed. The thesis also seeks to identify frames and linguistic devices by means of which securitisation is enacted in the press and assess the possibility of desecuritising the migration discourse. The empirical data consists of 264 articles dealing with Bangladeshi migration published in the ten selected newspapers from the Northeast India between 2005 and 2007. The linkages between migration and security are explored through the lens of the Copenhagen School of security studies and its concept of securitisation. Wodak’s discourse-historical approach to critical discourse analysis integrates historical background of Bangladeshi migration and Assamese identity, which is necessary to critically assess the narrow and static identity construction that characterises the discourse. Bangladeshi migration to Assam is constructed as a security threat by means of identified discursive strategies of positive self and negative Other representation. The discriminatory utterances are expressed in explicit terms and intensified through various linguistic devices. The securitisation is successful as the grammar of security is deeply ingrained in the migration discourse that shifts the issue from the domain of 'normal' politics to legitimise extraordinary measures such as discrimination and exclusion. The implications of securitisation are tangible and severe, especially for the Bangladeshi migrants and the Assamese Muslim minority. Securitisation acts to reduce the complexity of Bangladeshi migration to a simplified security frame and in doing so it greatly limits potential solutions. Once examined from a historical perspective, Assamese identity is a lot more complex than its construction in the process of securitisation. Desecuritisation is not feasible within the current securitisation framework that excludes other conceptualisations of Bangladeshi migration such as migrant labour and humanitarian crisis frames. The thesis devises practical guidelines for desecuritising the migration discourse in the media.
  • Kulathinal, Sangita; Joseph, Bijoy; Säävälä, Minna (2019)
    Background: Researchers and activists have expressed concerns over the lack of availability and nonuse of reversible, modern, contraceptive methods in India for decades. New attempts to increase access, availability, and acceptance of reversible contraceptives need to be developed, instead of relying solely on female sterilization. Mobile health (mHealth) initiatives may offer one way to serve underprivileged populations who face challenges in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in countries such as India. Objective: This study aimed to examine the outcome of an mHealth intervention for enhancing knowledge of, and practices related to, reversible contraceptives in rural Western India. Methods: We implemented a nonrandomized controlled trial (before-and-after study in an intervention area and a control area) in the Indian state of Maharashtra. The intervention in this case was a mobile-based SRH helpline provided by a nongovernmental organization (NGO). Baseline and follow-up surveys were carried out in two government-run primary health center areas, one each in the intervention and control area, and 405 respondents were surveyed in the two rounds. An interview-based structured questionnaire suitable for a low-literacy environment was used to collect data. The effect of the intervention was estimated using logistic regression, adjusted for gender, by calculating robust standard errors to take into account the clustering of individuals by the area (intervention or control). In each regression model, the effect of intervention was estimated by including a term for interaction between the intervention area and the period before and after the intervention. The exponent of the regression coefficient of the interaction term corresponding to the period after the intervention, along with the 95% CI, is reported here. The odds ratio for the control village multiplied by this exponent gives the odds ratio for the intervention village. Calls received in the intervention were recorded and their topics analyzed. Results: The current use of reversible contraception (18% increase in intervention area vs 2% increase in control area; 95% CI) has seen changes. The proportion of respondents who had heard of contraception methods from an NGO rose in the intervention area by 23% whereas it decreased in the control area by 1% (95% CI). However, the general level of awareness of reversible contraception, shown by the first contraceptive method that came to respondents' mind, did not improve. Demand for wider SRH information beyond contraception was high. Men and adolescents, in addition to married women, made use of the helpline. Conclusions: A mobile helpline that one can confidentially approach at a time most convenient to the client can help provide necessary information and support to those who need reversible contraception or other sexual health information. Services that integrate mHealth in a context-sensitive way to other face-to-face health care services add value to SRH services in rural India
  • Kundu, Anustup; Sen, Kunal (UNU-Wider, 2021)
    WIDER working papers
    Most studies of intergenerational mobility focus on adjacent generations, and there is limited knowledge about multigenerational mobility that is, status transmission across three generations. We examine multigenerational educational and occupational mobility in India, using a nationally representative data-set the Indian Human Development Survey which contains information about education and occupation for three generations. We find that mobility has increased over generations for education, but not for occupation. We also find that there are stark differences across social groups, with individuals belonging to socially disadvantaged communities in India lagging behind in social progress. Multigenerational mobility for Muslims in education and occupation have decreased in comparison to Hindus over the three generations. While we find that there is an increase in educational mobility for other disadvantaged groups such as Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes compared to General Castes, we do not find evidence of increased occupational mobility over the three generations.
  • Arora, G. P.; Åkerlund, M.; Brons, C.; Moen, G-H; Wasenius, N. S.; Sommer, C.; Jenum, A. K.; Almgren, P.; Thaman, R. G.; Orho-Melander, M.; Eriksson, J.; Qvigstad, E.; Birkeland, K.; Berntorp, K.; Vaag, A. A.; Groop, L.; Prasad, R. B. (2019)
    Objective Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a transient form of diabetes characterized by impaired insulin secretion and action during pregnancy. Population-based differences in prevalence exist which could be explained by phenotypic and genetic differences. The aim of this study was to examine these differences in pregnant women from Punjab, India and Scandinavia. Methods Eighty-five GDM/T2D loci in European and/or Indian populations from previous studies were assessed for association with GDM based on Swedish GDM criteria in 4018 Punjabi Indian and 507 Swedish pregnant women. Selected loci were replicated in Scandinavian cohorts, Radiel (N = 398, Finnish) and STORK/STORK-G (N = 780, Norwegian). Results Punjabi Indian women had higher GDM prevalence, lower insulin secretion and better insulin sensitivity than Swedish women. There were significant frequency differences of GDM/T2D risk alleles between both populations. rs7178572 at HMG20A, previously associated with GDM in South Indian and European women, was replicated in North Indian women. The T2D risk SNP rs11605924 in the CRY2 gene was associated with increased GDM risk in Scandinavian but decreased GDM risk in Punjabi Indian women. No other overlap was seen between GDM loci in both populations. Conclusions Gestational diabetes mellitus is more common in Indian than Swedish women, which partially can be attributed to differences in insulin secretion and action. There was marked heterogeneity in the GDM phenotypes between the populations which could only partially be explained by genetic differences.
  • Dsilva, Keshia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    There exists an extensive body of research on homosexuality, yet only a few studies address local meanings of homosexuality and still fewer attempt to understand the processes that construct these meanings and the values and beliefs of the people that share these meanings. Such studies would be particularly relevant in India as a developing and highly pluralistic country where the legal status of homosexuality has been in a state of flux. The unique history and religious diversity in India have shaped the way in which different communities come to understand homosexuality. Influences of both colonization and tradition are salient and constantly interacting, yet in many ways conflicting with each other. To explore these influences and intersections in relation to conceptions of homosexuality, the social representation theory was used as a methodological framework. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangalore with six families from the urban middle class representing the major religions of Hinduism, Islam and Christianity. Out of these six families, two families from each of the three religions participated. For each family, one member belonged to the youngest generation (18+ years of age), one to the middle generation and one to the grandparents’ generation. As Bangalore is the second fastest growing metropolis in India, it provided a good background to explore potential influences of modernisation. The inter-generational and inter-religious approach helped to provide insights on how these categories, in addition to their national identity as Indians, entwine and frame these participants’ representations of homosexuality. Across religions and generations, three representations of homosexuality were identified: nature, nurture and culture. In the first, homosexuality was categorized in terms of what is ‘natural’ and ‘unnatural’, in the second in terms of ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ and in the third, in terms of ‘deviant’ and ‘non-deviant’. Despite these convergent primary categorizations, participants’ ages, religions and gendered perceptions of what constitutes homosexuality intersected in diverse yet specific and patterned ways. My analysis sheds light on the functions served by these representations, local practices and customs, as well as social change in India with respect to meanings, understandings and practices of homosexuality.
  • Boddy, Janet; Walker, Catherine; Vennam, Uma; Austerberry, Helen; Latha, Madhavi; Phoenix, Ann Alison (2016)
    Contemporary discussions of climate change response frequently emphasise individual moral responsibility, but little is known about how environmental messages are taken up or resisted in everyday practices. This article examines how families negotiate the moral narratives and identity positions associated with environmental responsibility. It focuses on families living in relatively affluent circumstances in England and South East India to consider the ways in which the families construct their understandings of environment and take up identities as morally responsible. Our analysis focuses on a subsample of case studies involved in the ESRC National Centre for Research Methods Family Lives and the Environment study, within the NOVELLA node, using a multimethod qualitative approach with families of children aged between 12 and 14. This article focuses on interviews with 10 of the 24 families in the sample, all of whom (in both India and the UK) discussed environmental concerns within moral narratives of the responsibilities of relative privilege. Findings highlight the potential of cross-world research to help theorise the complex economic and cultural specificity of a particular morally charged framing of environmental concern, addressing the (dis)connections between 'moral tales' of responsible privilege and individual and collective accounts of family practices.
  • Lehto, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This research examines the constructions of different identities and narrations of volunteering as they intersect with a culture of travel. The focus will be on how gender relates to the interpretations of experiences of volunteering and travelling in India from the viewpoint of Western women. It has been argued that travel is a genderized and gendering activity, yet gender considerations are largely unaccounted in the field of tourism research. Due to the rapid diversification and increase in travel, there have been numerous calls for studies examining the intersections of gender and travel, as well as travel and volunteering. This qualitative research addresses the shortage by exploring women's accounts of volunteering and travelling in India within the context of wider travel discussions. A gender-aware travel and voluntourism research forms the theoretical base for the thematic content analysis, which applies narrative constructionist approach. The data consists of semi-structured and conversational interviews with 7 women between the ages 20-32, and they were conducted in Finland and in India between December 2007 and January 2011. As the research explored some of the identity scenarios these women faced on their travels in India, the findings indicate that travelling and volunteering provide possible identity positions which can at times be quite empowering, but which also can entail challenges and multiplicity of conflicting identities. These ambivalent narrative positions and roles rely to some extent on the traveler discourse, which does not offer much in terms of gendered conceptualizations. It is proposed that voicing their experiences provides us glimpses of some of the oppositional forces in play in travel discourse, thus illuminating how the contradictory ideals of travelling, ethnicity and gender become a complex and contested space of value discussion. The findings suggest that Western women violate the boundaries between ‘public’ and ‘private’ space; by choosing to travel and volunteer abroad, they disrupt the discourses of femininity both home and in India. These restrictions are processed and negotiated within the narrations of cultural sensitivity, independence and self-definition, consequently constructing and enhancing moral narratives of ‘self’, as well as gaining sense of control, through travel. In their negotiations for various identity positions within the travel and gender contexts, self becomes a reflexive project for the Western women.
  • Lahti, Makreeta (2002)
    The study is about the US policies towards the Indian and the Pakistani nuclear weapons programs in 1945-2001. In addition to the two nuclear weapons programs and the reasons behind them, also US policies towards them and the factors that have contributed to the success of the policies are considered, as well as US goals and interests in South Asia in general. The research method used is this non-experimental case study is critical literature analysis. The research material consists of books, articles, and statements about US non-proliferation policies, the South Asian nuclear weapons programs, and geopolitical and realist theories as well as theories about nuclear weapons. There are several reasons behind the Indian and the Pakistani nuclear weapons programs, of which the most important seem to be threats to security, the Indian aspiration to become a major international player, and domestic politics. The US seems to have been constantly against nuclear proliferation in South Asia, but its non-proliferation policies have not been totally successful. Preventing nuclear proliferation has not always been ensured because it has been secondary to some other goals of the US, most notably to that of opposing the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The US non-proliferation policies have somewhat concentrated on trying to prevent the spread of nuclear material and technologies but it has also tried to affect the reasons for proliferation. However, differing views on the best non-proliferation policies between the US Congress and the President and a lack of support from other states have caused certain ineffectiveness of US policies.
  • Onali, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The paper industry is one of the largest industrial sectors in India. In general, wood procurement processes play an important role in the operations of the paper industry, but there is very less research on India in this topic. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present state of wood procurement in the Indian paper industry and finally to detect possible bottlenecks in the system. The data was collected by interviews from a total of 10 paper mills in India. Paper industry in India is entirely based on a plantation forestry, where private farming plays a very large role. Wood procurement begins with planning. The field officers cooperate with the vendors in the field. The vendors are private operators who trade directly with up to thousands of farmers and are therefore necessary for the successful operations. Wood is almost always harvested manually by axes and rarely with chain saws. Long-distance transport is mainly carried out by trucks which can carry about 15 to 20 tons of wood at a time. At the reception, the quality of the raw material and the papers are checked, and the load size is weighed. After reception, the wood is transported either to the wood yard or alternatively directly to the chipper. The load is unloaded either by loaders, or sometimes, but rarely, by hand. The results show clearly that the mills are dissatisfied with the present state of wood procurement. The biggest problem is that there the domestic supply is insufficient, which makes the wood raw material price very high and forces the industry to buy wood from abroad and longer distances which affect negatively to transport costs. In India, land ownings of farmers are also small and it complicates efficient wood procurement processes. In addition, farming trees does not interest the local people. Infrastructure is also weak and the use of trains in wood transport is difficult. Some mills stated that the policy plays too big role in determining the price of the raw material. In addition, expertise in supply chain management is weak and no suitable software is available.
  • Nevgi, Anne; Tella, Seppo; Nishimura, Shoji (2010)
    The purpose of this study was to explore what salient characteristics can be found in some university teachers’ approaches to teaching in Finland, Japan and India, and in what ways university teachers in Finland, India and Japan use ICTs (information and communication technologies) in their own teaching. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate what ICT applications these same teachers use in their teaching. The data were collected via an electronic survey and interviews. The participants (N=21) were university teachers from Finland (N=8), Japan (N=10) and India (N=3). Their approaches to teaching were explored by applying the ATI (approaches to teaching inventory) and its modified version focusing on the use of ICTs in teaching. The study reported in this paper was a pilot study, thus the results are based on the limited number of respondents. The ATI and ATI_ICT subscales and ICT inventory applied in this study have been confirmed to be valid. The university teachers in Japan and Finland differed in their approaches to teaching: The Finnish teachers scored higher on the CCSF (conceptual change orientated, student-focused) approach to teaching than the Japanese teachers, while the Japanese teachers scored higher on the ITTF information transmitting, teacher-focused) approach to teaching. Two Indian teachers were classified as having a teacher-focused approach to teaching, while the third was classified as having a student-focused approach to teaching. The teachers’ differences in their use of ICTs related more to their disciplinary status than to their cultural background. approaches to teaching; use of ICT in teaching; Japan; Finland; India