Browsing by Subject "Ionic liquid"

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  • Khakalo, Alexey; Tanaka, Atsushi; Korpela, Antti; Hauru, Lauri K. J.; Orelma, Hannes (2019)
    Synthetic structural materials of high mechanical performance are typically either of large weight (for example, steels, and alloys) or involve complex manufacturing processes and thus have high cost or cause adverse environmental impact (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). In this perspective, low-cost, abundant and nature-based materials, such as wood, represent particular interest provided they fulfill the requirements for advanced engineering structures and applications, especially when manufactured totally additive-free. Here, we report on a novel all-wood material concept based on delignification, partial surface dissolution using ionic liquid (IL) followed by densification resulting in a high-performance material. A delignification process using sodium chlorite in acetate buffer solution was applied to controllably delignify the entire bulk wooden material while retaining the highly beneficial structural directionality of wood. In a subsequent step, obtained delignified porous wood template was infiltrated with an IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [EMIM]OAc and heat activated at 95 degrees C to partially dissolve the fiber surface. Afterward, treated wood was washed with water to remove IL and hot-pressed to gain a very compact cellulosic material with fused fibers while retaining unidirectional fiber orientation. The obtained cellulose materials were structurally, chemically, and mechanically characterized revealing superior tensile properties compared to native wood. Furthermore, suggested approach allows almost 8-fold tensile strength improvement in the direction perpendicular to fiber orientation, which is otherwise very challenging to achieve.
  • Parmentier, Dries; Paradis, Sarah; Metz, Sybrand J.; Wiedmer, Susanne K.; Kroon, Maaike C. (2016)
    This work describes for the first time a continuous process for selective metal extraction with an ionic liquid (IL) at room temperature. The hydrophobic fatty acid based IL tetraoctylphosphonium oleate ([P-8888][oleate]) was specifically chosen for its low viscosity and high selectivity towards transition metals. Applying [P-8888][oleate] for continuous metal ion extraction with 0.1 M sodium oxalate for regeneration resulted in a process with good and stable extraction efficiencies over time. The selectivity of the IL resulted in a process in which cobalt was selectively removed from two mixed salt solutions (Co/Na, Ca/Co/K) to obtain a pure cobalt stream after stripping the IL. The performed experiments showed that the contact time of the IL for extraction and stripping strongly influenced the achieved efficiencies. The stability of the IL was tested and it was shown that the fatty acid based IL was stable for the duration of the experiment. Liposome tests showed that the IL is very hydrophobic, which limits its leakage towards the water phase, but also results in a higher toxicity towards cell membranes. Economic analysis shows that the IL based process is not (yet) economical compared to ion-exchange resins, in case demineralised water is the only product. However, if the recovery of valuable metals is also taken into account and/or if brine disposal is an issue, then continuous IL metal extraction systems must be regarded as promising alternatives. (C) 2016 The Institution of Chemical Engineers. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ma, Hao; Zhou, Bo; Li, Yiqun; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S. (2012)
  • Rico del Cerro, Daniel; Koso, Tetyana V.; Kakko, Tia; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka (2020)
    Herein, we demonstrate the activation of commercial chemical cellulose pulps towards chemical modification by a pre-treatment step with tetrabutylphosphonium acetate ([P-4444][OAc]). A heterogeneous (non-dissolving) pre-treatment was applied allowing for a significant reduction in crystallinity, without concomitant formation of the thermodynamically stable cellulose II. An increase in chemical reactivity was demonstrated using two model reactions; (1) acetylation (organic swelling conditions), where high degrees of substitution (DS) were obtained without the need for a catalyst, and (2) 4-acetamido-TEMPO oxidation (aqueous swelling conditions), where significant degrees of oxidation (DO) were obtained, beyond those for the untreated pulps. In both tests a notable improvement in cellulose reactivity was observed. Regioselectivity of acetylation was assessed using 2D NMR for one low and one high DS sample. The low DS showed a small degree of acetylation of the 6-OH, whereas, the high DS from the pre-treated sample showed mainly mixtures of triacetate and diacetates. Important mechanistic information is attained for future development of aqueous and organic-based reactions involving this ionic liquid pre-treatment.
  • Hyväkkö, Uula; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka (2014)
  • Ma, Yibo; Stubb, Jonas; Kontro, Inkeri; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Hummel, Michael; Sixta, Herbert (2018)
    Man-made lignocellulosic fibres were successfully prepared from unbleached birch kraft pulps by using the Ioncell-F technology. Pulps with different lignin content were produced by tailored kraft pulping with varying intensity. The degree of polymerization of the pulps was adjusted by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and electron beam treatment. All substrates were completely soluble in 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-enium acetate ([DBNH] OAc) and the respective solutions were spinnable to yield fibres with good to excellent mechanical properties despite the use of only mildly refined wood pulp. The tensile properties decreased gradually as the lignin concentration in the fibres increased. Changes in the chemical composition also affected the structure and morphology of the fibres. Both the molecular orientation and the crystallinity decreased while the presence of lignin enhanced the water accessibility. The effects of the crystallite size and lignin content on monolayer water adsorption are discussed.
  • Kakko, Tia; King, Alistair W. T.; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka (2017)
    Cellulose acetate is widely used in films, filters, textiles, lacquer and cosmetic products. Herein we demonstrate the production of cellulose esters under homogeneous conditions using 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate ([DBNH][OAc]) as solvent. The reagents have been chosen such that the system is recyclable, i.e. by-products are low boiling and easy to remove. It is demonstrated that cellulose acetate can be synthesized with different degree of substitution (DS) values, and that some commonly used acylation regents, like vinyl carboxylates react well without additional base catalyst. Low to high DS values are possible with good recovery of high purity ionic liquid (IL). A linear correlation method of two separate methods, IR and P-31 NMR, is proposed to reliably assess the DS of the products. The recyclability of the solvent is demonstrated by acetylating cellulose with isopropenyl acetate to high degree and regeneration into water. After regeneration of cellulose acetate from the IL with addition of water, the residual water was entrained using n-butanol to minimize hydrolysis of [DBNH][OAc], to allow for high recovery and high purity of the ionic liquid. Thus, an overall scheme for batch cellulose acetylation and recovery of [DBNH][OAc] from aqueous solutions is proposed.
  • Dusa, Filip; Chen, Wen; Witos, Joanna; Rantamäki, Antti; King, Alistair; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Roth, Michal; Wiedmer, Susanne (2020)
    The cell membrane is mainly composed of lipid bilayers with inserted proteins and carbohydrates. Lipid bilayers made of purified or synthetic lipids are widely used for estimating the effect of target compounds on cell membranes. However, the composition of such biomimetic membranes is much simpler than the composition of biological membranes. Interactions between compounds and simple composition biomimetic membranes might not demonstrate the effect of target compounds as precisely as membranes with compositions close to real organisms. Therefore, the aim of our study is to construct biomimetic membrane closely mimicking the state of natural membranes. Liposomes were prepared from lipids extracted from L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, Escherichia coli, yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and bovine liver cells through agitation and sonication. They were immobilized onto silicon dioxide (SiO2) sensor surfaces using N-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid buffer with calcium chloride. The biomimetic membranes were successfully immobilized onto the SiO2 sensor surface and detected by nanoplasmonic sensing. The immobilized membranes were exposed to choline carboxylates. The membrane disruption effect was, as expected, more pronounced with increasing carbohydrate chain length of the carboxylates. The results correlated with the toxicity values determined using Vibrio fischeri bacteria. The yeast extracted lipid membranes had the strongest response to introduction of choline laurate while the bovine liver lipid extracted liposomes were the most sensitive towards the shorter choline carboxylates. This implies that the composition of the cell membrane plays a crucial role upon interaction with choline carboxylates, and underlines the necessity of testing membrane systems of different origin to obtain an overall image of such interactions.