Browsing by Subject "Indonesia"

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  • Sirén, Henna (2004)
    Kylmän sodan päätyttyä kansainvälisessä politiikassa avautui tilaa uusille aiheille, jotka eivät olleet keskeisiä kylmän sodan pohjalle rakentuvassa maailmanjärjestyksessä. Yhtenä tällaisena kysymyksenä ihmisoikeudet nousivat kansainvälisiin suhteisiin vaikuttavaksi tekijäksi. Keskusteluissa mahdollistui myös YK:n ihmisoikeusnormiston luomaa viitekehystä moniarvoisempi debatti, jossa kulttuurirelativismin käsittein kyseenalaistettiin YK:n normiston universalismi. Tämän keskustelun puitteissa useiden Aasian maiden edustajat korostivat maanosansa länsimaisesta poikkeavaa arvomaailmaa, joka tulisi huomioida arvioitaessa alueen ihmisoikeuskysymyksiä. Pro graduni tutkii Indonesiassa 1990-luvulla tapahtuneita ihmisoikeusloukkauksia. Tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia väkivaltaisia ihmisoikeusloukkauksia Indonesiassa tapahtui ja miten niitä voidaan ymmärtää kulttuurirelativismin ja indonesialaisen arvomaailman ja ideologian avulla. Lisäksi pyrkimyksenä on selvittää kansainvälisen yhteisön suhtautumista näihin ihmisoikeusloukkauksiin ja toisaalta Indonesian vastareaktioita kansainvälisen yhteisön suhtautumiseen. Lähtöoletuksena on, että Indonesian ihmisoikeusloukkauksien taustalla vaikuttivat aasialaiset arvot ja velvollisuuskeskeisyys, joilla oli indonesialaisessa yhteiskunnassa suurempi painoarvo kuin YK:n ihmisoikeusjulistusten vapauksia painottavilla artikloilla. Oletan erityisesti Indonesian yhtenäisyyteen tähtäävän valtionideologian ja kansallisen moton, ”yhtenäisyyttä moninaisuudessa”, selittävän väkivaltaisten ihmisoikeusloukkauksien laajuutta. Keskeisenä lähdeaineistona tutkimuksessa ovat YK:n yleiskokouksen ja ihmisoikeustoimikunnan dokumentit sekä kansainvälisten ihmisoikeusjärjestöjen Indonesiaa koskevat raportit. YK:n dokumenttien kautta on mahdollista selvittää kansainvälisen yhteisön suhtautumista Indonesiassa tapahtuneisiin ihmisoikeusloukkauksiin. Kansainvälisten ihmisoikeusjärjestöjen raportit puolestaan antavat käsityksen Indonesiassa tapahtuneiden ihmisoikeusloukkausten luonteesta ja laajuudesta. Lisäksi kulttuurirelativismia, indonesialaista yhteiskuntaa, valtionideologiaa ja historiaa kuvaava tutkimuskirjallisuus tarkentaa sitä viitekehystä, jonka sisällä lähestyn Indonesiassa tapahtuneita ihmisoikeusloukkauksia. Indonesian väkivaltasten ihmisoikeusloukkauksien taustalta voidaan erottaa etnisiä, poliittiseen toisinajatteluun ja alueelliseen separatismiin liittyviä syitä. Useimmiten väkivaltaisten ihmisoikeusloukkauksien toteuttajana toimivat maan armeija ja poliisi. Kulttuurirelativismin käsittein ja indonesialaisen yhteiskunnan arvojen avulla tapahtuneita loukkauksia voidaan osittain ymmärtää: aasialainen yhteisön harmoniaa korostava perinne ja indonesian kansallinen ”yhtenäisyyttä moninaisuudessa” korostava ideologia asettivat valtion yhtenäisyyden arvona yksilön tai yksittäisen väestöryhmän yläpuolelle. Vaikka Indonesian ihmisoikeusloukkauksia voidaankin näin ymmärtää, niiden väkivaltaisuutta kulttuurirelativismi ja ideologiset seikat eivät selitä. Kansainvälisen yhteisön Indonesiaan kiinnittämä huomio pysyi koko 1990-luvun rajallisena. YK:ssa Indonesiaa koskeva keskustelu rajoittui pitkälti vain Itä-Timorin kysymykseen, ja saarivaltion muut ihmisoikeusloukkaukset otettiin puheeksi vain harvoin. Indonesian status näennäisesti demokraattisena valtiona vaikutti kansainvälisen yhteisön haluun puuttua sen toimintaan. Indonesia puolestaan kävi YK:ssa yleensä voimakkaaseen vastahyökkäykseen harvoja kritisoijiaan kohtaan. Sen puheenvuoroissa toistui kaksi teemaa: yhtäältä raivoisa puolustautuminen maan ihmisoikeustilanteeseen kohdistuvaa kritiikkiä vastaan, ja toisaalta valtioiden itsemääräämisoikeuden ja aasialaisten arvojen korostaminen. Näiden puolien korostaminen palveli selkeästi Indonesian omia tarkoitusperiä, ja tällä keinolla se pyrki minimoimaan kansainvälisen yhteisön roolin omien rajojensa sisällä.
  • Korhonen-Kurki, Kaisa; Brockhaus, Maria; Efrian, Muharrom; Juhola, Sirkku; Moira, Moeliono; Cynthia, Maharani; Bimo, Dwisatrio (2017)
    This paper contributes to an emerging body of literature on policy experimentation and governance transformation processes. We use the example of REDD+ as consisting of policy experiments in an emerging domestic policy domain to understand obstacles to transformations in forest and climate governance. We ask two interlinked questions: to what extent did the establishment of the REDD + Agency challenge 'business as usual' in Indonesia's forest and climate policy arena?; and what does this mean for a transformation away from policies and governance that enable deforestation and forest degradation? We draw on the transformation literature to better understand the role of REDD+ to achieve a transformative shift in climate governance. As an experiment of transformative climate governance, the study of REDD + provides important insights for other forest or climate programs. Our analysis shows that the REDD + Agency was successful in some extend in introducing an alternative governance mechanism and in shaking the governance structures but we also note that some of the key actors thought that greater ownership was achieved when the REDD+ Agency was dissolved and the mandate was returned to the ministries. We conclude that policy experimenting is a process, and while the creation of novel policies and their experimentation is important, also their assimilation may lead to new opportunities.
  • Lounela, Anu (2020)
    Climate change mitigation pilot projects (REDD+ - Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) affect and interact with the local population in Central Kalimantan and many other parts of Indonesia. Rather than being politically and economically neutral activities, climate change mitigation projects tend to objectify the value of carbon, land and labour, contributing to a process of commodification of nature and social relations. In this specific case study, a set of values - equality and autonomy - central to the Ngaju people, the indigenous population in Central Kalimantan, become contested in the course of the climate change mitigation project. These central values are produced in everyday activities that include mobility and the productive base - subsistence and market-based production - among the Ngaju people. On the other hand, the climate change mitigation project-related environmental practices and actions produce values that point to individual (material) benefit and stratification of the society. The aim of the paper is to draw attention to and create understanding of value production and related tensions in the efforts to 'fix' environmental degradation problems through the climate change mitigation pilot project in Central Kalimantan.
  • Kaartinen, Timo (2014)
    This article applies Dumont’s view of ideology to an Eastern Indonesian society with intense trade connections to other ethnic groups and the larger political economy. In spite of their commercial importance, these connections are framed as long-distance kinship. My question is whether this encompassment of economic by social values is part of a totalizing ideological order. I discuss the values of personhood and exchange to show that long-distance commerce is the source of social differentiation expressed in them. Ultimately, however, the test of Dumont’s methodology is not whether it helps explain the resilience of local social orders, but whether it can deal with historical complexity and change. I argue that Dumont’s answer – hybrid ideology – is a good description for the encompassment of both kin-based totalities and political-economic stratification
  • Rönkkö, Anitra Sofia (2002)
    Tutkimus käsittelee Indonesiaa konfliktiteoreettisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, mikä on Indonesian oletettu konfliktirakenne ja miten se vaikuttaa tapaustutkimuksen kohteena olevaan Acehin alueeseen, joka vaatii itsenäisyyttä Indonesiasta muun muassa historiallisin ja taloudellisin perustein. Tavoitteena on myös analysoida konfliktirakenteen purkamisyrityksiä ja esitellä vaihtoehtoisia strategioita. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä on käytetty Edward E. Azarin pitkittyneen sosiaalisen konfliktin teoriaa sekä täydentävänä teoriana Indonesian olosuhteista erikoistutkija Timo Kivimäen näkemyksiä Indonesian konfliktialttiudesta. Tutkimuksessa aineistoa käsitellään Azarin teorian pohjalta aina siirtomaa-ajasta nykyaikaan konfliktirakenteen syvällisemmän ymmärtämyksen saavuttamiseksi. Azarin mukaan konfliktirakenteeseen vaikuttavat moniyhteisöllisyys, jossa yhteisöjen vastakkaisuus nousee ongelmatekijäksi sekä tarpeiden tyydyttämättömyys, jotka jaetaan hyväksynnän, pääsyn ja turvallisuuden tarpeisiin. Azar tarkoittaa tällä implisiittisesti demokratian puutetta, joka Kivimäen mukaan ilmenee Itä- ja Kaakkois-Aasian alueella sijaitsevissa valtioissa siten, että ne ovat olleet silmiinpistävän vahvoja ja väkivaltaisia kansalaisiaan kohtaan. Tämä puolestaan patoaa konfliktin impulsseja. Azarin teoriassa käsitellään myös valtion roolia, joka pitkittyneen sosiaalisen konfliktin maissa on usein heikko ja legitimiteetin puutteesta kärsivä. Konfliktin kansainvälinen ulottuvuus on Azarin teoriassa joko sotilaallis-poliittisiin suhteisiin perustuva tai taloudellinen. Tutkimuksessa havaitaan Indonesian konfliktirakenteen rakentuvan pala palalta siirtomaakaudesta lähtien. Erityisen tärkeä konfliktirakenteen kannalta on Indonesian itsenäistymisen kausi, jolloin käytiin perustuslaillista keskustelua Indonesian valtiomuodosta ja päädyttin epädemokraattiseen perustuslakiin olosuhteiden vuoksi. Toinen tärkeä konfliktirakenteen tekijä on presidentti Suharton kausi, jolloin vahvistettiin keskitettyä hallintoa. Suharton kaudessa havaitaan myös eliittitason vaikutus konfliktiin. Keskitetty hallinto yhdessä korruptoituneen hallinnon kanssa on tehnyt Indonesian demokraattisen murroksen hyvin vaikeaksi. Nykyajassa Indonesian suurin ongelma Acehin kohdalla on asevoimien ihmisoikeusrikkomukset Acehissa sekä hallituksen sitoutumattomuus konfliktin ratkaisuyrityksiin. Indonesian ja Acehin välille on syntynyt konfliktin kierre jota on vaikea katkaista, kun hallitus pitäytyy vanhoihin strategioihin, joka puolestaan vaikuttaa negatiivisesti konfliktirakenteen purkuyrityksiin. Tutkimuksen aineisto on kvalitatiivista ja se sisältää akateemisia julkaisuja, aikakausilehtien artikkeleita, raportteja ja uutisia koskien Indonesiaa. Konfliktiteoreettinen aineisto perustuu em. Edward E. Azarin teokseen “The Management of Protracted Social Conflict. Theory and Cases.” sekä Timo Kivimäen teokseen ”Saarivaltio viidakkoveitsen terällä. Analyysi Indonesian konflikteista.” Indonesiaa koskevassa osiossa on käytetty Indonesian tutkijoiden ja asiantuntijoiden teoksia, joista tärkeimpänä Adam Schwartzin ”A nation in waiting. Indonesia´s Search for Stability.”
  • Masuda, Shingo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Among small and medium size companies in developing countries, innovations are needed to improve profitability of the business and to survive in global competition. Not only the globalization and competition are the challenges, but also new legality proof requirements set by EU and governments places companies in a new situation. This paper examines the value chain of small scale producer´s wooden furniture, from Jepara, Indonesia to the EU market. The value chain from a forest to ready furniture is analyzed through deep interviews of key informants. Also the policies which have influence on the value chain, such as the EU timber regulation (EUTR) and Indonesian national timber legality assurance system (SVLK) are taken into account. The aim of the study is to localize the strengths and the weaknesses of the value chain and to find solutions either to integrate or to improve the competitiveness. The study led to new recommendations for furniture businesses in Jepara and found out that forest related policies are impacting on the value chain in several ways.
  • Ochieng, Robert M.; Arts, Bas; Brockhaus, Maria; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. (2018)
    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between "shallow" institutionalization on the one end, and "deep" institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing "deep" institutionalization, Peru "shallow-intermediate" institutionalization, and Tanzania "intermediate-deep" institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
  • Knuutila, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    This thesis studies the tree species’ juvenile diversity in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) based agroforestry and in primary forest in a natural conservation forest environment of Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi, Indonesia. Species’ adult composition in Lore Lindu National Park is relatively well studied, less is known about tree species’ diversity in seedling communities particularly in frequently disturbed cacao agroforestry field environment. Cacao production forms a potentially serious thread for maintaining the conservation areas pristine and forested in Sulawesi. The impacts of cacao production on natural environment are directly linked to the diversity and abundance of shade tree usage. The study aims at comparing differences between cacao agroforestry and natural forest in the surrounding area in their species composition in seedling and sapling size categories. The study was carried out in two parts. Biodiversity inventory of seedlings and saplings was combined with social survey with farmer interviews. Aim of the survey was to gain knowledge of the cacao fields, and farmers’ observations and choices regarding tree species associated with cacao. Data was collected in summer 2008. The assessment of the impact of environmental factors of solar radiation, weeding frequency, cacao tree planting density, distance to forest and distance to main park road, and type of habitat on seedling and sapling compositions was done with Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMS). Outlier analysis was used to assess distorting variables for NMS, and Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) analysis to differentiate the impact of categorical variables. Sampling success was estimated with rarefaction curves and jackknife estimate of species richness. In the inventory 135 species of trees and shrubs were found. Only some agroforestry related species were dominating. The most species rich were sapling communities in forest habitat. NMS was showing generally low linear correlation between variation of species composition and environmental variables. Solar radiation was having most significance as explaining variable. The most clearly separated in ordination were cacao and forest habitats. The results of seedling and sapling inventory were only partly coinciding with farmers’ knowledge of the tree species occurring on their fields. More research with frequent assessment of seedling cohorts is needed due to natural variability of cohorts and high mortality rate of seedlings.
  • Martela, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This Master’s Thesis will reflect on how information can empower women in urban West Jakarta through examining two different forums that provide crucial healthcare information for women in lower income families. My main focus is on analyzing a mobile phone service, which was a pilot project by Nokia Life and Mercy Corps in West Jakarta, targeted for pregnant women and women with small children. My research is based on participatory observation, focus group discussions, and interviews in late 2011 and early 2012. Anthropological research does not provide many studies on how women in development countries use mobile phones. My Master’s Thesis tries to shed light on this area. In addition to this, the study tackles the growing but little researched field of mobile phone use in health services; the so-called Mhealth use. In my thesis I will look at technology use from a gender perspective. I am especially interested in the feelings mobile phone services such as Nokia Life generates in its women users. I will thus show how information via mobile phones can have the potential to empower women, even though some barriers to the empowerment process occur in developing countries. As a theoretical basis I will utilize, for example, Chib et al.’s (2008) ICTs for development model. I will also discuss how women in West Jakarta use their mobile phones, and argue that mobile phones can impact women’s lives, but only if the socio-cultural setting allows this. In West-Jakarta, mobile phone and Mhealth use broadened mothers’ lives within the domain of motherhood. Their cultural and social setting thus set the limits on how the mobile phones could alter their lives.
  • Di Gregorio, Monica; Fatorelli, Leandra; Paavola, Jouni; Locatelli, Bruno; Pramova, Emilia; Nurrochmat, Dodik Ridho; May, Peter H.; Brockhaus, Maria; Sari, Intan Maya; Kusumadewi, Sonya Dyah (2019)
    This article proposes an innovative theoretical framework that combines institutional and policy network approaches to study multi-level governance. The framework is used to derive a number of propositions on how cross-level power imbalances shape communication and collaboration across multiple levels of governance. The framework is then applied to examine the nature of cross-level interactions in climate change mitigation and adaptation policy processes in the land use sectors of Brazil and Indonesia. The paper identifies major barriers to cross-level communication and collaboration between national and sub-national levels. These are due to power imbalances across governance levels that reflect broader institutional differences between federal and decentralized systems of government. In addition, powerful communities operating predominantly at the national level hamper cross-level interactions. The analysis also reveals that engagement of national level actors is more extensive in the mitigation and that of local actors in the adaptation policy domain, and specialisation in one of the climate change responses at the national level hampers effective climate policy integration in the land use sector.
  • Ramdani, Rijal; Lounela, Anu K. (2020)
    Tropical peatland suffers from rapid degradation due to expansion of palm oil plantations. In Indonesia, Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) have an important role in peatland protection. This paper discusses the implications of responsibilization in the relation between advocacy and service ENGOs in the context of tropical peatland protection and the expansion of palm oil in Sumatra, Indonesia. Drawing on the scholarly discussion on responsibilization in environmental management we show that responsibilization in peatland protection increases distrust among the ENGOs by generating a diversity of actors with different material support, burdens and principles of work, and even polarized opposition between the networks. Such distrust has a bearing on the effect of the actions, networks, and material support of advocacy and service ENGOs. Advocacy ENGOs share similar interests with their donors, which allow them to perform their expected actions autonomously, while service ENGOs are more dependent on donors' programmes and aims. The research utilized methods such as face-to-face semi-structured interviews with advocacy and service ENGOs, state and non-state actors, palm oil farmers, palm oil associations and three leaders of local communities, combined with participant observation. We argue that responsibilization should be explored case by case because different responsibilization processes lead to differing burdens among different types of ENGOs. Contrary to expectations, responsibilization in peatland protection may thus decrease the possibilities for peatland protection in the area.
  • Silver, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract Human trafficking is a complex issue that has close connections to other large societal and global issues such as contemporary slavery, inequalities and migration. Trafficking can be seen as a part of a larger scale exploitation of labor and migrants. The risk of being re-trafficked after a trafficking experience is higher and well executed reintegration can reduce this risk. However, the research into the reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficked persons is underrepresented in the current academic literature. This thesis takes a closer look at the assisted return programs and reintegration and rehabilitation of trafficked persons in Indonesia to determine how well the programs respond to the needs of trafficked persons when they return home. The work provides insights into the experiences of integration and rehabilitation after trafficking and brings forth some of the experiences of trafficked persons. The causalities behind trafficking are explored through the concept of vulnerabilities to highlight how different systems produce vulnerabilities and increase the risks of being trafficked. These same vulnerabilities are faced upon return as well with additional vulnerabilities (f.e. health and psychological issues) imposed on trafficked persons by their experience. Vulnerabilities of a person are constructed in multiple dimensions. In this thesis the vulnerabilities are framed firstly through the concepts of labor migration, globalization and capitalism and secondly through concepts of oppression, exploitation and dehumanization to highlight the complexities surrounding vulnerabilities and consequently trafficking and reintegration. Through reviewing existing literature on reintegration of trafficked persons, an online interview with the employees of Indonesian Migrant Workers Union (SBMI) and a questionnaire to previously trafficked persons on their needs, a framework for desirable reintegration was established. The framework was then used to analyze IOM Indonesia’s Handbook on Service Mechanisms for Witnesses and/or Victims of Trafficking in Persons in Indonesia to establish how well the programs in Indonesia answer the needs of trafficked persons. The results of the thesis highlight that the needs of trafficked persons upon return are multiple. People need to be presented with an opportunity to become self-sufficient economically and socially and their health needs (both physical and psychological) need to be met. Most common issues faced by the informants of this thesis were economic and psychological in nature, but other difficulties were common as well. The analysis of IOM Indonesia’s handbook provided a positive view of the reintegration and rehabilitation in Indonesia. The Handbook was comprehensive and all-encompassing. Furthermore, it encouraged to take each individual’s needs into consideration and adjust the programs to fit each person. All dimensions of reintegration are taken into account. The results of the questionnaire however indicated that the state response in prosecuting the perpetrators is not sufficient and many informants were left without a proper restitution and with a feeling of injustice. The programs provide great tools to combat different difficulties faced by trafficked persons and help to mitigate the risks and reduce vulnerabilities. However, there are larger societal and developmental complexities behind trafficking and vulnerabilities people face. Issues of poverty, oppression and inequality cannot be improved by the rehabilitation and reintegration programs. This would require larger shift in policy and the way we organize and think about our global world.
  • Miettinen, Jukka O.; Rosenberg, Veli (2016)
    Teatterikorkeakoulun julkaisusarja
  • Jauhola, Marjaana (Helsinki University Press, 2020)
    Pro et Contra
  • Ruottu, Maria Eveliina (2007)
    This thesis is a descriptive study about the plural healthcare system on Siberut Island, Indonesia. The study explores the theoretical concepts of medical systems and medical pluralism in relation to the case study of Siberut Island. For the situation encountered on the island, Arthur Kleinman’s model of health care systems and Tapio Nisula’s term medical culture are appropriate. Because the study concentrates on describing the traditional shamanic medical system of Siberut on one hand, and the relatively recent biomedical healthcare on the other, the theoretical chapter includes discussion on ethnomedicine and the medical anthropological study of biomedicine. In this study, biomedicine is viewed as one ethnomedicine among others. Its basis in the Cartesian dualism and how this shows in biomedical theory and practice is discussed. This thesis is written in the spirit of critical medical anthropology (CMA), paying attention to macro-level processes such as national politics and policies, economy, history, questions of identity etc. The thesis is based on data collected during a seven month field work period in 2003, out of which approximately three months were spent in the small village of Ugai on Siberut. Siberut belongs to the Mentawai Archipelago, on the western side of Sumatra. Siberut is the biggest island of the archipelago, and has until recently remained fairly untouched by outside influences. In the last two decades, it has become increasingly known internationally due to its unique nature and indigenous culture. The field data was collected through participant observation, discussions with villagers and people working in healthcare, and some interviews. In addition, available literature on Siberut and on healthcare seeking and medical pluralism has been used. After the theoretical considerations, the thesis first describes Siberut and its history, then the traditional cosmology and healing practices related to it. The history and functioning of biomedical healthcare on the island is discussed next. The last two chapters discuss the plural health care system as a whole, describing what factors affect healthcare seeking. Seven case histories are presented to give the reader an understanding of the lived reality of Siberut’s plural healthcare system. Using Kleinman’s model, three sectors can be identified in the Siberutan health care system: 1) the folk sector (of self-medication with herbal remedies and over the counter biomedical products), 2) the traditional sector (of shamans, herbalists and traditional midwives), and 3) the professional sector (of biomedical doctors and nurses). The sectors are overlapping and complementary. People on Siberut Island use the plural medical system flexibly according to their needs and depending on their situation. They do not view the different kinds of healthcare as separate bounded systems, and see no contradiction in using e.g. shamanic healing and biomedical healthcare simultaneously or consequtively. Especially the providers of biomedical healthcare formulate stricter boundaries between the systems. Still collaboration between the different kinds of healthcare providers has increased and further cooperation is hoped for the future.
  • Varis, Eveliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Paraserianthes falcataria is a very fast growing, light wood tree species, that has recently gained wide interest in Indonesia for industrial wood processing. At the moment the P. falcataria plantations managed by smallholders are lacking predefined management programmes for commercial wood production. The general objective of this study was to model the growth and yield of Paraserianthes falcataria stands managed by smallholders in Ciamis, West Java, Indonesia and to develop management scenarios for different production objectives. In total 106 circular sample plots with over 2300 P. falcataria trees were assessed on smallholder plantation inventory. In addition, information on market prices of P. falcataria wood was collected through rapid appraisals among industries. A tree growth model based on Chapman-Richards function was developed on three different site qualities and the stand management scenarios were developed under three management objectives: (1) low initial stand density with low intensity stand management, (2) high initial stand density with medium intensity of intervention, (3) high initial stand density and strong intensity of silvicultural interventions, repeated more than once. In general, the 9 recommended scenarios have rotation ages varying from 4 to 12 years, planting densities from 4x4 meters (625 trees ha-1) to 3x2 meters (1666 trees ha-1) and thinnings at intensities of removing 30 to 60 % of the standing trees. The highest annual income would be generated on high-quality with a scenario with initial planting density 3x2 m (1666 trees ha-1) one thinning at intensity of removing 55 % of the standing trees at the age of 2 years and clear cut at the age of 4 years.
  • Tomankova, Hana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The tourism industry has a big impact on world economies since it is a leading sector in employment. The big growth of the tourism industry since 1950s brought many problems to destinations. Mass tourism caused overuse of local resources which has led to environmental degradation in destinations. In order to stop the overexploitation of destinations, sustainable development and further sustainable tourism development concepts have been created. Implementation of sustainable tourism development should ensure environmental, economic, social and cultural sustainability of destinations. However, this concept is defined vaguely, and it lacks specificity, and therefore, it allows many different interpretations of its application. This case study is located in Sade village on Lombok island in Indonesia. It is focused on exploring the impact of tourism development on sustainability of local livelihoods. Livelihood sustainability is analyzed through the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework for Tourism to which was added cultural capital as a livelihood asset since cultural capital has a big impact on sustaining traditional livelihoods. The TALC model is also used to analyze stages of tourism development in said location. Finally, the discourse of tourism sustainability is examined in the location. The results show that currently tourism is an additional livelihood activity to farming, which is a main livelihood activity of the local community. Thus, tourism serves as a diversification tool of local livelihoods; therefore, local livelihoods are sustainable over a long term. However, further findings indicate that this situation might not last long, since big governmental tourism development interventions are ongoing. Foreign direct investment, which is part of this intervention can have negative impact on local livelihoods and can break established ties between local people and tourists. Massive tourism development that includes construction of the Mandalika all-inclusive resort will exclude the majority of the local population from involvement. Furthermore, tourists staying in this resort will have no need to go outside the resort, thus; local community will not profit from this type of tourism in the future. Furthermore, this study reveals the impact of tourism development on the economic situation of the local population, which is improving due to tourism activities. On the other hand, negative impacts are visible on culture, such as acculturation and cultural commodification phenomena, and in the environment, where landscape transformation and land grabbing are taking place. This tourism development cannot be labelled as sustainable, since local people are not involved in any stage of the tourism process, environment is being slowly degraded and cultural and social impacts are extensive. Local population is considered in governmental tourism development only on paper but not in reality. This qualitative research was conducted in Sade village among Sasak population on Lombok island. The data were collected during one month visit at the beginning of the year 2017 through 20 semi-structured interviews, supported by informal conversations and participant observations. The data was transcribed and analyzed together with field diary through qualitative content analysis.
  • Mountraki, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tämä tutkimus on laadullinen sisällönanalyysi Indonesian uskonnonvapaustilanteesta. Sen tavoitteena on avata maan monimutkaista uskonnonvapaustilannetta, jossa vähemmistöjen ihmisoikeudet ovat uhattuina, vaikka maan perustuslaki on rakennettu kunnioittamaan uskonnonvapautta. Kiinnostukseni teemaan heräsi, kun olin Indonesiassa Kirkkojen maailmanneuvoston kansainvälisten asiain komission jäsenenä ja kuulin radikalisaation jyrkästä kasvusta. Indonesia on tuhansien saarien valtio, jossa eri uskontoryhmät ja kulttuurit ovat eläneet rinnakkain. Itsenäistymisen jälkeen 1949 Indonesiassa alkoi kausi, jolloin haluttiin yhdistää kansa ja syntyi perustuslakiin kirjattu ideologia, pancasila, jonka periaatteiden mukaan indonesialaiset elävät tänäkin päivänä. Viidestä periaatteesta ensimmäinen on usko Jumalaan. Indonesia on kuitenkin sekulaari valtio, jossa kuudella uskonnolla on laissa erityinen asema. Islam on uskonnoista suurin, ja maassa on maailman suurin islaminuskoinen väestö. Periaatteessa uskonto- ja väestöryhmät elävät harmoniassa, mutta on käynyt yhä selvemmäksi, että uskonnonvapaudella on rajansa. Vähemmistöjen tilanne on heikentynyt. Radikalisaatiolle on annettu enemmän tilaa, ja suvaitsemattomuus erilaisuutta kohtaan on lisääntynyt. Tilanne on monin puolin johtanut konflikteihin, joissa useimmiten uhreina ovat vähemmistön edustajat, kirkot ja enemmistöstä eroavat islamilaiset liikkeet. Indonesiassa on kaksi 2000-luvulla päivitettyä lakia, jumalanpilkka- ja uskonnollisen harmonian laki, jotka omalta osaltaan antavat tilaa tällaiselle käytökselle. Molemmat lait tukevat sunnimuslimienemmistöä. Tutkielman vertailu- sekä lähtökohtana on ihmisoikeuksien yleismaailmallinen julistus. Tutkielma on koottu ensisijaisesti kansainvälisistä raporteista, mm. Yhdysvaltain kansainvälisen uskonnonvapauskomission raporteista. Toissijaisena aineistona on käytetty aiempaa akateemista kirjallisuutta poikkitieteellisesti eri akateemisilta aloilta. Tutkimus alkaa perehtymällä Indonesian historialliseen ja hallinnolliseen tilanteeseen ja uskonnon osaan siinä. Itse Analyysissä käsitellään erityisesti jumalanpilkkalakia ja sen käyttöä sekä uskonnollisen harmonian lakia ja sen vaikutuksia vähemmistöihin. Tutkimus vastaa siten kysymyksiin uskonnonvapauden tilasta Indonesiassa, siihen millainen rooli valtiolla sekä islamilla on suhteessa uskonnonvapauskysymyksiin sekä siihen, miten uskonnonvapauslait ja -tilanne vaikuttavat vähemmistöihin Indonesiassa. Tulokset osoittavat, että enemmistöllä on huomattavasti enemmän valtaa verrattuna vähemmistöihin ja että se myös käyttää valtaa oman uskonnollisen edun tavoittelemiseen. Tämä on johtanut siihen, että vähemmistöt ovat ajautuneet kapeammalle alueelle sekä suoranaisten hyökkäysten kohteeksi. Vähemmistöuskontojen edustajat ovat joutuneet maalittamisten kohteiksi, ja lakeja on käytetty heitä vastaan myös poliittisen pelin pelaamiseen. Vähemmistöuskontojen hengelliset tilat ovat olleet hyökkäysten kohteina eikä uusille tiloille ei ole annettu rakennuslupia. Uskonnonvapauden tila on kaventunut huomattavasti verrattuna itsenäistymisen jälkeiseen aikaan. Uskonnon kontrollointi lain voimin sekä käyttö poliittisena elementtinä on Indonesian tapauksessa epäonnistunut turvaamaan uskonnonvapauden kaikille.
  • Mölkänen, Jenni (2008)
    Tutkimus käsittelee Melakan salmella sijaitsevan Riau-Johorin malajivaltiota ja sen valtiollsta rakennetta 1700 – luvulla. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on osoittaa, että malajivaltiossa oli rakenne, joka oli muotoutunut paikallisen kulttuurin ja historiallisten prosessien konjunktuurissa.Taustana pohdinnalle ovat eurooppalaisten huomiot malajivaltiosta. Eurooppaliset luonnehtivat valtiota kaoottiseksi, ikään kuin se ei olisi ”kenenkään vallan alaisuudessa” (Barnard 2003, 1), ja paikalliset päälliköt vaikuttivat enemmän ”vangeilta kuin hallitsijoilta” (Andaya 1975, 131).Lisäksi työ huomioi valtion rakenteen muutoksen, kun laajatympäri Indonesian saaristoa levittäytynyt bugis -siirtolaisuus alkaa. Työn aineisto on Hänen Majesteettinsa murhan kuvaus. Hallitsijan murha oli malajimaailmassa ultimaattisin rikos, mitä alamaiset saattoivat tehdä. Murha merkitsi niin paikallisissa kuin laajemissa rakenteissa tapahtuvia muutoksia. Erityistä huomiota työssä kiinnitetään malajien historiallisiin narratiiveihin, joiden avulla he pitävät yllä käsitystään hallitsijasta ja valtiosta. Keskeisiä käsityksiä malajeille ovat hallitsijan karisma (daulat) sekä uskollisuuden vaade hallitsijaa kohtaan. Lisäksi valtio jakautuu meren ja maan ihmisiin, ja näiden kolmen suhteessa on olemassa malajilainen valtio. Bugis- migraatiot alkavat Etelä-Sulawesillä 1600 -luvun lopulla. Bugisit muuttavat Melakan salmelle ja integroituvat paikallisiin yhteiskuntiin taistelutaitojensa avulla. Rakenteen tarkastelusta selviää, että kun malajivaltiossa sodan elementti on sijainnut valtion rajoilla, on se bugisien myötä valtion keskuksessa. Bugisien hallintotapa, sillä hetkellä on malajien rakenteelle käänteinen. Kuitenkin tutkielmassa käy selville, että bugisien integraatioita toisiin hallintoihin ja niiden merkittävien positioiden ottamista ei voida selittää vain bugisien taistelutaidoilla. Taustalla vaikuttavat Etelä-Sulawesin tapahtumat sekä käsitys bugiseille merkittävästä kunnian ja häpeän puolustamisesta.
  • Ingram, Verina; Ningsih, Intan Kurniati; Savilaakso, Sini (2020)
    The Forest Stewardship Council initiated a Forest Certification for Ecosystem Services (ForCES) project from 2011 to 2017 to improve and promote sustainable forest management addressing a range of ecosystem services. Three sites in Indonesia were included in the pilot. Whilst the development of the certification standard was largely the result of a partnership between the certification standard organization, civil society and research organizations, implementation and monitoring of the impact of this sustainability standard will entail interactions with state regulations. This study examined how voluntary certification, other market-based approaches and state regulations concerning ecosystem services in Indonesia interplay, particularly in the agenda setting and negotiation stage. Using the conceptual lenses of transition theory and state and non-state market-based governance, interrelationships between ecosystem services certification and regulations were found to be complementary and antagonistic. The majority of interrelations were complementary and supporting. However, antagonism exists where regulations do not address multiple land uses and when there are contradictions in how state regulations define ecosystem services. There was limited state involvement in developing the ecosystem services certification standard, with no substitution between the voluntary standard and regulations occurring. To scale and transition this innovatory standard from a niche to a sociotechnical regime level, it is recommended that market-driven governance arrangements at farm, forest concession and landscape level are developed in collaboration with national and local governments. Collaboration can create synergies to incentivize the acceptance, adoption and effectiveness of non-state market driven instruments to positively enhance the conservation of ecosystem services.