Browsing by Subject "Intelligence"

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  • Kasi, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Intelligence agencies have become a significant element of security in contemporary societies. While new, more expansive intelligence methods have been utilised to contain potential security threats, national intelligence cultures have been challenged by more democratic understandings of intelligence and security on a societal level. As part of this transformation, intelligence agencies have encountered growing demands in the public sphere to strengthen their transparency and accountability. In this process, news media have a special role as an arena and an intelligence stakeholder to promote the democratisation of intelligence. The aim of this thesis is to study the democratisation of intelligence by analysing the shaping of national intelligence culture in news media discourses that covered the intelligence reform in Finland. Its theoretical framework is anchored to the concept of national intelligence culture and intelligence stakeholder theory which are linked to security and human security intelligence paradigms. The theoretical framework is complemented with Hallin’s theory on news media coverage in the spheres of consensus, legitimate controversy, and deviance to study how the news media discourses regarding Finnish intelligence reform have shaped the national intelligence culture in Finland. The qualitative case study is based on a data set of 216 online news articles published between August 2015 and June 2019 in a national news media outlet Helsingin Sanomat. The news content is analysed using qualitative content analysis and Fairclough’s approach to critical discourse analysis. The results of this study imply that the intelligence stakeholders represented in news media discourses can agree on the foundations of Finnish national intelligence culture. The study findings indicate that in the sphere of consensus, the stakeholders agreed on the necessity of intelligence reform, the existence of new threats in the security environment and the stagnant development of Finland’s intelligence powers compared to its Western counterparts. However, in the sphere of legitimate controversy, several intelligence stakeholders including news media considered constitutional rights more important than national security interests, demanded more transparency and accountability in intelligence operations and challenged the public trust in the legislative process. Finally, the findings in the sphere of deviance revealed that significant stakeholders, such as citizens, civil society organisations and businesses, were excluded from the news media discourses. Thus, the results indicated that the stakeholders who were strongly represented in the news media have been able to significantly influence the discourses on the purpose and future of intelligence in Finland.
  • Setänen, Sirkku; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena (2018)
  • Latvala, Antti; Silventoinen, Karri; Vuoksimaa, Eero (2020)
  • PIPARI Study Grp; Nyman, Anna; Korhonen, Tapia; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena (2019)
    Aim This Finnish regional birth-cohort study compared the school performance of very preterm and full-term children when they reached 11 years of age. Methods Teachers rated the educational abilities of 123 preterm children and 133 full-term controls at the age of 11 years as well as the support services they received. The children were all born in the Turku University Hospital between 2001 and 2005. In the preterm group, neurosensory impairments were confirmed at two years of corrected age, and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) was assessed at 11 years of age using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition. Results Educational abilities, including academic skills and classroom functioning, did not differ between the two groups after excluding the children with a full-scale IQ <70. However, 40% of the preterm group and 26% of the controls had received at least one support service (p = 70 and age-appropriate educational abilities do not exclude a significant need for support services in very preterm children at the age of 11 years.
  • Jokela, Markus (2022)
    This study examined whether associations between cognitive ability and mental health (depression, anxiety, and psychological wellbeing) could be accounted for by different categories of risk factors: socioeconomic status, engagement in pleasant activities, coping/appraisal, social relationships, biological risk factors (inflammation, cortisol, heart-rate variability), and reaction time. Participants were from the Midlife in the United States study (n = 1744; mean age = 54, range 25 to 84). Adjusting for social relationships, biological risk factors, or reaction time had almost no influence on the association between cognitive ability and mental health. Adjusting for engagement in pleasant activities attenuated the associations with depression and anxiety by one-fourth; adjusting for coping/appraisal by one-third; and adjusting for socioeconomic status by one-fifth. These attenuations were larger for the associations with positive affect and life satisfaction. These findings suggest that the association between cognitive ability and mental health may be partly explained by cognitive-behavioral mechanisms and the protective influence of socioeconomic status.