Browsing by Subject "International trade"

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  • Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas (2015)
    In this article we look at a country, Finland, where economic nationalism had a major influence on government policy and on the development of business enterprises from the mid-19th century to the end of the millennium. During this time period, the Finns managed to combine export-oriented economic strategy with exceptionally nationalistic economic policies, even though they could not mould international trade regimes in a way that was beneficial for them.Yet, nationalism also had negative effects. Instead of limiting their activities on the protection of truly vital national interests, the Finnish authorities went on to create a highly restrictive system that placed severe obstacles in front of all foreigners who were willing to invest or work in Finland.
  • Sandstrom, Vilma; Kauppi, Pekka E.; Scherer, Laura; Kastner, Thomas (2017)
    The agricultural products consumed in Finland are increasingly grown on foreign farms. We analyze the Finnish imports of food and feed crops from 1986 to 2011 by products and by their geographic origin drawing a link to environmental impacts. The share of foreign crops consumed in Finland nearly doubled in the study period. The imports increased especially with commodities that could also be produced domestically. While the production of food increasingly shifted abroad, also the exports from Finland increased. >90% of the blue water of the Finnish crop supply came from foreignwater resources. Wemap the results of land and water use together with their impacts on global biodiversity, and show thatmost of the land and water use related biodiversity impacts (>93%) associated with the Finnish food consumption are related to the imports and therefore taken place outside the Finnish borders. The use ofmultiple environmental indicators can help identifying products and spatial hotspots associated with themost severe environmental impacts of the Finnish crop imports contributing to a more holistic decision-making and the promoting of sustainable food consumption both domestically and globally. (C) 2016 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
  • Sandström, Vilma; Valin, Hugo; Krisztin, Tamás; Havlík, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Kastner, Thomas (2018)
    International trade presents a challenge for measuring the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission footprint of human diets, because imported food is produced with different production efficiencies and sourcing regions differ in land use histories. We analyze how trade and countries of origin impact GHG footprint calculation for EU food consumption. We find that food consumption footprints can differ considerably between the EU countries with estimates varying from 610 to 1460 CO2-eq. cap−1 yr−1. These estimates include the GHG emissions from primary production, international trade and land use change. The share of animal products in the diet is the most important factor determining the footprint of food consumption. Embedded land use change in imports also plays a major role. Transition towards more plant-based diets has a great potential for climate change mitigation.