Browsing by Subject "Inequalities"

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  • Lahelma, Eero; Pietilainen, Olli; Pentala-Nikulainen, Oona; Helakorpi, Satu; Rahkonen, Ossi (2019)
    Health inequalities exist across countries and populations, but little is known about their long-term trends and even less about factors shaping the trends. We examined the magnitude of absolute and relative educational inequalities in self-rated health over 36 years among Finnish adults, considering individual covariates and macro-economic fluctuations. Our data were derived from representative annual cross-sectional surveys in 1979-2014 conducted among adult men and women. Participants aged 25-64 were included and nine periods used (n = 8870-14235). Our health outcome was less-than-good self-rated health (SRH) and our socioeconomic indicator was completed years of education as a continuous variable. Educational inequalities in self-rated health were analysed using the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII). Nine time-variant sociodemographic and health-related covariates were included in the analyses. Linear trends suggested stable or slightly curvilinear overall trends in both absolute and relative health equalities over 36 years. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities narrowed immediately after economic recession in Finland in 1993-1994. Among women, inequalities narrowed during financial crisis in 2008-2009. Adjusting for most covariates reduced the magnitude of inequalities throughout the nine periods, but affected little the temporal patterning of health inequalities. Educational inequalities in self-rated health remained during 36 years in Finland. While among men and women health inequalities narrowed during and after recessions, they widened soon back to the pre-recession level. The perseverance of the trends calls for novel and powerful measures to tackle health inequalities.
  • Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Deboosere, Patrick; Espelt, Albert; Bopp, Matthias; Borrell, Carme; Costa, Giuseppe; Eikemo, Terje Andreas; Gnavi, Roberto; Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kulhanova, Ivana; Kulik, Margarete; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka; Menvielle, Gwenn; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Rychtarikova, Jitka; Mackenbach, Johan P.; EURO-GBD-SE Consortium (2015)
    To evaluate educational inequalities in diabetes mortality in Europe in the 2000s, and to assess whether these inequalities differ between genders. Data were obtained from mortality registries covering 14 European countries. To determine educational inequalities in diabetes mortality, age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios, and slope and relative indices of inequality were calculated. To assess whether the association between education and diabetes mortality differs between genders, diabetes mortality was regressed on gender, educational rank and 'gender x educational rank'. An inverse association between education and diabetes mortality exists in both genders across Europe. Absolute educational inequalities are generally larger among men than women; relative inequalities are generally more pronounced among women, the relative index of inequality being 2.8 (95 % CI 2.0-3.9) in men versus 4.8 (95 % CI 3.2-7.2) in women. Gender inequalities in diabetes mortality are more marked in the highest than the lowest educated. Education and diabetes mortality are inversely related in Europe in the 2000s. This association differs by gender, indicating the need to take the socioeconomic and gender dimension into account when developing public health policies.
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Morgan, Jamie; Patomäki, Heikki Olavi (2017)
  • Leinsalu, Mall; Baburin, Aleksei; Jasilionis, Domantas; Krumins, Juris; Martikainen, Pekka; Stickley, Andrew (2020)
    Introduction: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented economic growth followed by a deep recession. This study aimed to examine changes and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in relation to macroeconomic fluctuations. Methods: We analysed changes in overall suicide mortality and by educational level between the 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 periods among men aged 30-64 years using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression), the relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Results: Overall suicide mortality fell markedly from 2000-2003 to 2004-2007. The decline was largest among high educated men in the Baltic countries and among middle and low educated men in Finland. From 2004-2007 to 2008-2011, the positive trend slowed and while suicide mortality continued to fall among middle and low educated men, it increased somewhat among high educated men in all Baltic countries. In Finland, suicide mortality decreased among the high educated and increased slightly among low educated men. Conclusions: In the Baltic countries, lower educated men had a smaller decline in suicide mortality than higher educated men during a period of rapid economic expansion, however, they were not more disadvantaged during the recession, possibly because of being less exposed to financial loss. Consequently, relative inequalities in suicide mortality may increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions.
  • Toffol, Elena; Heikinheimo, Oskari; But, Anna; Latvala, Antti; Partonen, Timo; Haukka, Jari (2021)
    Background Monitoring factors related to hormonal contraception (HC) use is essential to evaluating public health strategies and promoting access to contraception. We aimed to examine municipal social and health indicators of HC use at the population level, and to identify patterns of inequality across Finnish municipalities. Methods We identified all women (15-49 years) with a redeemed HC prescription in Finland in 2017 (n = 294,445), and a control group of non-users. Municipal social and health indicators at the population level were retrieved from the nationwide Statistics and Indicator Bank. Differences between the groups across 309 municipalities were calculated, and associations of municipal-specific proportions of HC users with municipal-specific indicators were studied using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) models. Results Sociodemographic differences between HC users and non-users were non-homogenous across municipalities. Indicators positively associated with HC use included: larger population and higher proportions of population aged 16-24 years, of household-dwelling units with one person, of persons with higher education, and of divorces among those aged 25-64. Lower HC use was associated with higher proportions of Swedish-speaking population, of those aged 7-15 years, of young people not in education/training, and of household-dwelling units in overcrowded conditions. Lower HC use was also associated with indicators of outpatient and inpatient healthcare, and of municipal finances in welfare and healthcare. Conclusions Sociodemographic differences in relation to HC use exist across Finnish municipalities. Municipal indicators of social structure, health and welfare, and investment in and use of healthcare services are related to HC use.
  • Toffol, Elena; Heikinheimo, Oskari; But, Anna; Latvala, Antti; Partonen, Timo; Haukka, Jari (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Monitoring factors related to hormonal contraception (HC) use is essential to evaluating public health strategies and promoting access to contraception. We aimed to examine municipal social and health indicators of HC use at the population level, and to identify patterns of inequality across Finnish municipalities. Methods We identified all women (15–49 years) with a redeemed HC prescription in Finland in 2017 (n = 294,445), and a control group of non-users. Municipal social and health indicators at the population level were retrieved from the nationwide Statistics and Indicator Bank. Differences between the groups across 309 municipalities were calculated, and associations of municipal-specific proportions of HC users with municipal-specific indicators were studied using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator) models. Results Sociodemographic differences between HC users and non-users were non-homogenous across municipalities. Indicators positively associated with HC use included: larger population and higher proportions of population aged 16–24 years, of household-dwelling units with one person, of persons with higher education, and of divorces among those aged 25–64. Lower HC use was associated with higher proportions of Swedish-speaking population, of those aged 7–15 years, of young people not in education/training, and of household-dwelling units in overcrowded conditions. Lower HC use was also associated with indicators of outpatient and inpatient healthcare, and of municipal finances in welfare and healthcare. Conclusions Sociodemographic differences in relation to HC use exist across Finnish municipalities. Municipal indicators of social structure, health and welfare, and investment in and use of healthcare services are related to HC use.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Heloma, Antero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lahti, Jouni; Pentala-Nikulainen, Oona; Rahkonen, Ossi; Puska, Pekka (2019)
    ObjectivesSmoking is declining, but it is unevenly distributed among population groups. Our aim was to examine the socio-economic differences in smoking during 1978-2016 in Finland, a country with a history of strict tobacco control policy.MethodsAnnual population-based random sample data of 25-64-year-olds from 1978 to 2016 (N=104,315) were used. Response rate varied between 84 and 40%. In addition to logistic regression analysis, absolute and relative educational differences in smoking were examined.ResultsSmoking was more prevalent among the less educated but declined in all educational groups during the study period. Both absolute and relative differences in smoking between the less and highly educated were larger at the end of the study period than at the beginning. Cigarette price seemed to have a larger effect on the smoking among the less educated.ConclusionsSocio-economic differences in smoking among the Finnish adult population have increased since the 1970s until 2016. Further actions are needed, especially focusing on lower socio-economic positions, to tackle inequalities in health. They should include support for smoking cessation and larger cigarette tax increases.