Browsing by Subject "Integration"

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  • Masoud, Ameera; Holm, Gunilla; Brunila, Kristiina (2021)
    This article scrutinises the normalised realities behind integration policies and training for refugees and immigrants that are claimed to be inclusive. The ‘great narrative’ of Finland has been focused on equal opportunity via education and training, which makes it even more important to examine the hidden realities and how such realities affect the integration process. We focus on labour market-oriented integration training, since employment is considered to be the most important element for successful integration and social inclusion. Our data consists of interviews with 20 refugees, 5 immigrants, 6 integration professionals and 3 policy makers, in addition to ethnographic field notes. Through a discursive approach and utilising studies on governmentality, we unveil how governing through integration practices works. The article explores how integration practices that claim to be inclusionary are maintaining forms of exclusion, which becomes a mechanism of exclusionary inclusion. Our analysis shows what refugees and immigrants have to adopt and adapt to as part of their own subjectification in order to become integrateable, and thus includable.
  • Wiker, Anna-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis examines the themes of integration and social support and their interconnectedness, through the experiences of young adults with refugee or asylum seeker background. This thesis was driven by a desire to discover what makes integration processes successful and what are the first-hand experiences of these processes. The thesis was driven by research questions asking whether social support equaled to a more successful integration, what kind of values were given to support practices and whether interviewees perceived support being available to them. The data for this study was produced through five personal interviews with young adults aged between 19-28 who have all migrated to Finland in the years 2015-2016. The data produced by these interviews is not meant to be used as a generalization of a larger group, rather to depict the personal experiences of those interviewed. The data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. Through the means of thematic content analysis four themes and one sub-theme was recognized: Support – in all its forms – is valued, (sub-theme) Safe integration experience vanished in adulthood, In between feelings of Finnishness and residence permit, Feelings of the other and finally, Freedom of belief as a new constant. The findings of this study indicate that no causal connection can be drawn between social support and successful integration, integration processes just like the people going through these experiences are unique and every process and the needs for support looks different. However, all those who had access to social support during their integration felt to have benefitted from it and put great deal of weight and gratitude towards received support.
  • Aure, Miriam R; Vitelli, Valeria; Jernström, Sandra; Kumar, Surendra; Krohn, Marit; Due, Eldri U; Haukaas, Tonje H; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Vollan, Hans K M; Lüders, Torben; Rødland, Einar; Vaske, Charles J; Zhao, Wei; Møller, Elen K; Nord, Silje; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Bathen, Tone F; Caldas, Carlos; Tramm, Trine; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Geisler, Jürgen; Bukholm, Ida R K; Naume, Bjørn; Schlichting, Ellen; Sauer, Torill; Mills, Gordon B; Kåresen, Rolf; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Lingjærde, Ole C; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Sahlberg, Kristine K (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at the clinical and molecular level. In this study we integrate classifications extracted from five different molecular levels in order to identify integrated subtypes. Methods Tumor tissue from 425 patients with primary breast cancer from the Oslo2 study was cut and blended, and divided into fractions for DNA, RNA and protein isolation and metabolomics, allowing the acquisition of representative and comparable molecular data. Patients were stratified into groups based on their tumor characteristics from five different molecular levels, using various clustering methods. Finally, all previously identified and newly determined subgroups were combined in a multilevel classification using a “cluster-of-clusters” approach with consensus clustering. Results Based on DNA copy number data, tumors were categorized into three groups according to the complex arm aberration index. mRNA expression profiles divided tumors into five molecular subgroups according to PAM50 subtyping, and clustering based on microRNA expression revealed four subgroups. Reverse-phase protein array data divided tumors into five subgroups. Hierarchical clustering of tumor metabolic profiles revealed three clusters. Combining DNA copy number and mRNA expression classified tumors into seven clusters based on pathway activity levels, and tumors were classified into ten subtypes using integrative clustering. The final consensus clustering that incorporated all aforementioned subtypes revealed six major groups. Five corresponded well with the mRNA subtypes, while a sixth group resulted from a split of the luminal A subtype; these tumors belonged to distinct microRNA clusters. Gain-of-function studies using MCF-7 cells showed that microRNAs differentially expressed between the luminal A clusters were important for cancer cell survival. These microRNAs were used to validate the split in luminal A tumors in four independent breast cancer cohorts. In two cohorts the microRNAs divided tumors into subgroups with significantly different outcomes, and in another a trend was observed. Conclusions The six integrated subtypes identified confirm the heterogeneity of breast cancer and show that finer subdivisions of subtypes are evident. Increasing knowledge of the heterogeneity of the luminal A subtype may add pivotal information to guide therapeutic choices, evidently bringing us closer to improved treatment for this largest subgroup of breast cancer.
  • Aure, Miriam Ragle; Vitelli, Valeria; Jernstrom, Sandra; Kumar, Surendra; Krohn, Marit; Due, Eldri U.; Haukaas, Tonje Husby; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Luders, Torben; Rodland, Einar; Vaske, Charles J.; Zhao, Wei; Moller, Elen K.; Nord, Silje; Giskeodegard, Guro F.; Bathen, Tone Frost; Caldas, Carlos; Tramm, Trine; Alsner, Jan; Overgaard, Jens; Geisler, Jurgen; Bukholm, Ida R. K.; Naume, Bjorn; Schlichting, Ellen; Sauer, Torill; Mills, Gordon B.; Karesen, Rolf; Maelandsmo, Gunhild M.; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Sahlberg, Kristine K.; OSBREAC (2017)
    Background: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease at the clinical and molecular level. In this study we integrate classifications extracted from five different molecular levels in order to identify integrated subtypes. Methods: Tumor tissue from 425 patients with primary breast cancer from the Oslo2 study was cut and blended, and divided into fractions for DNA, RNA and protein isolation and metabolomics, allowing the acquisition of representative and comparable molecular data. Patients were stratified into groups based on their tumor characteristics from five different molecular levels, using various clustering methods. Finally, all previously identified and newly determined subgroups were combined in a multilevel classification using a "cluster-of-clusters" approach with consensus clustering. Results: Based on DNA copy number data, tumors were categorized into three groups according to the complex arm aberration index. mRNA expression profiles divided tumors into five molecular subgroups according to PAM50 subtyping, and clustering based on microRNA expression revealed four subgroups. Reverse-phase protein array data divided tumors into five subgroups. Hierarchical clustering of tumor metabolic profiles revealed three clusters. Combining DNA copy number and mRNA expression classified tumors into seven clusters based on pathway activity levels, and tumors were classified into ten subtypes using integrative clustering. The final consensus clustering that incorporated all aforementioned subtypes revealed six major groups. Five corresponded well with the mRNA subtypes, while a sixth group resulted from a split of the luminal A subtype; these tumors belonged to distinct microRNA clusters. Gain-of-function studies using MCF-7 cells showed that microRNAs differentially expressed between the luminal A clusters were important for cancer cell survival. These microRNAs were used to validate the split in luminal A tumors in four independent breast cancer cohorts. In two cohorts the microRNAs divided tumors into subgroups with significantly different outcomes, and in another a trend was observed. Conclusions: The six integrated subtypes identified confirm the heterogeneity of breast cancer and show that finer subdivisions of subtypes are evident. Increasing knowledge of the heterogeneity of the luminal A subtype may add pivotal information to guide therapeutic choices, evidently bringing us closer to improved treatment for this largest subgroup of breast cancer.
  • Store, Joakim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In software configuration management, branching is a common practice, which can enable efficient parallel development between developers and teams. However, the developers might not be aware of the different branching practice options and how to exactly formulate a branching strategy. This could lead to an opposite effect towards productivity, and other issues as well. The focus of this thesis is in what branching practices are considered as beneficial, what affects their usability, what risks are involved, and how to plan these practices in a structured manner. There are plenty of branching practices presented in the literature, which can either complement each other or be completely incompatible. A lot of the practices' beneficiality depends on the surrounding context, such as the tools in use and project characteristics. The most relevant risk to branching is merge conflicts, but there are other risks as well. The approaches for planning a branching strategy, however, are found to be too narrow in the reviewed literature. Thus, Branching Strategy Formulation and Analysis Method (BSFAM) is proposed to help teams and organizations plan their branching strategy in a structured manner. Additionally, the issues of branching are explored in the context of an organization that has multiple concurrent projects ongoing for a single product. Information on this is gathered through a survey, semi-structured interviews, and available documentation. The issues that were found can be attributed to a lack of proper base strategy, difficulties in coordination and awareness, and test automation management in relation to branching. The proposed method is then applied in that same context in order to provide solutions to the organization's issues, and to provide an example case. BSFAM will be taken into use in upcoming projects in the organization, and it will be improved if necessary. If the proposed method is to be adopted more widely and its resulting information published, it could provide further research towards how different branching practices fit in different contexts. Additionally, it could help in new, generally better, branching practices to emerge.
  • Icay, Katherine; Chen, Ping; Cervera Taboada, Alejandra; Rantanen, Ville; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (2016)
    Background: Large-scale sequencing experiments are complex and require a wide spectrum of computational tools to extract and interpret relevant biological information. This is especially true in projects where individual processing and integrated analysis of both small RNA and complementary RNA data is needed. Such studies would benefit from a computational workflow that is easy to implement and standardizes the processing and analysis of both sequenced data types. Results: We developed SePIA (Sequence Processing, Integration, and Analysis), a comprehensive small RNA and RNA workflow. It provides ready execution for over 20 commonly known RNA-seq tools on top of an established workflow engine and provides dynamic pipeline architecture to manage, individually analyze, and integrate both small RNA and RNA data. Implementation with Docker makes SePIA portable and easy to run. We demonstrate the workflow's extensive utility with two case studies involving three breast cancer datasets. SePIA is straightforward to configure and organizes results into a perusable HTML report. Furthermore, the underlying pipeline engine supports computational resource management for optimal performance. Conclusion: SePIA is an open-source workflow introducing standardized processing and analysis of RNA and small RNA data. SePIA's modular design enables robust customization to a given experiment while maintaining overall workflow structure.
  • Mutter, Stefan; Worden, Carrie; Paxton, Kara; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri (2020)
    Introduction Meta-analysis is the cornerstone of robust biomedical evidence. Objectives We investigated whether statistical reporting practices facilitate metabolomics meta-analyses. Methods A literature review of 44 studies that used a comparable platform. Results Non-numeric formats were used in 31 studies. In half of the studies, less than a third of all measures were reported. Unadjusted P-values were missing from 12 studies and exact P-values from 9 studies. Conclusion Reporting practices can be improved. We recommend (i) publishing all results as numbers, (ii) reporting effect sizes of all measured metabolites and (iii) always reporting unadjusted exact P-values.
  • Anttila, Juhani; Jussila, Kari Pauli (2019)
    In this article, sustainability is considered as a subset of quality and as a challenging target area to innovations for the quality of society. Quality and innovation are conceptually age-old issues and significant business factors today. They represent two distinct professional disciplines, which have a lot of meaningful connections. However, their formal definitions have not been commonly established and neither have their relationships been clearly recognized. Hence in this article, their practical definitions and interactivity are discussed and highlighted regarding individuals, organizations and society. Also, the relatively new concept of sustainability is not understood unambiguously nor practiced consistently. The purpose of the article is to clarify the concepts and to present a comprehensive approach to the theory of sustainability through interactive quality and innovation management for enhancing the quality of society. Organizations play an important role in striving for sustainable development. Quality and innovation management should be considered in an integrated way in the organizations, and they should cover the area of sustainability. In the whole society, sustainability is realized through diffusion. National and regional initiatives have been launched to promote quality, innovation and sustainability measures. Ultimately, quality and innovation are based on human creativity, activity, and perception. In this article, discipline-dedicated research and development of quality and innovation, interdisciplinary collaboration and multidisciplinary integrative realization of the specific organizational solutions are highlighted and conceptualized. The ideas presented are based on the long-term practical experience of the authors and our studies from different perspectives and critical inference. When considering practical events, objects and problems, we have combined sound and justified conceptual thinking in creating objective knowledge as the foundation for the efficient doing and effective methodological means. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ahmed, Safaet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The world is currently experiencing a notable shift in the pattern of migration. Immigrant receiving countries in different parts of the world have promoted integration policies to minimise the inequality. My purpose of this paper is to learn how immigrant entrepreneurship contributes to self-employment by the use of ethnicity and transnational connection. This text examines the role of ethnicity in the development and sustenance of the Nepalese entrepreneurship in the context of Finland, drawing from the first-hand data. I have found that the involvement of ethnic resources, co-ethnic employment, and transnational connection lead to a profitable return for the Nepalese ethnic entrepreneurship. Instead of conceptualising a general economic model of entrepreneurship, I argue that it should be understood holistically how these immigrant entrepreneurs construct such opportunities by depending on ethnicity and co-ethnic relationship. I conduct this study with a great interest in the context of Finland, with an effort to understand the function of the Nepalese caste system as it is one of the essential features of this entrepreneurship model. I combined certain statistical information from various Finnish and Nepalese official sources to illustrate my arguments. The study shows how the Nepalese immigrant/ethnic entrepreneurs and soon-to-be entrepreneurs’ tactics to seek opportunities attempts to encounter mainstream labour market exclusion.
  • Safarov, Nuriiar (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Abstract The Finnish Integration law is directed to support immigrants’ active participation in society, support equality and interaction of different population groups with each other. In this paper I discuss that in fact it is directed to assistance in finding employment overlooking the very essential part of integration process that begins after the start of working life. The question of how integration proceeds after this point is answered through the ethnographic case study of International Corporation logistics department with the focus on immigrant and native employees’ communication. The results can be divided into two parts, firstly concerning the immigrants’ precarious position, secondly, the specificity of their communication with Finnish nationals. Studying the context of the immigrant integration, I discovered that immigrants have a rather economically vulnerable position. The structure of logistics department determines the unfavourable conditions of their employment, offering only part-time job opportunities. Discrepancy between working hours set by the employment contract and those actually worked every month makes the income highly unpredictable. This inconsistency as well as hourly-based payment system put employees in a position of constant struggle to increase their income, and set the high flexibility requirement. Moreover, the welfare benefits unequal distribution is discussed as a factor of immigrant precarization. Study of the immigrant and native employees’ communication has shown the existence of boundary between them that is maintained and reinforced by the actors themselves through ascription and self-ascription processes. Immigrant employees, experiencing communication difficulties with Finnish nationals within their department and with other departments, have a detached and segregated position in the Corporation. In the context of immigrant economic and social vulnerability the full participation in the society of the host country could hardly be achieved. Recommendations were elaborated concerning defining the integration concept in official documents and concerning possible improvements in the studied corporation.