Browsing by Subject "Interaction"

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  • Mustajoki, Arto (2021)
    Interaction between people is a cornerstone of being human. Despite huge developments in languages and communicative skills, interaction often fails, which causes problems and costs in everyday life and work. An inability to conduct dialogue also produces conflicts between groups of people, states and religions. Therefore, there are good reasons to claim that miscommunication and failures in interaction are among the most serious problems in the world. Researchers from different fields – linguistics, sociology, anthropology, psychology, brain research, philosophy – have tried to tackle this complex phenomenon. Their method-driven approaches enrich our understanding of the features of interaction in many ways. However, what is lacking is an understanding of the very essence of interaction, which needs a more holistic, phenomenon-driven approach. The aim of this paper is to show that the only way to reach this goal is multidisciplinarity, that is, using the results and methods of different fields of research. This is not an easy goal and task because the way of thinking and doing research varies greatly discipline-wise. A further obstacle is the researchers’ training, which, as a rule, focuses on the tradition of only one field of research. The Multidimensional Model of Interaction provides a good framework for a more holistic approach to interaction by viewing the complex phenomenon from different angles. The model includes various phases of the process of interaction, beginning with the choice of the topic by the speaker and ending with identification of the reference by the recipient, as well as the mental worlds of the interlocutors (knowledge, attitudes, values, emotional state etc.), recipient design (accommodation of speech) and external circumstances.
  • Hirvonen, Maija Inkeri; Schmitt, Reinhold (2018)
    This paper deals with the interaction between blind and sighted persons and with the collaborative production of an audio description. Audio description means translating visual information into verbal descriptions for the visually impaired peo-ple. Based on video data, the cooperation of an audio description team – one blind and two sighted co-workers – is analysed using multimodal interaction methodol-ogy. The focus is on the involvement of the blind participant in the collaboration and interaction. The paper shows that blindness can be used as a resource for col-laboration and provides examples of managing interaction in a visually asymmet-rical situation. Being among the very few studies that deal with blind-sighted inter-action, the paper discusses aspects that develop the field of empirical interaction research by widening the perspectives of participation in the direction of inclusion.
  • Moreno Ramírez, Francisco (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    As in many countries, education in Chile has been a huge problem for authorities and researchers. Over time, there have been many attempts to improve quality, but with little to no success. It is difficult to find the main reason why Chilean education faces many problems. One reason could be the way teachers understand the policy instruments; the national curriculum, and how clear it is. However, it also could be related to the way of using skills related to communication in general, and teacher-student interaction in particular. My assumption is they have been ignored or under considered as part of the teaching process. Some experts have recognized the relevance of communication and teacher- student interaction, because of the significance of reciprocity. It has a very crucial role for effective teaching and learning to take place (Arthur, Gordon, & Butterfield, 2003). This is an in-depth research into both systems of education, a comparative and qualitative investigation that aim to analyse guidelines for teachers and principals. This research will collect data through the analysis of both national curriculums, to see how these terms are mentioned and described in them as part of the guidelines of every taught subject, and how many of these teaching methods include teacher-student interaction. For this reason, the purpose of my thesis is to analyse how the elements of communication and teacher-student interaction are presented in the official curriculums of Chile and Finland. Although the analysis of documents is the main source of data, this investigation considers also the observation to understand the dynamics in the classroom, despite being only an illustration.
  • Nissilä, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Origin-Destination (OD) data is a crucial part of price estimation in the aviation industry, and an OD flight is any number of flights a passenger takes in a single journey. OD data is a complex set of data that is both flow and multidimensional type of data. In this work, the focus is to design interactive visualization techniques to support user exploration of OD data. The thesis work aims to find which of the two menu designs suit better for OD data visualization: breadth-first or depth-first menu design. The two menus follow Schneiderman’s Task by Data Taxonomy, a broader version of the Information Seeking Mantra. The first menu design is a parallel, breadth-first menu layout. The layout shows the variables in an open layout and is closer to the original data matrix. The second menu design is a hierarchical, depth-first layout. This layout is derived from the semantics of the data and is more compact in terms of screen space. The two menu designs are compared in an online survey study conducted with the potential end users. The results of the online survey study are inconclusive, and therefore are complemented with an expert review. Both the survey study and expert review show that the Sankey graph is a good visualization type for this work, but the interaction of the two menu designs requires further improvements. Both of the menu designs received positive and negative feedback in the expert review. For future work, a solution that combines the positives of the two designs could be considered. ACM Computing Classification System (CCS): Human-Centered Computing → Visualization → Empirical Studies in Visualization Human-centered computing → Interaction design → Interaction design process and methods → Interface design prototyping
  • Kilpeläinen, Tuomas P.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Vernooij, Robin W. M. (2021)
    In randomized controlled trials, investigators often explore the possibility that the treatment effects differ between subgroups (eg, women vs men, old vs young, more versus less severe disease). Investigators often inappropriately claim subgroup effects (also called "effect modification"or "interaction") when the likelihood of a true effect modification is low. Criteria for assessing the credibility of subgroup analyses, nicely summarized in a formal Instrument for Assessing the Credibility of Effect Modification Analyses (ICEMAN), include investigator postulation of a priori hypotheses with a specified direction; support from prior evidence; a low likelihood that chance explains the apparent subgroup effect; and only testing a small number of subgroup hypotheses. Patient summary: Randomized clinical trials often use subgroup analyses to explore whether a treatment is more or less effective in a particular patient subgroup (eg, women vs men, old vs young). In this mini-review, we explore the common pitfalls of subgroup analyses. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of European Association of Urology. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Hirvonen, Maija Inkeri; Tiittula, Liisa Maria (2018)
    This article demonstrates a methodology for studying the translation process from the perspective of multimodal social interaction and applies this methodology to a case analysis of collaborative audio description. The methodology is multimodal conversation analysis, which aims to uncover the way in which multimodal communication resources (e.g., talk, gaze, gestures) are used holistically and situatedly in building human action. Being empirical and data-driven, multimodal conversation analysis observes human conduct in its natural setting. This article analyses video data from an authentic audio-description process and presents the multimodal constitution of problem-solving sequences duringtranslating. In addition, the article discusses issues regarding the methodological choices facing researchers who are interested in human interaction in translation. The article shows that applying multimodal conversation analysis opens new avenues for research into the translation process and collaborative translation.
  • Dusa, Filip; Chen, Wen; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti; King, Alistair; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Roth, Michal; Wiedmer, Susanne (2020)
    The cell membrane is mainly composed of lipid bilayers with inserted proteins and carbohydrates. Lipid bilayers made of purified or synthetic lipids are widely used for estimating the effect of target compounds on cell membranes. However, the composition of such biomimetic membranes is much simpler than the composition of biological membranes. Interactions between compounds and simple composition biomimetic membranes might not demonstrate the effect of target compounds as precisely as membranes with compositions close to real organisms. Therefore, the aim of our study is to construct biomimetic membrane closely mimicking the state of natural membranes. Liposomes were prepared from lipids extracted from L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, Escherichia coli, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bovine liver cells through agitation and sonication. They were immobilized onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) sensor surfaces using N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid buffer with calcium chloride. The biomimetic membranes were successfully immobilized onto the SiO2 sensor surface and detected by nanoplasmonic sensing. The immobilized membranes were exposed to choline carboxylates. The membrane disruption effect was, as expected, more pronounced with increasing carbohydrate chain length of the carboxylates. The results correlated with the toxicity values determined using Vibrio fischeri bacteria. The yeast extracted lipid membranes had the strongest response to introduction of choline laurate while the bovine liver lipid extracted liposomes were the most sensitive towards the shorter choline carboxylates. This implies that the composition of the cell membrane plays a crucial role upon interaction with choline carboxylates, and underlines the necessity of testing membrane systems of different origin to obtain an overall image of such interactions.
  • Kang, Sunmi; Kwon, Hyuk Nam; Kang, Soeun; Park, Sunghyouk (2020)
    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations are found in low-grade gliomas, and the product of the IDH mutant (MT), 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), is the first known oncometabolite. However, the roles of the IDH wild type (WT) in high-grade glioblastoma, which rarely has the IDH mutation, are still unknown. To investigate possible pathways related to IDH WT in gliomas, we carried out bioinformatics analysis, and found that IDH1 has several putative calmodulin (CaM) binding sites. Pull-down and quantitative dissociation constant (Kd) measurements using recombinant proteins showed that IDH1 WT indeed binds to CaM with a higher affinity than IDH1 R132H MT. This biochemical interaction was demonstrated also in the cellular environment by immunoprecipitation with glioblastoma cell extracts. A synthetic peptide for the suggested binding region interfered with the interaction between CaM and IDH1, confirming the specificity of the binding. Direct binding between the synthetic peptide and CaM was observed in an NMR binding experiment, which additionally revealed that the peptide initially binds to the C-lobe of CaM. The physiological meaning of the CaM-IDH1 WT binding was shown with trifluoperazine (TFP), a CaM antagonist, which disrupted the binding and inhibited survival and migration of glioblastoma cells with IDH1 WT. As CaM signaling is activated in glioblastoma, our results suggest that IDH1 WT may be involved in the CaM-signaling pathway in the tumorigenesis of high-grade gliomas. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Xu, Yan; Pitkänen, Leena; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Coda, Rossana; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija (2018)
    The aim of this study was to study the interactions between dextran and fava bean protein. Two dextrans produced by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Weissella cibaria Sj 1b were purified and mixed with fava bean protein isolate (FPI) in water or in different buffers. The two isolated dextrans presented a typical dextran structure, mainly alpha-(1 -> 6) linkages (above 95%) and few alpha-(1 -> 3) branches, but they differed in molar mass and conformation. Dry-heating incubation of FPI and dextran mixture facilitated the conjugation of dextran to FPI through the Maillard reaction. Both mixed and conjugated systems were further heat-treated, and different influences of the formed covalent bonds on rheological properties were observed. The W. cibaria Sj 1b dextran had a much higher gel-strengthening ability than the Ln. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 dextran. The intermolecular FPI-dextran interactions played an important role in stabilizing the mixed systems at different pH.
  • Peake, Christopher (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Modern views of learning emphasise the utilisation of students' pre-existing knowledge in teaching. Learning and information refinement occurs in social interaction, and for this reason school should also utilise more communal approaches to learning and teaching. Making use of students' existing knowledge is important also for student interest and engagement. The aim of this study is to find out how well teachers succeed in including student initiatives into teaching. The focal point is student-teacher interaction and how its quality is likely to affect student engagement. Earlier research has highlighted the importance of a good student-teacher social relationship, but on a level that provides no details of practicalities. A purpose of this study is to provide practical examples of different kinds of student-teacher interaction, and the interactions' effects on learning and engagement. This study is a qualitative analysis and the data is part of the data collected during the "Learning, Agency and Well-being" (2009-2014) project. The data of this study comprises of observational data collected from two upper secondary classes during 2010 and 2011. It consists of a total of 146 lessons that were concatenated into 52 episodes. From these episodes 109 interaction sequences that begun with a student initiative were included. In addition, 7 episode examples for selected for deeper scrutiny to form more detailed qualitative analyses and interpretations. Although teachers were fond of attempting to include student initiatives into teaching, only a few times was activity re-directed on the bases of the initiative. A good social relationship was found to be a significant factor for the creation of engagement fostering surroundings. Mutual trust and respect were found to be hallmarks of a good social relationship. Accepting students' somewhat on-task initiatives was found to be the best way of improving student engagement.
  • Kolmeder, Carolin A.; de Vos, Willem M. (2021)
    It is known for more than 100 years that the intestinal microbes are important for the host's health and the last decade this is being intensely studied with a focus on the mechanistic aspects. Among the fundamental functions of the intestinal microbiome are the priming of the immune system, the production of essential vitamins and the energy harvest from foods. By now, several dozens of diseases, both intestinal and non-intestinal related, have been associated with the intestinal microbiome. Initially, this was based on the description of the composition between groups of different health status or treatment arms based on phylogenetic approaches based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. This way of analysis has mostly moved to the analysis of all the genes or transcripts of the microbiome i.e. metagenomics and meta-transcriptomics. Differences are regularly found but these have to be taken with caution as we still do not know what the majority of genes of the intestinal microbiome are capable of doing. To circumvent this caveat researchers are studying the proteins and the metabolites of the microbiome and the host via metaproteomics and metabolomics approaches. However, also here the complexity is high and only a fraction of signals obtained with high throughput instruments can be identified and assigned to a known protein or molecule. Therefore, modern microbiome research needs advancement of existing and development of new analytical techniques. The usage of model systems like intestinal organoids where samples can be taken and processed rapidly as well as microfluidics systems may help. This review aims to elucidate what we know about the functionality of the human intestinal microbiome, what technologies are advancing this knowledge, and what innovations are still required to further evolve this actively developing field. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Paananen, Jenny; Rannikko, Johanna; Harju, Maija; Pirhonen, Jari (2021)
    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the consequences of Covid-19-related isolation and social restrictions on the well-being of nursing home residents and their family members, and to analyze how distancing has affected the relationships of family members with residents and the nursing home staff. Design: The data consist of 41 thematic one-on-one interviews conducted during May–December 2020 with family members of nursing home residents. Convenience sampling was utilized by asking several nursing homes in different parts of Finland to relay a contact request from the researchers to the residents’ family members. The main themes of the interviews were lockdown and visiting restrictions. Subthemes included the frequency of visits, other means of interaction, changes in the relationships of family members with their loved ones and with nursing home staff, and the feelings aroused by the situation. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim, resulting in 794 pages of data. Method: The qualitative study uses inductive content analysis. NVivo12 software facilitated the systematic coding of the data. Results: According to the family members, distancing aggravated the residents’ pre-existing conditions: they reported a sudden progression in memory disorders and significant deterioration in physical abilities, for example. Both residents and family members experienced anxiety, grief, and severe stress, and family members expressed concern that residents might die due to a lack of social contact and activity. Family members were also frustrated about not being able to touch their relatives or participate in their care, and therefore sometimes thought that their visits were useless. New forms of interaction with family members, introduced by the nursing homes, were appreciated. However, some family members perceived the interactional protocols as unfair and complained about insufficient information. Conclusions: The findings underline the need for nursing homes to implement a good interactional protocol. Overall, the results show that the measures taken to protect residents’ health during the Covid-19 outbreak were short-sighted in terms of the social dimension of well-being. It is therefore important to continue developing safe and humane solutions for interaction when social restrictions are in place. Tweetable abstract: Covid-19-related distancing has caused anxiety, grief, and severe stress for nursing home residents and their family members.
  • Kangas, Jonna; Ukkonen-Mikkola, Tuulikki; Harju-Luukkainen, Heidi; Ranta, Samuli; Chydenius, Heidi; Lahdenperä, Jaana; Neitola, Marita; Kinos, Jarmo; Sajaniemi, Nina; Ruokonen, Inkeri (2021)
    The concept of pedagogy is the key to understanding pedagogy in early childhood education (ECE) in the Nordic countries, which are known for their high quality of life and education. However, in ECE, there are several different approaches toward pedagogy and it can be said that pedagogy is a multidimensional and dynamic concept. In this paper, the different approaches to pedagogy are defined and reconceptualized through an integrative literature analysis focusing on scientific papers and research reports of the concept. Five approaches to pedagogy were constructed: pedagogy through interaction, pedagogy through scaffolding, pedagogy through didactics, pedagogy through expertise, and pedagogy through future orientation. The identified tensions and elements within the five approaches are presented. Finally, the shared elements among these pedagogical approaches are presented in a dynamic model.