Browsing by Subject "Insulin resistance"

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  • Kochumon, Shihab; Arefanian, Hossein; Sindhu, Sardar; Shenouda, Steve; Thomas, Reeby; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Ahmad, Rasheed (2021)
    Steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1) is involved in pathophysiological responses of adipose tissue (AT) in obesity. In vitro and animal studies have elucidated its role in meta-inflammation. Since SRA1 AT expression in obesity/type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relationship with immune-metabolic signatures remains unclear, we assessed AT SRA1 expression and its association with immune–metabolic markers in individuals with obesity/T2D. For this, 55 non-diabetic and 53 T2D individuals classified as normal weight (NW; lean), overweight, and obese were recruited and fasting blood and subcutaneous fat biopsy samples were collected. Plasma metabolic markers were assessed using commercial kits and AT expression of SRA1 and selected immune markers using RT-qPCR. SRA1 expression was significantly higher in non-diabetic obese compared with NW individuals. SRA1 expression associated with BMI, PBF, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR in the total study population and people without diabetes. SRA1 associated with waist circumference in people without diabetes and NW participants, whereas it associated inversely with HbA1c in overweight participants. In most study subgroups AT SRA1 expression associated directly with CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, TNF-α, TGF-β, IL2RA, and IL18, but inversely with CCL19 and CCR2. TGF-β/IL18 independently predicted the SRA1 expression in people without diabetes and in the total study population, while TNF-α/IL-2RA predicted SRA1 only in people with diabetes. TNF-α also predicted SRA1 in both NW and obese people regardless of the diabetes status. In conclusion, AT SRA1 expression is elevated in people with obesity which associates with typical immunometabolic markers of obesity/T2D, implying that SRA1 may have potential as a biomarker of metabolic derangements.
  • Arora, Geeti P.; Almgren, Peter; Brons, Charlotte; Thaman, Richa G.; Vaag, Allan A.; Groop, Leif; Prasad, Rashmi B. (2018)
    Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a more common problem in India than in many other parts of the world but it is not known whether this is due to unique environmental factors or a unique genetic background. To address this question we examined whether the same genetic variants associated with GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians also were associated with GDM in North Indian women. Methods: Five thousand one hundred pregnant women of gestational age 24-28 weeks from Punjab were studied by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed by both WHO1999 and 2013 criteria. 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with T2D and glycemic traits (12 of them also with GDM) and 6 SNPs from previous T2D associations based on Indian population (some also with European) were genotyped on a Sequenom platform or using Taqman assays in DNA from 4018 women. Results: In support of previous findings in Caucasian GDM, SNPs at KCJN11 and GRB14 loci were nominally associated with GDM1999 risk in Indian women (both p = 0.02). Notably, T2D risk alleles of the variant rs1552224 near CENTD2, rs11708067 in ADCY5 and rs11605924 in CRY2 genes associated with protection from GDM regardless of criteria applied (p <0.025). SNPs rs7607980 near COBLL1 (p = 0.0001), rs13389219 near GRB14 (p = 0.026) and rs10423928 in the GIPR gene (p = 0.012) as well as the genetic risk score (GRS) for these previously shown insulin resistance loci here associated with insulin resistance defined by HOMA2-IR and showed a trend towards GDM. GRS comprised of 3 insulin secretion loci here associated with insulin secretion but not GDM. Conclusions: GDM in women from Punjab in Northern India shows a genetic component, seemingly driven by insulin resistance and secretion and partly shared with GDM in other parts of the world. Most previous T2D loci discovered in European studies did not associate with GDM in North India, indicative of different genetic etiology or alternately, differences in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between populations in which the associated SNPs were identified and Northern Indian women. Interestingly some T2D risk variants were in fact indicative of being protective for GDM in these Indian women.
  • Arora, Geeti P; Almgren, Peter; Brøns, Charlotte; Thaman, Richa G; Vaag, Allan A; Groop, Leif; Prasad, Rashmi B (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a more common problem in India than in many other parts of the world but it is not known whether this is due to unique environmental factors or a unique genetic background. To address this question we examined whether the same genetic variants associated with GDM and Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in Caucasians also were associated with GDM in North Indian women. Methods Five thousand one hundred pregnant women of gestational age 24–28 weeks from Punjab were studied by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). GDM was diagnosed by both WHO1999 and 2013 criteria. 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with T2D and glycemic traits (12 of them also with GDM) and 6 SNPs from previous T2D associations based on Indian population (some also with European) were genotyped on a Sequenom platform or using Taqman assays in DNA from 4018 women. Results In support of previous findings in Caucasian GDM, SNPs at KCJN11 and GRB14 loci were nominally associated with GDM1999 risk in Indian women (both p = 0.02). Notably, T2D risk alleles of the variant rs1552224 near CENTD2, rs11708067 in ADCY5 and rs11605924 in CRY2 genes associated with protection from GDM regardless of criteria applied (p < 0.025). SNPs rs7607980 near COBLL1 (p = 0.0001), rs13389219 near GRB14 (p = 0.026) and rs10423928 in the GIPR gene (p = 0.012) as well as the genetic risk score (GRS) for these previously shown insulin resistance loci here associated with insulin resistance defined by HOMA2-IR and showed a trend towards GDM. GRS comprised of 3 insulin secretion loci here associated with insulin secretion but not GDM. Conclusions GDM in women from Punjab in Northern India shows a genetic component, seemingly driven by insulin resistance and secretion and partly shared with GDM in other parts of the world. Most previous T2D loci discovered in European studies did not associate with GDM in North India, indicative of different genetic etiology or alternately, differences in the linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure between populations in which the associated SNPs were identified and Northern Indian women. Interestingly some T2D risk variants were in fact indicative of being protective for GDM in these Indian women.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp (2018)
    Background and aims: In the general population, habitual coffee consumption is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome, a syndrome that is rather common also in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, whether coffee intake is beneficially related to the metabolic syndrome also in type 1 diabetes, is not known. We, therefore, studied the potential association between coffee consumption and the metabolic syndrome in a large population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, we investigated whether coffee consumption is associated with insulin resistance (estimated glucose disposal rate, eGDR), kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR), and low-grade chronic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hsCRP). Methods and results: Data from 1040 participants in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in these cross-sectional analyses. Metabolic syndrome was assumed if at least 3 of the following cardiovascular risk factors were present: central obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, high triglyceride concentration, and hyperglycaemia. Subjects were categorized based on self-reported daily coffee intake: non-consumers (= 1 cups/d <3), moderate (>= 3 cups/d <5), and high coffee consumption (>= 5 cups/d). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, moderate and high coffee consumption was associated with increased odds of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, any level of coffee consumption was associated with increased risk of the blood pressure-component. An increasing trend was observed in the eGFR with increasing coffee consumption. Conclusions: In type 1 diabetes, high coffee intake is associated with the metabolic syndrome, and especially its blood pressure-component. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Koponen, Hannu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Leppanen, Esa; Mantyselka, Pekka; Vanhala, Mauno (2015)
    Background: Disturbances in lipid metabolism have been linked to suicidal behaviour, but little is known about the association between suicide risk and abnormal glucose metabolism in depression. Hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia may increase the risk of depression and also the risk for suicide, we therefore studied associations between suicidal behaviour and disturbances in glucose metabolism in depressive patients who had been referred to depression nurse case managers. Methods: Patients aged 35 years and older (N = 448, mean age 51 years) who were experiencing a new depressive episode, who were referred to depression nurse case managers in 2008-2009 and who scored = 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory were enrolled in this study. The study was conducted in municipalities within the Central Finland Hospital District (catchment area of 274 000 inhabitants) as part of the Finnish Depression and Metabolic Syndrome in Adults study. The patients' psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal behaviour were confirmed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Blood samples, for glucose and lipid determinations, were drawn from participants after 12 h of fasting, which was followed by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) when blood was drawn at 0 and 2 h. Insulin resistance was measured by the Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) method.' Results: Suicidal ideation (49 %) and previous suicide attempts (16 %) were common in patients with major depressive disorder or dysthymia. Patients with depression and suicidal behaviour had higher blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 2 hours in the OGTT. Glucose levels associated positively with the prevalence of suicidal behaviour, and the linearity was significant at baseline (p for linearity: 0.012, adjusted for age and sex) and for 2-hour OGTT glucose (p for linearity: 0.004, adjusted for age and sex). QUICKI levels associated with suicidal behavior (p for linearity across tertiles of QUICKI: 0.026). Total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels were also higher in those patients with suicidal behaviour. Multivariate analysis revealed that blood glucose levels, BDI scores and antidepressive medications associated with suicidal behaviour. Conclusion: Insulin resistance and disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism may be more common in middle-aged depressive patients with suicidal behaviour.
  • Iozzo, Patricia; Holmes, Megan; Schmidt, Mathias V.; Cirulli, Francesca; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Berry, Alessandra; Balsevich, Georgia; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Liistro, Tiziana; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Eriksson, Johan G.; Seckl, Jonathan (2014)
  • Luukkonen, Panu K.; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Leivonen , Marja; Arola, Johanna; Oresic, Matej; Hyotylainen, Tuulia; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele (2016)
    Background & Aims: Recent data in mice have identified de novo ceramide synthesis as the key mediator of hepatic insulin resistance (IR) that in humans characterizes increases in liver fat due to IR ('Metabolic NAFLD' but not that due to the I148M gene variant in PNPLA3 ('PNPLA3 NAFLD'). We determined which bioactive lipids co-segregate with IR in the human liver. Methods: Liver lipidome was profiled in liver biopsies from 125 subjects that were divided into equally sized groups based on median HOMA-IR ('High and Low HOMA-IR', n = 62 and n = 63) or PNPLA3 genotype (PNPIA3(148MM/MI), n = 61 vs. PNPLA3(148II), n = 64). The subjects were also divided into 4 groups who had either IR, the I148M gene variant, both of the risk factors or neither. Results: Steatosis and NASH prevalence were similarly increased in 'High HOMA-IR' and PNPLA3(148MM/MI) groups compared to their respective control groups. The 'High HOMA-IR' but not the PNPLA3(148MM/MI) group had features of IR. The liver in 'High HOMA-IR' vs. low HOMA-IR' was markedly enriched in saturated and monounsaturated triacylglycerols and free fatty acids, dihydroceramides (markers of de novo ceramide synthesis) and ceramides. Markers of other ceramide synthetic pathways were unchanged. In PNPLA3(148MM/MI) vs. PNPLA3(148II), the increase in liver fat was due to polyunsaturated triacylglycerols while other lipids were unchanged. Similar changes were observed when data were analyzed using the 4 subgroups. Conclusions: Similar increases in liver fat and NASH are associated with a metabolically harmful saturated, ceramide-enriched liver lipidome in 'Metabolic NAFLD' but not in 'PNPLA3 NAFLD'. This difference may explain why metabolic but not PNPLA3 NAFLD increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (C) 2016 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Gordin, Daniel; Saraheimo, Markku; Tuomikangas, Jaana; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Forsblom, Carol; Paavonen, Karri; Steckel-Hamann, Birgit; Harjutsalo, Valma; Nicolaou, Loizos; Pavo, Imre; Koivisto, Veikko; Groop, Per-Henrik (2019)
    Aims Insulin possesses both vasodilatory and sympathomimetic activities. The aim was to examine the relationship between changes in insulin exposure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Patients with T2D with (n = 22) or without (n = 24) albuminuria, and non-diabetic controls (n = 25) were randomized to a crossover study having a breakfast with or without pre-meal rapid-acting insulin. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured at 30 min before and at 60-min intervals up to 240 min after the breakfast. Results At baseline, both postprandial aortic (p = 0.022) and brachial (p = 0.011) PWV were higher in individuals with T2D than in healthy controls irrespective of the presence of albuminuria. In patients with albuminuria, weight-adjusted insulin dose correlated inversely with the excursion of the aortic (r = - 0.412, p = 0.006) and brachial (r = - 0.372; p = 0.014) PWV. Similarly, circulating endogenous insulin concentrations correlated inversely with the aortic (r = - 0.347, p = 0.026) and brachial (r = - 0.622, p =
  • Horn, Isabella (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Laminitis is a common painful condition in horses that often has a poor outcome. The aetiology of laminitis has been widely studied, but still not completely understood. There is some evidence that pasture associated laminitis is one of the most common forms of laminitis , and this is most likely associated with underlying endocrine dysfunction i.e. insulin resistance. However, what the prevalence of insulin resistance in horses presented with laminitis is, that is currently unknown and it has not been studied previously. Endocrinopathic laminitis is a term including laminitis developing subsequently to Equine Cushing's Disease, equine metabolic syndrome and iatrogenic corticosteroid-induced laminitis. The term equine metabolic syndrome includes a history of laminitis, insulin resistance and a characteristic phenotype of a cresty neck, bulging supraorbital fat and increased fat deposits. Horses suffering from laminitis and insulin resistance seem to have a slow recovery process, but recovery is more likely if insulin sensitivity is improved. Increased exercise, maintaining optimal body condition, avoidance of high-glycaemic meals and molasses should be incorporated in the treatment of laminitis. Horses with insulin resistance have a higher risk of developing laminitis and to find and treat horses with insulin resistance would be a means of preventing laminitis. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of insulin resistance in laminitic horses and ponies in Helsinki University Equine Clinic between April 2007 and October 2008. Associations between endocrinopathic laminitis and sex, age, body condition score, breed, season, Obel grade, the presence of laminitic rings, cresty neck, and bulging supraorbital fat were studied in 50 horses. The associations of the same variables with insulin resistance were similarly studied in the 37 laminitic horses. The hypothesis was that a high degree of laminitic horses would be insulin resistant and that age, body condition score, breed, season, Obel grade, the presence of laminitic rings, cresty neck, and bulging supraorbital fat would be associated with endocrinopathic laminitis. The body condition of the horses was scored using the 0-5 graded Carroll & Huntington body condition scoring. Insulin resistance was defined as a basal insulin level of over 30 µIU/ml. The prevalence of insulin resistance in these 37 laminitic horses/ponies was 84% (95% CI 69-92%). Bulging supraorbital fat, laminitic rings and severe lameness was significantly correlated with endocrinopathic laminitis. The mean age of horses with endocrinopathic laminitis was significantly higher than the mean age of horses without endocrinopathic laminitis. Laminitic rings were statistically more frequent in horses with insulin resistance and laminitis than horses with laminitis and normal insulin level. The result implies that a high proportion of the horses admitted to the clinic because of laminitis also have insulin resistance. The study results justifies including the presence of laminitic rings and bulging supraorbital fat as a phenotypic indicators of endocrinopathic laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome. In this study only basal insulin was measured of the horses and it is not the most accurate method of diagnosing insulin resistance. This means that some cases of insulin resistance could have been missed. The lack of controls has probably also affected the results.
  • Mehta, Saumya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been shown to be associated with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells leading to micro- and macro-vascular complications including multiorgan failures. At the cellular level, the mechanism of insulin resistance is associated with complex PI3K-Akt mediated insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, lipid phosphatase SHIP2 (Src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5-phosphatase 2) plays a vital role as a negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway downstream of PI3K by hydrolyzing phosphatidylinositol- 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) into phosphatidylinositol- 3,4- biphosphate (PIP2). Scientific reports have shown that inhibition of SHIP2 activity might improve Akt phosphorylation and thus PI3K-Akt mediated insulin signaling pathway. Considering this, I am interested in the SHIP2 inhibitors with drug like properties such as improved solubility, pharmacokinetic and bioavailability properties with little to no contraindications. In the present thesis, I have attempted to detect indirectly the capacity of 8 novel small molecule SHIP2 inhibitors, #160, #161, #162, #163, #167B, #170A, #171, #172 for their ability to phosphorylate Akt kinase in L6 myotubes using immunoblotting as a tool and compared data using graphical representation to pick up the best candidate. Two inhibitors, #163 and #170A were further chosen for alamarBlue® cytotoxicity assay. Treatment with #163 did not display direct cytotoxic effects on the myotubes. The viability of myotubes was not affected at low concentrations of #170A, but it started to reduce at concentrations >200 µM. In my study, I came up with #163 and #170A as the best lead candidates for further analysis. In future, more trials need to be performed with these inhibitors. Moreover, there are several other novel small molecule SHIP2 inhibitors identified from chemical library that need to be tested. Briefly, in this thesis, I have first time reported 8 novel small molecule SHIP2 inhibitors which could be a significant step in the discovery of new T2DM drugs for more efficient, cost effective and safe treatment of the disease with least contraindications.
  • ARIA Grp; the ARIA group; Bousquet, Jean; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Czarlewski, Wienczyslawa; Haahtela, Tari; Erhola, Marina; Koskinen, Seppo; Kuitunen, Mikael; Strandberg, Timo; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Von Hertzen, Leena (2020)
    There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPAR gamma:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NF kappa B: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2 alpha:Elongation initiation factor 2 alpha). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT(1)R axis (AT(1)R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity.
  • Rembeck, Karolina; Maglio, Cristina; Lagging, Martin; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Färkkilä, Martti Antero; Langeland, Nina; Buhl, Mads Rauning; Pedersen, Court; Morch, Kristine; Norkrans, Gunnar; Hellstrand, Kristoffer; Lindh, Magnus; Pirazzi, Carlo; Burza, Maria Antonella; Romeo, Stefano; Westin, Johan; NORDynamIC Grp (2012)
  • Heiskanen, Marja A.; Honkala, Sanna M.; Hentila, Jaakko; Ojala, Ronja; Lautamäki, Riikka; Koskensalo, Kalle; Lietzen, Martin S.; Saunavaara, Virva; Saunavaara, Jani; Helmiö, Mika; Loyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Collado, Maria C.; Malm, Tarja; Lahti, Leo; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rinne, Juha O.; Hannukainen, Jarna C. (2021)
    Background: Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and gut microbiota, and is affected by genetics. Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS) aims to gain new systems-level understanding of the central metabolism in human body, and how exercise training affects this cross-talk. Methods: CROSSYS is an exercise training intervention, in which participants are monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) and within a pair at least the other is overweight. Twins are recruited from three population-based longitudinal Finnish twin studies, including twins born in 1983-1987, 1975-1979, and 1945-1958. The participants undergo 6-month-long exercise intervention period, exercising four times a week (including endurance, strength, and high-intensity training). Before and after the exercise intervention, comprehensive measurements are performed in Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland. The measurements include: two positron emission tomography studies (insulin-stimulated whole-body and tissue-specific glucose uptake and neuroinflammation), magnetic resonance imaging (brain morphology and function, quantification of body fat masses and organ volumes), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (quantification of fat within heart, pancreas, liver and tibialis anterior muscle), echocardiography, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies, a neuropsychological test battery as well as biosamples from blood, urine and stool. The participants also perform a maximal exercise capacity test and tests of muscular strength. Discussion: This study addresses the major public health problems related to modern lifestyle, obesity, and physical inactivity. An eminent strength of this project is the possibility to study monozygotic twin pairs that share the genome at the sequence level but are discordant for BMI that is a risk factor for metabolic impairments such as insulin resistance. Thus, this exercise training intervention elucidates the effects of obesity on metabolism and whether regular exercise training is able to reverse obesity-related impairments in metabolism in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors.
  • Heiskanen, Marja A.; Honkala, Sanna M.; Hentilä, Jaakko; Ojala, Ronja; Lautamäki, Riikka; Koskensalo, Kalle; Lietzén, Martin S.; Saunavaara, Virva; Saunavaara, Jani; Helmiö, Mika; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Collado, Maria C.; Malm, Tarja; Lahti, Leo; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rinne, Juha O.; Hannukainen, Jarna C. (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Obesity and physical inactivity are major global public health concerns, both of which increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Regulation of glucose homeostasis involves cross-talk between the central nervous system, peripheral tissues, and gut microbiota, and is affected by genetics. Systemic cross-talk between brain, gut, and peripheral tissues in glucose homeostasis: effects of exercise training (CROSSYS) aims to gain new systems-level understanding of the central metabolism in human body, and how exercise training affects this cross-talk. Methods CROSSYS is an exercise training intervention, in which participants are monozygotic twins from pairs discordant for body mass index (BMI) and within a pair at least the other is overweight. Twins are recruited from three population-based longitudinal Finnish twin studies, including twins born in 1983–1987, 1975–1979, and 1945–1958. The participants undergo 6-month-long exercise intervention period, exercising four times a week (including endurance, strength, and high-intensity training). Before and after the exercise intervention, comprehensive measurements are performed in Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland. The measurements include: two positron emission tomography studies (insulin-stimulated whole-body and tissue-specific glucose uptake and neuroinflammation), magnetic resonance imaging (brain morphology and function, quantification of body fat masses and organ volumes), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (quantification of fat within heart, pancreas, liver and tibialis anterior muscle), echocardiography, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies, a neuropsychological test battery as well as biosamples from blood, urine and stool. The participants also perform a maximal exercise capacity test and tests of muscular strength. Discussion This study addresses the major public health problems related to modern lifestyle, obesity, and physical inactivity. An eminent strength of this project is the possibility to study monozygotic twin pairs that share the genome at the sequence level but are discordant for BMI that is a risk factor for metabolic impairments such as insulin resistance. Thus, this exercise training intervention elucidates the effects of obesity on metabolism and whether regular exercise training is able to reverse obesity-related impairments in metabolism in the absence of the confounding effects of genetic factors. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT03730610 . Prospectively registered 5 November 2018.
  • Tikkanen, Roope; Saukkonen, Tero; Fex, Malin; Bennet, Hedvig; Rautiainen, Marja-Riitta; Paunio, Tiina; Koskinen, Mika; Panarsky, Rony; Bevilacqua, Laura; Sjoberg, Rickard L.; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti (2016)
    Herein, we examined insulin resistance (IR), insulin sensitivity (IS), beta cell activity, and glucose metabolism in subjects with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and whether the serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor and testosterone have a role in energy metabolism. A cohort of subjects belonging to a founder population that included 98 ASPD males, aged 25-30, was divided into groups based on the presence of a heterozygous 5-HT2B receptor loss-of-function gene mutation (HTR2B Q20*; n = 9) or not (n = 89). Serum glucose and insulin levels were measured in a 5 h oral glucose tolerance test (75 g) and indices describing IR, IS, and beta cell activity were calculated. Body mass index (BMI) was also determined. Concentrations of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were measured in cerebrospinal fluid, and testosterone levels from serum. An IR-like state comprising high IR, low IS, and high beta cell activity indices was observed among ASPD subjects without the HTR2B Q20* allele. By contrast, being an ASPD HTR2B Q20* carrier appeared to be preventive of these pathophysiologies. The HTR2B Q20* allele and testosterone predicted lower BMI independently, but an interaction between HTR2B Q20* and testosterone lead to increased insulin sensitivity among HTR2B Q20* carriers with low testosterone levels. The HTR2B Q20* allele also predicted reduced beta cell activity and enhanced glucose metabolism. Reduced 5-HT2B receptor function at low or normal testosterone levels may be protective of obesity. Results were observed among Finnish males having an antisocial personality disorder, which limits the generality. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vrieze, A.; Holleman, F.; Zoetendal, E. G.; de Vos, W. M.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Nieuwdorp, M. (2010)
  • Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna (2017)
    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.