Browsing by Subject "Intervention"

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  • Bjorklund, Katja; Liski, Antti; Samposalo, Hanna; Lindblom, Jallu; Hella, Juho; Huhtinen, Heini; Ojala, Tiina; Alasuvanto, Paula; Koskinen, Hanna-Leena; Kiviruusu, Olli; Hemminki, Elina; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Sund, Reijo; Solantaus, Tytti; Santalahti, Paivi (2014)
  • HATICE Grp; FINGER Grp; MAPT DSA Grp; Coley, Nicola; Ngandu, Tiia; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Soininen, Hilkka; Vellas, Bruno; Richard, Edo; Kivipelto, Miia; Andrieu, Sandrine; Laatikainen, Tiina; Strandberg, Timo (2019)
    Introduction: Multidomain interventions, targeting multiple risk factors simultaneously, could be effective dementia prevention strategies, but may be burdensome and not universally acceptable. Methods: We studied adherence rates and predictors in the Finnish Geriatric Intervevntion Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability and Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial prevention trials, for all intervention components (separately and simultaneously). Finnish Geriatric Intervevntion Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability participants received a 2-year multidomain lifestyle intervention (physical training, cognitive training, nutritional counseling, and cardiovascular monitoring). Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial participants received a 3-year multidomain lifestyle intervention (cognitive training, physical activity counseling, and nutritional counseling) with either an omega-3 supplement or placebo. Results: Adherence decreased with increasing intervention complexity and intensity: it was highest for cardiovascular monitoring, nutritional counseling, and the omega-3 supplement, and lowest for unsupervised computer-based cognitive training. The most consistent baseline predictors of adherence were smoking and depressive symptoms. Discussion: Reducing participant burden, while ensuring that technological tools are suitable for older individuals, maintaining face-to-face contacts, and taking into account participant characteristics may increase adherence in future trials. (C) 2019 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Aunio, Pirjo; Korhonen, Johan; Ragpot, Lara; Törmänen, Minna; Henning, Elizabeth (2021)
    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early numeracy skills of South African first graders who are at-risk for mathematical learning difficulties can be improved with an intervention program. The participants were 267 children from 17 classrooms in the greater Johannesburg area. In this quasi-experimental small group intervention study (15 sessions over 5 weeks) the outcome measure was early numeracy skills. Based on pretest early numeracy scores, the children were divided into an intervention group (N = 40), a low performing control group (N = 32), and an average performing control group (N = 195). The main result was that the intervention group had improved more in numerical relational skills, compared to low-controls; this effect remained statistically significant after controlling for executive functions, language skills and kindergarten attendance, and was also observable in the delayed post-measurement. Executive functions, language skills and kindergarten attendance all predicted the level of early numeracy skills at the beginning of the intervention, but only executive functions explained individual differences in counting skills development from pre- to delayed posttest.
  • Mylläri, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objective. Depression is associated with increased risk of chronic disease, which may be at least partly due to poor health behaviors. Growing body of evidence has associated depression with unhealthy diet. However, the association of depression with diet quality in the long run is not well known. Furthermore, it is unclear if dietary interventions could mitigate the harmful association of depression with diet. This study examined the association of depression with diet both cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a population-based prospective cohort. The effectiveness of an early-onset dietary intervention in modifying these associations was investigated. Methods. The sample (n = 457) was from The Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project (STRIP). The intervention group (n = 209) had undergone a dietary intervention lasting from age of 7 months until age of 20 years. Depression was measured at age 20 using Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II). Diet quality was assessed at ages 20 and 26 using a diet score calculated based on food diaries. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation by chained equations. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze the association of depression at age 20 with diet at ages 20 and 26, as well as the modifying effect of intervention group on these associations. Results. No cross-sectional association was found for depression and diet at age 20. Depression at age 20 was longitudinally associated with worse diet quality at age 26. The associations did not differ between intervention and control groups at either of the time points. Conclusions. Contrary to previous research, this study did not find cross-sectional association for depression with diet. However, this study offers novel information on longitudinal associations, suggesting that depression may have effects on diet quality that can manifest after several years. Dietary intervention was not found effective in modifying these associations. Since long-term effects on diet may be an important factor explaining the association of depression with chronic diseases, ways to mitigate the adverse consequences of depression for diet should be explored further.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Rantonen, J.; Karppinen, J.; Vehtari, A.; Luoto, S.; Viikari-Juntura, E.; Hupli, M.; Malmivaara, A.; Taimela, S. (2016)
    Background: Evidence shows that low back specific patient information is effective in sub-acute low back pain (LBP), but effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (CE) of information in early phase symptoms is not clear. We assessed effectiveness and CE of patient information in mild LBP in the occupational health (OH) setting in a quasi-experimental study. Methods: A cohort of employees (N = 312, aged Results: Compared to NC, the Booklet reduced HC costs by 196(sic) and SA by 3.5 days per year. In 81 % of the bootstrapped cases the Booklet was both cost saving and effective on SA. Compared to NC, in the Combined arm, the figures were 107(sic), 0.4 days, and 54 %, respectively. PHI decreased in both interventions. Conclusions: Booklet information alone was cost-effective in comparison to natural course of mild LBP. Combined information reduced HC costs. Both interventions reduced physical impairment. Mere booklet information is beneficial for employees who report mild LBP in the OH setting, and is also cost saving for the health care system.
  • Feel4Diabet Res Grp; Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikstrom, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Lindström, Jaana (2020)
    Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson's correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson's correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 +/- 12.8 among women and 46.6 +/- 12.8 among men (p <0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner.
  • Virtanen, Eeva; Kivelä, Jemina; Wikström, Katja; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Huys, Nele; Vraukó-Tóth, Katalin; Moreno, Luis A; Usheva, Natalya; Chakarova, Nevena; Rado, Sándorné A; Iotova, Violeta; Makrilakis, Konstantinos; Cardon, Greet; Liatis, Stavros; Manios, Yannis; Lindström, Jaana (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to present the development of the Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score and to evaluate its clinical validity. Methods Study population consisted of 3268 adults (63% women) from high diabetes risk families living in 6 European countries. Participants filled in questionnaires at baseline and after 1 year, reflecting the dietary goals of the Feel4Diabetes intervention. Based on these questions the Healthy Diet Score was constructed, consisting of the following components: breakfast, vegetables, fruit and berries, sugary drinks, whole-grain cereals, nuts and seeds, low-fat dairy products, oils and fats, red meat, sweet snacks, salty snacks, and family meals. Maximum score for each component was set based on its estimated relative importance regarding T2DM risk, higher score indicating better quality of diet. Clinical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, heart rate, blood pressure, and fasting blood sampling, with analyses of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analysis of (co) variance was used to compare the Healthy Diet Score and its components between countries and sexes using baseline data, and to test differences in clinical characteristics between score categories, adjusted for age, sex and country. Pearson’s correlations were used to study the association between changes from baseline to year 1 in the Healthy Diet Score and clinical markers. To estimate reproducibility, Pearson’s correlations were studied between baseline and 1 year score, within the control group only. Results The mean total score was 52.8 ± 12.8 among women and 46.6 ± 12.8 among men (p <  0.001). The total score and its components differed between countries. The change in the Healthy Diet Score was significantly correlated with changes in BMI, waist circumference, and total and LDL cholesterol. The Healthy Diet Score as well as its components at baseline were significantly correlated with the values at year 1, in the control group participants. Conclusion The Feel4Diabetes Healthy Diet Score is a reproducible method to capture the dietary information collected with the Feel4Diabetes questionnaire and measure the level of and changes in the adherence to the dietary goals of the intervention. It gives a simple parameter that associates with clinical risk factors in a meaningful manner. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02393872. Registered March 20, 2015.
  • Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Adams, Rachel I; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Karvonen, Anne; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Valkonen, Maria; Järvi, Kati; Sulyok, Michael; Pekkanen, Juha; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The limited understanding of microbial characteristics in moisture-damaged buildings impedes efforts to clarify which adverse health effects in the occupants are associated with the damage and to develop effective building intervention strategies. The objectives of this current study were (i) to characterize fungal and bacterial microbiota in house dust of severely moisture-damaged residences, (ii) to identify microbial taxa associated with moisture damage renovations, and (iii) to test whether the associations between the identified taxa and moisture damage are replicable in another cohort of homes. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing complemented with quantitative PCR and chemical-analytical approaches to samples of house dust, and also performed traditional cultivation of bacteria and fungi from building material samples. Results Active microbial growth on building materials had significant though small influence on the house dust bacterial and fungal communities. Moisture damage interventions—including actual renovation of damaged homes and cases where families moved to another home—had only a subtle effect on bacterial community structure, seen as shifts in abundance weighted bacterial profiles after intervention. While bacterial and fungal species richness were reduced in homes that were renovated, they were not reduced for families that moved houses. Using different discriminant analysis tools, we were able identify taxa that were significantly reduced in relative abundance during renovation of moisture damage. For bacteria, the majority of candidates belonged to different families within the Actinomycetales order. Results for fungi were overall less consistent. A replication study in approximately 400 homes highlighted some of the identified taxa, confirming associations with observations of moisture damage and mold. Conclusions The present study is one of the first studies to analyze changes in microbiota due to moisture damage interventions using high-throughput sequencing. Our results suggest that effects of moisture damage and moisture damage interventions may appear as changes in the abundance of individual, less common, and especially bacterial taxa, rather than in overall community structure.
  • Jayaprakash, Balamuralikrishna; Adams, Rachel I.; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Karvonen, Anne; Vepsalainen, Asko; Valkonen, Maria; Jarvi, Kati; Sulyok, Michael; Pekkanen, Juha; Hyvarinen, Anne; Taubel, Martin (2017)
    Background: The limited understanding of microbial characteristics in moisture-damaged buildings impedes efforts to clarify which adverse health effects in the occupants are associated with the damage and to develop effective building intervention strategies. The objectives of this current study were (i) to characterize fungal and bacterial microbiota in house dust of severely moisture-damaged residences, (ii) to identify microbial taxa associated with moisture damage renovations, and (iii) to test whether the associations between the identified taxa and moisture damage are replicable in another cohort of homes. We applied bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS amplicon sequencing complemented with quantitative PCR and chemical-analytical approaches to samples of house dust, and also performed traditional cultivation of bacteria and fungi from building material samples. Results: Active microbial growth on building materials had significant though small influence on the house dust bacterial and fungal communities. Moisture damage interventions-including actual renovation of damaged homes and cases where families moved to another home-had only a subtle effect on bacterial community structure, seen as shifts in abundance weighted bacterial profiles after intervention. While bacterial and fungal species richness were reduced in homes that were renovated, they were not reduced for families that moved houses. Using different discriminant analysis tools, we were able identify taxa that were significantly reduced in relative abundance during renovation of moisture damage. For bacteria, the majority of candidates belonged to different families within the Actinomycetales order. Results for fungi were overall less consistent. A replication study in approximately 400 homes highlighted some of the identified taxa, confirming associations with observations of moisture damage and mold. Conclusions: The present study is one of the first studies to analyze changes in microbiota due to moisture damage interventions using high-throughput sequencing. Our results suggest that effects of moisture damage and moisture damage interventions may appear as changes in the abundance of individual, less common, and especially bacterial taxa, rather than in overall community structure.
  • Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina (2017)
    Background: Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. Methods: The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (>= 4) were collected from the patients' medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. Results: There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. Conclusion: In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use their imagination when choosing violence risk reducing intervention techniques.
  • Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. Methods The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (≥4) were collected from the patients’ medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. Results There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. Conclusion In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use their imagination when choosing violence risk reducing intervention techniques.
  • Lyra, Anna; Hillilä, Markku; Huttunen, Teppo; Mannikko, Sofia; Taalikka, Mikko; Tennila, Julia; Tarpila, Anneli; Lahtinen, Sampo; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Veijola, Lea (2016)
    AIM To determine the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and quality of life (QoL). METHODS In this randomized triple-blind trial, adult IBS volunteers who were recruited according to Rome. criteria received 109 or 1010 colony-forming units of NCFM or placebo daily for 12 wk. IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS), which constituted the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes, including individual IBS symptoms, IBS-related QoL questionnaire, anxiety and depression, defecation frequency, and stool consistency, were assessed at baseline at the end of the 8-wk runin period, after 4 and 12 wk of intervention, and after a 4-wk washout. RESULTS A total of 340 of 391 randomized volunteers completed the trial. IBS-SSS improved over 12 wk of treatment in all treatment groups, decreasing by a mean +/- SD of 44.0 +/- 80.2, 50.8 +/- 82.4, and 48.3 +/- 72.2 in the placebo, active low-dose, and active high-dose groups, respectively. Similarly, secondary outcomes did not differ between treatment groups. However, in a post hoc analysis of volunteers with moderate to severe abdominal pain at baseline (VAS > 35/100), the treatment significantly reduced the sensation of abdominal pain. Pain scores fell by 20.8 +/- 22.8, 29.4 +/- 17.9, and 31.2 +/- 21.9 in the placebo, active low-dose, and active high-dose groups, respectively (P value for placebo vs combined active doses = 0.0460). CONCLUSION NCFM alleviates moderate to severe abdominal pain, consistent with earlier observations of this strain mitigating visceral pain through increased analgesic receptor expression.
  • Rosenberg, Anna; Ngandu, Tiia; Rusanen, Minna; Antikainen, Riitta; Bäckman, Lars; Havulinna, Satu; Hänninen, Tuomo; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lehtisalo, Jenni; Levälahti, Esko; Lindström, Jaana; Paajanen, Teemu; Peltonen, Markku; Soininen, Hilkka; Stigsdotter-Neely, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Solomon, Alina; Kivipelto, Miia (2018)
    Introduction: The 2-year Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) multidomain lifestyle intervention trial (NCT01041989) demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition. We investigated whether sociodemographics, socioeconomic status, baseline cognition, or cardiovascular factors influenced intervention effects on cognition. Methods: The FINGER recruited 1260 people from the general Finnish population (60-77 years, at risk for dementia). Participants were randomized 1: 1 to multidomain intervention (diet, exercise, cognition, and vascular risk management) and regular health advice. Primary outcome was change in cognition (Neuropsychological Test Battery z-score). Prespecified analyses to investigate whether participants' characteristics modified response to intervention were carried out using mixed-model repeated-measures analyses. Results: Sociodemographics (sex, age, and education), socioeconomic status (income), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination), cardiovascular factors (body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol, fasting glucose, and overall cardiovascular risk), and cardiovascular comorbidity did not modify response to intervention (P-values for interaction > .05). Conclusions: The FINGER intervention was beneficial regardless of participants' characteristics and can thus be implemented in a large elderly population at increased risk for dementia. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the Alzheimer's Association.
  • Vuorinen, Kaisa; Pessi, Anne Birgitta; Uusitalo, Lotta (2021)
    Compassion refers to noticing, feeling and acting to alleviate suffering in others. Being one of the crucial socio-emotional and cultural skills, surprisingly little is known of early childhood education (ECE) teachers' compassionate behavior and their ability to teach it to children. Overall, research on compassion in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings is scarce. However, existing studies show that compassion skills can be acquired through training, and a collective compassion capability can be cultivated by everyday practices. As part of the positive psychology movement, compassion can be viewed as one of the character strengths (Peterson and Seligman 2004), generic skills, or "soft skills" that are underlined in the latest curricula and pedagogical documents (OECD 2017). In our present study, 95 ECE head teachers participated in the interventions, the aim of which was promoting compassion, character strengths and a supportive organization culture. A classic controlled pre/post-measuring protocol was applied to monitor progress. Additionally, qualitative material was collected from 33 participants. The intervention participants showed a significant increase in their identification and usage of strengths and in creating a supportive organizational culture. Content analysis of the qualitative statements revealed three main themes, Caring professionalism, Warm presence and Positive feedback, evidencing strivings toward an emotionally and professionally supportive ECEC organization.
  • Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koskinen, Aki; Tuisku, Katinka; Ervasti, Jenni; Virtanen, Marianna (2016)
    Background: We examined the extent to which psychotherapeutic and work-oriented interventions were included in a medical treatment and rehabilitation plan and whether they predicted future employment among young adults with work disability due to a mental disorder. Methods: Data were obtained from the treatment and rehabilitation plans of 1163 young adults aged 18. 34 years, who in 2008 were granted fixed-term work disability compensation due to a mental disorder and were followed for 5 years. Results: Forty-six percent had no proposal for psychotherapy or a work-oriented intervention in their treatment and rehabilitation plan, 22 % had a plan for only a psychotherapeutic intervention, 23 % had a plan for only a work-oriented intervention, and 10 % had both types of interventions planned. Having a planned psychotherapeutic intervention (HR = 1.35, 95 % CI 1.07-1.69) and of the work-oriented interventions, planned rehabilitative courses and training (HR = 1.34, 95 % CI 1.03-1.70) predicted quicker entry into competitive employment. Having a plan for both a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention was associated with being employed at the end of the follow-up (OR = 1.77, 95 % CI 1.07-2.95). Conclusions: Young adults with a long-term psychiatric work disability episode rarely have a recorded plan for rehabilitation in their treatment and rehabilitation plan although psychotherapeutic interventions and a combination of a psychotherapeutic and work-oriented intervention might help them gain employment.
  • Heino, Matti T J; Knittle, Keegan; Haukkala, Ari; Vasankari, Tommi; Hankonen, Nelli (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Literature on persuasion suggests compliance increases when requests are accompanied with a reason (i.e. the “because-heuristic”). The reliability of outcomes in physical activity research is dependent on sufficient accelerometer wear-time. This study tested whether SMS reminders—especially those that provided a rationale—are associated with increased accelerometer wear-time. Methods We conducted a within-trial partially randomised controlled trial during baseline data collection in a school-based physical activity intervention trial. Of 375 participants (mean age = 18.1), 280 (75%) opted to receive daily SMS reminders to wear their accelerometers. These 280 participants were then randomised to receive either succinct reminders or reminders including a rationale. Data was analyzed across groups using both frequentist and Bayesian methods. Results No differences in total accelerometer wear minutes were detected between the succinct reminder group (Mdn = 4909, IQR = 3429–5857) and the rationale group (Mdn = 4808, IQR = 3571–5743); W = 8860, p = 0.65, CI95 = − 280.90–447.20. Similarly, we found no differences in wear time between participants receiving SMS reminders (Mdn = 4859, IQR = 3527–5808) and those not receiving them (Mdn = 5067, IQR = 3201–5885); W = 10,642.5, p = 0.77, CI95 = − 424.20–305.30. Bayesian ANOVA favored a model of equal weartime means, over one of unequal means, by a Bayes Factor of 12.05. Accumulated days of valid accelerometer wear data did not differ either. Equivalence testing indicated rejection of effects more extreme than a Cohen’s d (standardised mean difference) of ±~0.3. Conclusions This study casts doubt on the effectiveness of using the because-heuristic via SMS messaging, to promote accelerometer wear time among youth. The because-heuristic might be limited to face-to-face communication and situations where no intention for or commitment to the behavior has yet been made. Other explanations for null effects include non-reading of messages, and reminder messages undermining the self-reminding strategies which would occur naturally in the absence of reminders. Trial registration DRKS DRKS00007721 . Registered 14.04.2015. Retrospectively registered.
  • Perander, Katarina; Londen, Monica; Holm, Gunilla (2021)
    Purpose - The purpose of this study was to investigate how a workshop can enhance first-year university students' understanding of their study strategies and self-regulated learning. Design/methodology/approach - Aqualitative content analysis was done of 190 reflective journals written by first-year university students. Findings - The main findings confirmed that starting studies in higher education is challenging for many students. New insights were provided on how these challenges can be addressed, especially regarding selfregulated learning. Students perceived that they gained several insights from the workshop that they believed could benefit their studying and thereby enhance motivation. Practical implications - This study showed that even small measures promote both good study habits and specifically self-regulated learning skills. Interventions like the workshop described in this study ease first-year students' transition to the university and foster successful studies for all students. Originality/value - This study contributes to research on supporting students' transition to higher education by investigating how students perceive early study skill interventions. It adds to a holistic perspective of students' challenges and coping strategies during their first semester in higher education.
  • Lipsanen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Tremblay, Mark S.; Rovio, Suvi; Lagström, Hanna; Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Jula, Antti; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Simell, Olli; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja; Pulkki-Råback, Laura (2020)
    Background and objectives: Temperament may be associated with eating behaviors over the lifespan. This study examined the association of toddlerhood temperament with dietary behavior and dietary intervention outcomes across 18 years. Methods: The study comprised 660 children (52% boys) from The Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP), which is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial from the age of 7 months until the age of 20 years (1990-2010). Temperament was assessed using Carey temperament scales when the participants were 2 years of age. Latent profile analysis yielded three temperament groups, which were called negative/low regulation (19% of the children), neutral/average regulation (52%) and positive/high regulation (28%). Dietary behavior was examined from 2 to 20 years of age using food records, which were converted into a diet score (mean= 15.7, SD 4.6). Mixed random-intercept growth curve analysis was the main analytic method. Results: Dietary behavior showed a significant quadratic U-shaped curve over time (B for quadratic association = 0.39, P<.001; B for linear association = 0.09, P = 0.58). Children in the negative/low regulation temperament group had a lower diet score (less healthy diet) across the 18 years compared to children in the neutral/average or in the positive/high regulation group. Temperament was not associated with the rate of change in diet over time. Temperament did not have any interactive effects with the intervention (F [2, 627], P = 0.72). Conclusion: Children with a temperament profile characterized by high negative mood, high irregularity and high intensity in emotion expression constitute a risk group for less healthy eating over the lifespan.
  • Hujanen, Jaana (2013)
    This article analyses how the author’s case study experimented with the interventionist development dialogue method in journalism practice. Journalistic work is conceptualized as a network of multivoiced, contradictory, historically changing and artefact-mediated activity systems. Through the use of development dialogue, the study tried to understand and facilitate the innovation, change and expansive learning that take place in and for journalistic work. The data includes collaboration between the researcher and four Finnish newspaper journalists, prior- and post-intervention interviews, and diaries kept by the journalists. The data were analysed using the methods of qualitative text analysis. The case study indicates that an interventionist research approach which focuses on journalists’ personal experiences and needs, and which makes use of concrete development tasks, is of value to them. It fosters imagination and creation of novel journalistic and discursive practices to reflect, understand and pursue journalism. As power relations and control impinged on and were manifested in the research process, the development task-oriented interventionist research approach calls for a deep evaluation from the viewpoint of power relations within an activity system and about the question of political aim of interventionist research approach.